Cranach - St Jerome in a rocky landscape
St Jerome in a rocky landscape
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
16.05.2021 - 22:35
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Painting:
CDA ID / Inventory NumberDE_smbGG_565
Persistent Linkhttps://lucascranach.org/DE_smbGG_565
FR (1978) No.FR107
Title:
St Jerome in a rocky landscape[CDA 2010]
Attribution:
Lucas Cranach the Elder Since 1878 attributed to Lucas Cranach the Elder [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010] [Cat. Berlin 1931, 111, No. 565]
Matthias Grünewald [Cat. Berlin 1847, 177, No. 565]
Albrecht Altdorfer [Waagen, Cat. Berlin 1830, 157, No. 118]
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Dating:
about 1515[Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]
Owner / Repository / Location:
OwnerStaatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
RepositoryStaatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
LocationBerlin
Dimensions:
Dimensions of support: 51.2 x 37.6 cm Dimensions including frame: 60.9 x 48.4 cm Dimensions of painted surface: 49.5 x 36 cm [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010] Dimensions of support: 51.3 - 50.9 x 37.5 - 37.4 x 0.6 cm Original dimensions of support: c. 51.5 x 38 cm Dimensions of the painted surface: 36.4 - 35.9 x 49.4 - 49.2 cm [Undine Köhler, Gemäldegalerie Berlin, August 2010]
Support:
Painting on lime wood (Tilia sp.) [Klein, Report 2013] [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]
Signature / Date:
None
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
Reverse of the panel: Museum seal 1878 [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010] Reverse of the panel: - centre: in white chalk: '565' - below on the left: Paper label written in black: 'Kiste 7' - beside this on the right: Paper label printed in black with type script: 'Staatliche Museen Berlin-Gemäldegalerie (/) Katalog.Nr. 565 (/) Lucas Cranach d.Ä. (/) Hl. Hieronymus.' - on the right: in black: 'I. 624' - beneath: Paper label written in black and red: 'D. 54 Nib (/) Pie: Zoll (/) A/. 7 (/) L./. 2' - centre on the right side: red wax seal: 'Königliche Museen Berlin (with an eagle in the centre)' Reverse of the frame: - top left: Brand mark: 'Gemäldegalerie Berlin' - above: in blue pen : 'F897509' - right: Paper label printed in black: 'Kunstmuseum Basel. Ausstellung (/) Cranach-Ausstellung 1974 (/) Künstler: Lucas Cranach d. Ae (/) Titel: Hieronymus schreibend i.d. (/) Landschaft(/) Leihgeber: Stattl. Museen. Berlin' - centre, left: Remains of a label - below: The same paper label printed in black: 'Gemäldegalerie (/) Berlin (/) Rahmen Inv. Nr. 93.254' - centre, right: Remains of a label [Undine Köhler, Gemäldegalerie Berlin, August 2010]
Description:
St Jerome is depicted as a hermit at the edge of a forest against a rocky backdrop. He sits writing at a table constructed of logs, his cardinal's hat lies next to him on a stone. A cloister on the banks of a river and St Jerome's self-chastisement before the cross are visible in the mountainous landscape of the background. A lion lies behind a tree on the left side of the image. [Gemäldegalerie Berlin, Unsinn 2010]
Provenance:
- 1821 acquired with the Solly Collection
[Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]
Exhibitions:
Berlin 1932, 20, No. 29
Berlin 1937, No. 29
Basel 1974, No. 408
Düsseldorf 2017, No. 160
Stockholm 1988
Frankfurt 2008, 226
Sources / Publications:
Reference on PageCatalogue NumberFigure/Plate
Exhib. Cat. Innsbruck 201847, 251No. 4
Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017261No. 160
Heydenreich 2007 A301, 396Figs. 104, 246
Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007226p. 226
Heydenreich 2007 B29-302
Cat. Berlin 199634Fig. 61
Auct. Cat. London 199015No. 46
Exhib. Cat. Stockholm 1988
Friedländer, Rosenberg 197991,92No. 107Fig. 107
Cat. Berlin 1975 ANo. 565
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974154, 548, 549No. 408Fig. 290
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1973No. 3
Lilienfein 1942Fig. 86
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1937No. 29
Friedländer, Rosenberg 193294
Cat. Berlin 1931111No. 565
Flechsig 1900 A94, 95
Schuchardt 1851 C151
Cat. Berlin 1847177No. 565
Cat. Berlin 1830157No. 118
Material / Technique:
  • Date: 08.04.2013
  • Scientific analysis
  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
  • Support
  • Identification of wood species: lime wood
    Examined on the 22.09.1989
    [cda 2014]
    • analysed by: Peter Klein
    • Date: 08. 2010
    • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
    • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
    • UV-light photography
    • X-radiography
    • Infrared reflectography
    • Stereomicroscopy
    • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - St Jerome in a rocky landscape - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - St Jerome in a rocky landscape - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - St Jerome in a rocky landscape - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - St Jerome in a rocky landscape - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - St Jerome in a rocky landscape - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - St Jerome in a rocky landscape - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - St Jerome in a rocky landscape - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - St Jerome in a rocky landscape - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - St Jerome in a rocky landscape - Overall
    • Support
    • Macroscopic and microscopic examination carried out by Dipl. Rest. Undine Köhler
      (LEICA MS 5; f=100; magnification on the microscope: 0,6 - 4; magnification: 60 - 400x)
      UV examination
      Infrared reflectograph (Schmidt 2010)
      X-radiograph (Schmidt 2010)
      Dendrochronological report (Klein1989):

