Cranach - Portrait of a Jurist
Portrait of a Jurist
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
23.11.2017 - 00:54
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Painting:
CDA ID / Inventory NumberDE_GNMN_Gm207
Persistent Linkhttp://lucascranach.org/DE_GNMN_Gm207
FR (1978) No.FR008
Title:
Portrait of a Jurist[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 123]
Portrait of the Viennese University Rector Dr. Johann Stephan Reuß[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932, 28]
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Attribution:
Lucas Cranach the Elder [Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017, 105, No. 3] [Sandner 1998 B, 118] [Heydenreich 1998 A, 182] [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 124] [Rieffel 1895, 425-428][1] [1][Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 124]
Matthias Grünewald [Michaelson 1902, 32][1] [Woermann 1900][1] [Friedländer 1894][1] [Janitschek 1890, 392][1] [Bayersdorf, Cat. Schleissheim 1885][1] [1][Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 124]
Wolfgang Huber '[...] und Umkreis' [Schmidt 1892][1] [1][Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 124]
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Dating:
1503[dated]
Owner / Repository / Location:
OwnerThe City of Nuremberg
RepositoryGermanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
LocationNuremberg
Dimensions:
Dimensions of support: 54.1 x 39 x 0.5-0.6 cm [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 123]
Support:
Painting on spruce (Picea sp.) [Klein, Report 2013] [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 123]
Signature / Date:
None
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
Original Inscriptions:
- top edge, text in gold: '1503 Vixi. An. 41.' [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 123]
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
Reverse of the panel: formerly written in pencil, 'Joan Stephanus Reuss Constant. J - D. Rector Vniversitatis Anno 1503' Reverse of the frame: in pencil, 'Lucas Cranach, Joh. Reuß' paper label: 'Cranach-Ausstellung Berlin 1937' paper label: 'Cranach-Ausstellung Basel 1974' [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 123]
Description:
Possibly Johann Stephan Reuss, Rector of the University in Vienna. Half-portrait facing right. He wears a red overcoat with a pomegranate pattern, which is lined and trimmed with fur. On his head he has a chaperon and a red cap. He has blue eyes and brown hair. There are gold buttons on the sleaves and body of his undergarment, and he has five rings on his fingers. His hands rest on the pages of an open book, which is supported by a marble balustrade. Behind him there is a dead tree and group of blossoming trees. A bird is perched on one of the bare branches and two more birds fly towards it. The scholarly clad academic appears to be intune with his natural environment. The natural elements carry a symbolic meaning referring to the life, death and scholarly activity of the jurist. The landscape in the background depicts farmyards, a castle and high mountains. On a path there are men on foot carrying heavy loads and a man on horseback. [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 123] [Display label, GNM 2010]
Provenance:
- Sulkowski Collection, Feistritz near Vienna

[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 123]
Exhibitions:
Dresden 1899, No. 148
Berlin 1937, No. 6, Plate 10
Schaffhausen 1947, No. 28
Weimar, Wittenberg 1953, No. 80
Basel 1974, No. 88, 182
Stockholm 1988, 32-33, No. 5
[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 126]
Düsseldorf 2017, Nr. 3
Sources / Publications:
Reference on PageCatalogue NumberFigure/Plate
Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017105No. 3
Borchert 20102715
Messling 20101915
Heydenreich 2007 A39, 47, 52, 55, 70, 97, 109, 116, 119, 138, 178, 190, 192, 196, 200, 213, 227, 306, 309, 340, 393Figs. 117, 136, 156, 179, 180, 181
Heydenreich 2007 B38-39, 40, 41, 4215, 20, 26
Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007128-1299p. 129
Evans 200751
Brinkmann 200718
Exhib. Cat. Nuremberg 2004124-125
Heiser 200230-32, 123-136
Sandner 1998 B83, 118, 11914.1Fig. 14.1, 14.1a
Exhib. Cat. Eisenach 1998118, 11914.1Figs. 14.1, 14.1a
Heydenreich 1998 A182
Cat. Nuremberg 1997123-126
Klein 1994 A194, 195Tab. 1
Rebel 1994131, 132Fig. A70
Stievermann 199466
Strieder 1994 ANo. 251
Exhib. Cat. Stockholm 198832-33No. 5
Bott 1985No. 251
Löchner 1982539
Strieder 1980No. 256
Strieder 1977No. 256
Strieder 1975168
Schade 197419, 378Figs. 14, 15
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974158, 164-166, 182, 207No. 88Fig. 78
Osten 1973133
Koepplin 1973 A266-272
Strieder 19668
Thöne 19653-4Plate 32
Stange 196458-59, 138Fig. 66
Brückner 196346
Buchner 1953164-165No. 187Fig. 188
Jahn 1953 A30Fig. 19
Wilckens 1952Plate 96
Posse 194333Pl. 8
Posse 194233Pl. 8
Lilienfein 194212Fig. 8
Lill 1942244
Pinder 1940294
Hager 1940Plate III
Hugelshofer 1939234
Baldass 1938137
Cat. Nuremberg 1936/193737Fig. 366
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1937No. 6Plate 10
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932288
Holst 193040
Benesch 1928 A77
Auerbach 192555-56, 115-116
Glaser 1924413
Eßwein, Hausenstein 192312Plate 124
Schulz 192313
Glaser 192333-34
Ankwicz Kleehoven 192258-65
Baldass 1922 A75Plate 18
Grimschitz 1921148
Glaser 1916267
Friedländer 1913 A56
Schmid 1911284
Cat. Nuremberg 1909No. 207
Vogel 1909545
Heyck 190818, 20Fig. 1
Voss H. 1907102
Friedländer 19058Fig. 5
Dörnhöffer 1904
Friedländer 1902 A232
Michaelson 190232
Schmidt 1900/1901Sp. 101
Schmidt 1899/1900Sp. 146
Flechsig 1900 BFig. 1
Flechsig 1900 A71-78, 284, 292
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1899No. 148
Woermann 1898/1899Sp. 153
Rieffel 1897Sp. 170
Rieffel 1895425
Schmid 189490
Reber 1894247
Friedländer 1894 B474
Cat. Nuremberg 1893No. 252
Schmidt 1892118
Material / Technique:
  • Date: 08.04.2013
  • Scientific analysis
  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
  • Support
  • Identification of wood species: Spruce (Picea sp.)
    • analysed by: Peter Klein
    • Date: 01.09.2010
    • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
    • Infrared reflectography
    • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Jurist - Infrared Images
    • Underdrawing
    • DESCRIPTION

