Cranach - Portrait of Martin Luther
Portrait of Martin Luther
Workshop Lucas Cranach the Elder
Historisches Museum der Stadt Regensburg
23.11.2017 - 00:58
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Painting:
CDA ID / Inventory NumberDE_BStGS-HMR_713A
Persistent Linkhttp://lucascranach.org/DE_BStGS-HMR_713A
FR (1978) No.FR314-315B
Title:
Portrait of Martin Luther[CDA 2011]
Attribution:
Workshop Lucas Cranach the Elder [Karin Geiger, Historisches Museum der Stadt Regensburg, 2011]
Lucas Cranach the Elder [Martin Schawe, Alte Pinakothek Munich, 01.04.2011] [Germann-Bauer, Exhib. Cat. Regensburg 1992, 249]
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Dating:
1532[pendant dated]
Owner / Repository / Location:
OwnerBayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
RepositoryHistorisches Museum der Stadt Regensburg
LocationRegensburg
Dimensions:
Dimensions of support: 19 x 15 x 0.3 cm [Historisches Museum der Stadt Regensburg, revised 2011]
Support:
Painting on beech wood [Klein, Report 2013] Beech wood (apparently) [Historisches Museum der Stadt Regensburg, revised 2011]
Signature / Date:
None
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
Original Inscriptions:
- on the blue background; in black paint: 'IN SILENTIO ET SPE ERIT FORTITVDO VESTRA.'
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
Reverse of the panel: - top centre: label with handwritten number in brown ink: '2434-b' - bottom, centre: printed label: 'Königl. Bay[...]Staats-Gemälde-S[...], Neues Inventar Nr. [...] 1855' handwritten in black ink: '713.' printed label: 'Bayerische-Staats-Gemälde-Sammlungen Inv.-Nr.' and stamp handwritten: '713: neu: 1135a, L. Cranach d.Ä. Martin Luther' [Historisches Museum der Stadt Regensburg, revised 2011]
Description:
Martin Luther is depicted wearing a black academic gown against a blue background. The pendant portrays his pupil Philipp Melanchthon. Compared with older versions produced by Cranach this version of Luther exhibits modified details like the tilted beret and the double curl above the ear, which comply with the portraits of 1532 and 1533. These were produced in large quantities and were for the most part small in format. [Karin Geiger, Historisches Museum der Stadt Regensburg, 2011]
Provenance:
Loan from the Bayerischen Staatsgemäldesammlungen

- donated to the Neupfarrkirche in Regensburg in 1706 by von Steininger, councillor and director of the Almry.
- in 1810 given as a gift to the King by the city council together with the portrait of Melanchthon

[Germann-Bauer, Exhib. Cat. Regensburg 1992, 249]
Exhibitions:
Regensburg 1992, No. 28
Sources / Publications:
Reference on PageCatalogue NumberFigure/Plate
Exhib. Cat. Munich 201160, 132Nos. 6, 713AFigs. p. 62-63
Schuchardt 2004
Exhib. Cat. Regensburg 1992249No. 28
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979131No. 314B
Material / Technique:
  • Date: 24.11.2013
  • Scientific analysis
  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
  • Support
  • Identification of wood species: beech wood
    Youngest annual ring: 1529
    • analysed by: Peter Klein
    • Date: 2011
    • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
    • Infrared reflectography
    • Stereomicroscopy
    • Workshop Lucas Cranach the Elder - Historisches Museum der Stadt Regensburg - Portrait of Martin Luther - Reverse
    • Framing
    • - new (BStGS)
      [Annette Kurella, Historisches Museum der Stadt Regensburg, revised 2011]
    • Support
    • - Hardwood, beech wood (rays)
      - max. 3mm thick
      - the edges have been retained on all four sides

      Reverse:
      - slightly beveled
      - brownish black coating on the reverse (rebate held in reserve)
    • Ground and Imprimatura
    • - thin, light, almost white chalk ground, very smooth and fine
      - applied to the panel so that it just overlaps the edges
      - at the centre of each side and on the corners there are circular imprints (brackets)

      Incised lines:
      - deep incised lines run c. 5-7 mm parallel to the edge of the panel and serve to delineate the format
    • Underdrawing
    • - the following types were observed:
      a) black pounced dots in the face (lips)
      b) soft, black pen employed to execute 4 parallel guidelines at the top edge across the entire width of the panel.
      Within these lines there is a two line inscription; similar lines link the pounced dots in the lips, eyes and fingers
      c) black lines applied with a brush for the contours, visible on the beret, the left shoulder, the bridge of the nose and the nostrils
      d) soft, grey pen employed for the shadows to create a soft transition on the back of the hand and the sleeve

      Pentimenti:
      Hands (fingers) and shoulder
    • Paint Layers and Gilding
    • - mixed media.
      - the sequence of paint application commenced with an initial monochrome pink layer for the face, a
      mid brown tone for the hair and a blue, stippled application in the background. Then followed the grey base tone
      for the academic gown and beret, the shadows, the contours and modulating glazes on the lips and the hair etc.
      The blue and grey base tones overlap the incised demarcation lines.

      - along the top edge a 2 line inscription in the uppercase

      „ In silentio // et spe erit
      fortitudo // vestra.“


      Varnish:
      - thin, slightly yellowed. Present also on the ground, under the frame rebate where it has yellowed considerably
      • written by: Annette Kurella
      • Date: 2011
      • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
      • Infrared reflectography
      • Workshop Lucas Cranach the Elder - Historisches Museum der Stadt Regensburg - Portrait of Martin Luther - Infrared Images
      • Underdrawing
      • DESCRIPTION

        Tools/Materials:
        - dry drawing material, dark chalk

        Type/Ductus:
        - thin lines; in the face traced lines

        Function:
        - roughly binding for the final painted version; lines describe contours and indicate the main features within the forms; no representation of volume

        Deviations:
        - alterations were made during the painting process to clearly define form

        INTERPRETATION

        Attribution:
        - not possible

        Comments:
        - possibly with reference to a preparatory drawing or transferred from a pre-existing design (traced)

        [Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]
        • photographed by: Gunnar Heydenreich
        • photographed by: Ingo Sandner