      - wooden panel: (details of the construction)
      - the panel consists of one tangentially cut lime wood plank without knots
      - height: 51.3 cm on the right and 50.9 cm on the left side; width: 37.5 cm at the bottom and 37.4 cm at the top; 0.6 cm thick
      - Klein counted 81 annual rings along the bottom edge – the grain runs in a horizontal direction
      - there is a slight bevel on all four sides on the reverse. At its widest point it measures c. 2.5 cm
      - the original surface on the reverse has not been retained
    • Ground and Imprimatura
    • Size:
      - a size on the wooden support was neither visible with the naked eye nor under the stereomicroscope, but it may be presumed that one was applied.

      Ground:
      - there is a white porous layer on the wooden support, presumably a glue-chalk ground
      - the presence of a barb indicates that it was applied while the panel was in a frame

      Imprimatura:
      - above the ground there is a thinner, white layer. It was applied as a glaze so there is no complete absorption visible in the x-radiograph
    • Underdrawing
    • - in the light areas of the painting (flesh paint, clothing) the lines of the underdrawing are not clearly visible either with the naked eye or in the infrared reflectograph. A black line is visible in the infrared reflectograph in the upper part of the head, along the shoulder and on the right instep. It was probably executed in black paint with a brush and could be undedrawing. In other areas the underdrawing appears to have been covered by the subsequent paint layers and is therefore no longer visible. The fact that single areas of paint rarely overlap and that there are no corrections in the execution suggest that there must have been an underdrawing, which was carried out in a medium that can no longer be detected.
    • Paint Layers and Gilding
    • see [.pdf]
    • Framing
    • - wooden frame with a stepped profile; the inner bar is decorated with beading (three small beads and one long one)

      Dimensions of the frame: 61 x 48.3 x 4.8 cm
      Inv.-No.: 93.254
      • written by: Undine Köhler
      • Date: 08. 2010
      • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
      • X-radiography
      • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - St Jerome in a rocky landscape - X-Radiographs
        • created by: Fotowerkstatt, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin
        • Date: 01. 2010
        • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
        • Infrared reflectography
        • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - St Jerome in a rocky landscape - Infrared Images
        • Underdrawing
        • DESCRIPTION

          Tools/Materials:
          - the design may have been executed with a dilute, fluid medium and a brush

          Type/Ductus:
          - freehand underdrawing
          - thin lines

          Function:
          - relatively binding for the final painted version

          Deviations:
          - minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define form

          INTERPRETATION

          Attribution:
          - Lucas Cranach the Elder?

          [Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]
          • photographed by: Gunnar Heydenreich
          • photographed by: Ingo Sandner