Cranach - Stigmatization of St Francis
Stigmatization of St Francis
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
23.11.2017 - 00:55
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Painting:
CDA ID / Inventory NumberDE_GNMN_Gm1352
Persistent Linkhttp://lucascranach.org/DE_GNMN_Gm1352
FR (1978) No.FR-none
Title:
Stigmatization of St Francis[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 162]
Attribution:
Lucas Cranach the Elder 'Zugeschrieben' (attributed to) [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 162] Suggests it could be the painting, that Cranach painted for the Franciscan Cloister in Torgau [Treu 1995, 25-26][1] [Lutze, Wiegand, Cat. Nuremberg 1936/1937, 38, Fig. 367][1] [1][Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 163]
Circle of Lucas Cranach the Elder'Nicht Lucas Cranach der Ältere' [Koepplin 1970, letter][1] [Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979][1] [1][Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 163]
Lucas Cranach the Elder (and Workshop)[cda 2017]
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Dating:
about 1510 - 1515[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 162]
1505/1506[Lutze, Wiegand, Cat. Nuremberg 1936/1937, 38, Fig. 367]
after 1515[Heydenreich, CDA, 2010]
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Owner / Repository / Location:
OwnerGermanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
RepositoryGermanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
LocationNuremberg
Dimensions:
Dimensions of support: 169.9 x 126.4 cm Including additional battens (pine wood): 171.5 x 128 cm [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 162]
Support:
Painting on lime wood (Tilia sp) [Klein, Report 2013] [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 162]
Signature / Date:
None
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
On the painted surface (later addition): - on the tree trunk, left: fake Dürer-Monogramm 'AD [=D in A]' Reverse of the panel: paper label: 'J. Chenue French Packer' ( Transportation company) Reverse of the frame: paper label: Cranach exhibition, Berlin 1937 [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 162]
Description:
On the Mountain of Alverna St Francis, who is identified by the habit and tonsure, receives the stigmata or Christ's cicatrice on his hands, side and feet. Christ crucified flies with seraphs wings towards the saint. A second monk sleeps through the event. On the right there is a chapel. The donor kneels in prayer in the foreground, and is depicted smaller in scale. [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 162]
Provenance:
- London, Private Collection
- 1936 acquired in Nuremberg (Dr. Zimmermann)

[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 162]
Exhibitions:
Berlin 1937, No. 9, Plate 14
Sources / Publications:
Reference on PageCatalogue NumberFigure/Plate
Cat. Nuremberg 1997162-163
Treu 199525-26Fig. 8
Klein 1994 A195Tab. 1
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1937No. 9Plate 14
Cat. Nuremberg 1936/193738Fig. 367
Material / Technique:
  • Date: 08.04.2013
  • Scientific analysis
  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
  • Support
  • Identification of wood species: lime wood (Tilia sp.)
    • analysed by: Peter Klein
    • Date: 01.09.2010
    • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
    • Infrared reflectography
    • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Stigmatization of St Francis - Infrared Images
    • Underdrawing
    • DESCRIPTION

      Tools/Materials:
      - fluid black pigmented medium, various sized brushes

      Type/Ductus:
      - detailed and freehand underdrawing
      - broad, sketchy lines are combined with thinner more precise lines

      Function:
      - binding for the final painted version; broader lines define form, delineate contours, and indicate folds in the drapery; thinner lines describe the details; little or no representation of volume

      Deviations:
      - only minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define form

      INTERPRETATION

      Attribution:
      Lucas Cranach the Elder and workshop?

      [Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]
      • photographed by: Gunnar Heydenreich
      • photographed by: Ingo Sandner
      • Date: 1997
      • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
      • Infrared reflectography
      • Ground and Imprimatura
      • - the ground was presumably smoothed with a serrated blade with teeth of varying widths
      • Underdrawing
      • - executed with a brush
        - the contours and main lines within the forms were indicated employing a liqiud medium
        - in the underdrawing the church has a chapel with a cross at the apex

        [Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 162]
      • Support
      • - 7 planks
        - widths from the left, top: 12.0, 31.0, 18.5, 14.4, 10.0, 15.0, 25.6 cm, bottom: 16.9, 27.2, 20.0, 16.5, 10.9, 14.5, 22.3 cm
        - extensive application of tow over the knots
          Condition Reports:
          • Date: 1997
          • Support: - small rectangular wooden insert between the donor and St Francis - the right hand side is badly damaged from the front: above the head of the sleeping monk a c. 25.5 x 14.5 cm piece was sawn out of the painting and 'repaired' - conservation treatment carried out on the joins and numerous splits - extensive old wood worm damage - the panel has been trimmed slightly on all four sides - the width of the panel has been extended with pine wood battens measuring 0.8 cm Reverse: - the open wood worm channels were filled generously with a light coloured fill material and then painted yellow - cradled Painted surface: - the signature 'AD' is old as the craquellée is identical to that of the underlying paint layers - the paint layers have been extensively damaged by a violent act - there is paint loss in the paint layers covering the application of tow - the brown glazes are abraded in the flesh paint (with the exception of the Seraphim), the monk's habit and the landscape - the paint has been removed to the ground on the collar of the donor's coat. Remains of brown, earth green and black paint suggest that it was originally intended to be fur - scratches - the fills have been reworked and a transition to the batton additions was created - the face of the sleeping monk and the forest on the mountain has been reconstructed [Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 162]
            History of Restoration:
            • Date: 1986
            • - overpaint removed - joins and splits filled [Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 162]
              • Date: 1959
              • as yet no information [Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 162]
                • Date: 1936
                • Restoration: Cat. GNM 1936 'Oxidised. Damaged and partially repaired' [Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 162]