      Tools/Materials:
      - fluid black pigmented medium and brush

      Type/Ductus:
      - freehand underdrawing; fine brushstrokes with a diluted medium are followed by darker lines, which serve to clearly define forms; occasional hatching strokes

      Function:
      - relatively binding for the final painted version; the broader lines are used to delineate shapes, forms and spaces; thinner lines are used primarily to describe the features of the face, the hair and the town and landscape in the background; some representation of volume (hatching-strokes)

      Deviations:
      - minor alterations made during the painted version to clearly define forms particularly in the landscape and the head attire

      INTERPRETATION

      Attribution:
      - Lucas Cranach the Elder

      [Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]
      • photographed by: Ingo Sandner
      • photographed by: Gunnar Heydenreich
      • Date: 2007
      • Technical Examination
      • Support
      • - the original dimensions of the panel were c. 54 x 40 cm

        [Heydenreich 2007 A, 55]
          • Date: 1997
          • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
          • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
          • Infrared reflectography
          • Stereomicroscopy
          • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Jurist - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Jurist - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Jurist - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Jurist - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Jurist - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Jurist - Detail Images
          • Support
          • - spruce (Picea sp.)
            - the panel consists of a single plank
            - the panel has been reduced to a thickness of 0.4-0.6 cm
            - there is a large wooden insert on the top left (3.2 x 4 cm), which is covered with tow; further knots have been left untreated
          • Underdrawing
          • - executed with a paint brush
            - the left eye was carried out with numerous broad strokes
            - the shadow of the right cheek was achieved employing decending cross-hatching
            - single wafting hairs on the left side of the face have not been executed in paint, similarly some small details in the landscape were not used
          • Paint Layers and Gilding
          • - the red paint of the hood and cap was dabbed on to imitate the soft fabric
            - drying cracks occurred before the shadow was created with a red lake glaze
            - the rings and buttons are matt gilded and covered with a brown glaze. The precious stones on the rings are achieved by painting red, blue and pink glazes over gilding
            - the mordent used for the gilded inscription and the date is light yellow

            [Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 123]
              • Date: 1997
              • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
              • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
              • Examination of a paint cross-section; Incident light microscopy; UV light microscopy:

                Cross section No.: EP 065
                Brief description of the paint : blue sky
                Sampling location: right edge, c. 5mm from the top edge, blue sky
                Sample No.: 065
                Date: 1503
                Incident light microscopy: yes
                UV light microscopy: yes

                Observations:
                3. transparent layer: varnish, not original, fluoresces strong in UV light
                2. light blue layer: azurite and white, sky paint
                1. grey layer: warm grey (white, vegetable black, brown transparent lumps, 2 red pigment particles; underpainting
                0. white layer: layer becoming yelowish and more transparent towards the top; Ground

                Comment: a pigmented Imprimitura is lacking. The ground is presumably isolated with a layer of oil.

                [Heydenreich 1995, unpublished examination report]
                  • Date:
                  • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                  • X-radiography
                  • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Jurist - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Jurist - X-Radiographs
                      Condition Reports:
                      • Date: 1997
                      • Support: - the panel exhibits old, but extensive wood worm damage - a split runs through the centre of the panel - the sides of the panel have been trimmed Reverse: - cradled Painted surface: - there are splits in the ground and paint layers at the top and bottom of the panel - there are losses in the paint layers around the edge of the knots - the bottom and right edges have been reinforced with black paint - the dark red glazes on the robe and the dark green glazes on the leaves of the trees have become brown - the gold is slightly abraded [Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 123]
                      • written by: Anna Bartl
                      History of Restoration:
                      • Date: 1988
                      • Revarnished [Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 123]