Cranach - St Stephen, King of Hungary
St Stephen, King of Hungary
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
23.11.2017 - 00:51
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Painting:
CDA ID / Inventory NumberDE_GNMN_Gm1666
Persistent Linkhttp://lucascranach.org/DE_GNMN_Gm1666
FR (1978) No.FR-none
Title:
St Stephen, King of Hungary[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 128]
Attribution:
Lucas Cranach the Elder [attribution by Ernst Buchner according to an entry on the index card in the GNM by Peter Strieder] [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 128]
Dating:
about 1510[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 128]
Owner / Repository / Location:
OwnerGermanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
RepositoryGermanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
LocationNuremberg
Dimensions:
Dimensions of support: 101 x 30.2 cm Dimensions of frame: 111.5 x 39.5 x 3.8 cm (with hooks 5.5 cm) [http://forschung.gnm.de/apps/dmsweb"/index. Php?mode=detail&invnr=Gm 1666] (06.09.2010)
Support:
Painting on lime wood (Tilia sp.) [Klein, Report 2013] [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 128]
Signature / Date:
None
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
On the cradle: in pencil 'Dr. Bremen'; in blue pen 'Nr. 3118'; in white paint 'Gm. 1666' Reverse of the frame: - top right: in black feltpen 'Gm 1666' [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 128]
Description:
The panel was originally the left wing of an altarpiece. It depicts a full-length figure standing on stony ground against a black background. The monarch has a halo, his eyes, hair and beard are brown. He wears a gold brocaded overcoat down to his ankles with a wide collar and slashed sleeves and has a hoop crown on his head. He holds a sword and an orb and has a chain around his neck. Rays extend from the halo. At the top of the panel there are two decorative elements containing fruit. [http://forschung .gnm.de/apps/dmsweb"/index. Php?mode=detail&invnr=Gm 1666] (06.09.2010)
Provenance:
- 1967 acquired from a private collection (Dr. Walter Bremen, Krefeld)
[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 128]
Exhibitions:
Passau 2001
Frankfurt 2007, No. 53
Sources / Publications:
Reference on PageCatalogue NumberFigure/Plate
Heydenreich 2007 A170
Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007224-22553p. 225
Exhib. Cat. Passau 2001
Cat. Nuremberg 1997128-130
Material / Technique:
  • Date: 08.04.2013
  • Scientific analysis
  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
  • Support
  • Identification of wood species: lime wood (Tilia sp.)
    • analysed by: Peter Klein
    • Date: 01.09.2010
    • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
    • Infrared reflectography
    • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - St Stephen, King of Hungary - Infrared Images
    • Underdrawing
    • DESCRIPTION

      Tools/Materials:
      - fluid black pigmented medium, brush

      Type/Ductus:
      - freehand underdrawing
      - long broad lines in combination with shorter thin line

      Function:
      - relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate the essential shapes, forms and spaces and describe the facial features; no representation of volume

      Deviations:
      - numerous alterations made during the painting process to clearly define form

      INTERPRETATION

      Attribution:
      - Lucas Cranach the Elder

      [Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]
      • photographed by: Gunnar Heydenreich
      • photographed by: Ingo Sandner
      • Date: 2007
      • Technical Examination
      • Ground and Imprimatura
      • 'When the imprimatura was applied to the panel with St Stephen, King of Hungary (c.1511) the paint clearly ran, indicating the use of additional binding medium or diluents.[290]'

        [Heydenreich 2007 A, 170]
          • Date: 1997
          • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
          • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
          • Infrared reflectography
          • Stereomicroscopy
          • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - St Stephen, King of Hungary - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - St Stephen, King of Hungary - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - St Stephen, King of Hungary - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - St Stephen, King of Hungary - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - St Stephen, King of Hungary - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - St Stephen, King of Hungary - Reverse
          • Support
          • - lime wood (Tilia sp.)
            - 2 planks
            - widths from the left, top: 6.6, 23.2 cm, bottom: 5.9, 23.9 cm. (Examination report written by Birgit Hölzer 11.03.1991)
            - thinned to a thickness of c. 0.1 cm
            - original size
          • Ground and Imprimatura
          • - the panel was framed before the ground was applied and during the painting process
          • Underdrawing
          • - executed with a brush
            - the contours and main lines within the shapes are indicated, more extensively in the face, the sweeping lines along the bridge of the nose are like veins, so that the underdrawing appears to be ambiguous here
            - a rectangle, which cuts through the top half of the orb is like the handle of a sword
          • Paint Layers and Gilding
          • - the flesh paint is worked up in thin glazes
            - the collar of the robe, which was originally light blue is dulled with a brown glaze
            - the black background is painted over a layer of red earth paint
            - there is oil gilding on the crown, the orb, the sword and in the background
            - the adhesive is a transparent light brown
            - there is a black glaze over the background

            [Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 129]
              • Date: 1997
              • Scientific analysis
              • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
              • Instrumental material analysis
              • Histochemical test:

                Red earth paint under the black background: a histochemical test was carried out by Bernd Hering, GNM, 1991

                [Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 130]
                • examined by: Bernd Hering
                • Date: 1995
                • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
                • Instrumental material analysis
                • Cross-section microscopy; incident light; UV light; EDX:

                  Cross-section No.: EP 069
                  Brief description of paint: Gilding, brocade robe
                  Sample location: left edge, Gold robe
                  Sample No.: 069
                  Microscopy in incident light: yes
                  Microscopy in UV light: yes
                  EDX: yes

                  Observations:
                  3. black layer: very fine black (lamp black) [EDX: Ca, Pb, Si, K, Fe, Al, no phosphorus; lamp black with calcium salt, silicium, lead white and some iron oxide?]
                  Decorative elements
                  2. Gold, thickness up to c. 1500 nm (rough measurement)
                  1. transparent reddish brown layer, adhesive
                  0. orange red layer with vermillion and white as well as glassy pigments, presumably the imprimatura as the ground is lacking [EDX: Pb: lead white, vermillion]

                  [Heydenreich 1995, unpublished examination report]
                  • written by: Gunnar Heydenreich
                  Condition Reports:
                  • Date: 1997
                  • Support: - the panel has been laminated onto a lime wood board (0.5 cm thick) - there are splits in the support at the top and bottom - a cradle was attached to the reverse - uneven areas in the wood have been evened out with canvas Painted surface: - it has been slightly overcleaned in the shadows of the flesh paint - the gilded coat is slightly abraded in the chest area, the gold has partially been replaced - a Dürermonogramm 'AD' was stamped into the background at a later stage, and presumably covered with a black glaze [Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 129]