Cranach - Portrait of a Bride
Portrait of a Bride
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
23.11.2017 - 00:54
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Painting:
CDA ID / Inventory NumberDE_GNMN_Gm614
Persistent Linkhttp://lucascranach.org/DE_GNMN_Gm614
FR (1978) No.FR-none
Title:
Portrait of a Bride[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 161]
Portrait of a Young Lady[Heydenreich 2007 A, 303]
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Attribution:
Lucas Cranach the Elder '...or an early assistant (Christof Maler?)' [Heydenreich 2007 A, 310] 'attributed to' [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 160] '?' [Heydenreich 1997, 7]
Dating:
about 1500 - 1506[Heydenreich 1997, 7-11] [Heydenreich 2007 A, 303-311]
1532[Braune, Cat. Nuremberg 1909, No. 614] "irrtümlich" [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 161]
1523[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 160]
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Owner / Repository / Location:
OwnerGermanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
RepositoryGermanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
LocationNuremberg
Dimensions:
Dimensions of support: 41.9 x 33.5 cm [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 160]
Support:
Painting on lime wood (Tilia sp) [Klein, Report 2013] [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 160]
Signature / Date:
None
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
On the painted surface (later addition): - top left, two line inscription in roman capitals: ,AETATIS SVAE XXI/ 1523' - Coat-of-arms above: Gold shield with a black diagonal band on which there are three roses; the helmut is decorated with a bouquet of three red roses; the foliage is black and gold - above in office script: 'Magdalena von / Büritz' Reverse of the panel: - top right: in white paint 'Gm 614' - bottom left: in blue pencil 'Gm 614' remains of two seals [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 160]
Description:
A half-length portrait without hands against a blue background, facing left. The sitter has grey-blue eyes and blond hair, which is visible on her temples. She wears a red watered silk dress with narrow sleeves, a laced bodice and broadly patterned gold boarder. There is a depiction of the Virgin with a unicorn, flanked either side by two people (hunters ?) on her bodice, and she wears a gold choker and a golden chain around her neck. Her bonnet consists of a padded dark plait, a woven boarder decorated with pearls and a red band. [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 160]
Provenance:
- acquired before 1882
[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 160]
Sources / Publications:
Reference on PageCatalogue NumberFigure/Plate
Heydenreich 2007 A303-310
Heydenreich 2000229-236
Heydenreich 1998 A194, Fn. 66
Sandner 1998 A57
Heydenreich 19977-11
Cat. Nuremberg 1997160-161
Pohl 197137-44
Cat. Nuremberg 1909No. 614
Cat. Nuremberg 1893No. 560
Cat. Nuremberg 1885No. 514
Cat. Nuremberg 1882No. 498
Material / Technique:
  • Date: 08.04.2013
  • Scientific analysis
  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
  • Support
  • Identification of wood species: lime wood (Tilia sp.)
    • analysed by: Peter Klein
    • Date: 01.09.2010
    • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
    • Infrared reflectography
    • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Bride - Infrared Images
    • Underdrawing
    • DESCRIPTION

      Tools/Materials:
      - dry medium (black chalk?)

      Type/Ductus:
      - linear underdrawing; freehand underdrawing or traced?
      - thin lines

      Function:
      - relatively binding for the final painted version; delineating contours and generally describing the essential details of the face; no representation of volume

      Deviations:
      - minor alterations during the painting process to clearly define form

      INTERPRETATION

      Attribution:
      - not possible

      [Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]
      • photographed by: Gunnar Heydenreich
      • photographed by: Ingo Sandner
      • Date: 1997
      • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
      • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
      • Infrared reflectography
      • Stereomicroscopy
      • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Bride - ReverseLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Bride - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Bride - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Bride - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Bride - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg - Portrait of a Bride - Detail Images
      • Support
      • - lime wood (Tilia sp)
        - single plank
        - 0.5-0.9 cm thick
        - the panel has been trimmed minimally along the top edge and by at least the width of the bevel (4-5cm) along the bottom

        Reverse:
        - the edge is bevelled at the side and the top
      • Ground and Imprimatura
      • - the panel was in a frame when the ground was applied and during the painting process
        - the edge of the ground and the painted surface is present at both the top and the bottom of the panel
        - ground: thin, light red, applied horizontally
      • Paint Layers and Gilding
      • - the boarder of the dress and the blouse, the belt, the neckband and the headband are oil gilded
        - highlights are thinly applied with white paint
        - the depiction of the Virgin and the Unicorn on the bodice is drawn in black with highlights in white
        - the grass is painted with a green glaze
        - the early, but not original gold inscription 'Magdalena von Büritz' has an impasto reddish brown underpaint
        - the later inscription bearing the sitter's age and date is executed in lead tin yellow
        - the coat-of-arms was executed at this time

        [Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 160]
      • Underdrawing
      • - the underdrawing wasa executed with a pen
        - the contours and the main lines within the shapes are indicated
        - the shape of the right upper arm is described with numerous looped lines
          • Date: 1995
          • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
          • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
          • Instrumental material analysis
          • Examination of cross-ssections; Incident light microscopy; UV microscopy; EDX:

            Cross-section No.: EP 078
            Brief description of paint: yellow and black paint from the foliage on the coat of arms
            Sample location: Foliage to the left of the shield
            Sample No.: 109
            Incident light microscopy: yes
            UV microscopy: yes
            EDX: yes

            Observations:
            3. Yellow layer without glassy inclusions - EDX: Pb, Sn ie. lead tin yellow employed to decorate the shield
            2. Green layer: applied in two layers with blue pigments, discoloured green (Overpaint of the background)
            1. Transparent dark layer: varnish
            0. Light blue layer: blue crystalline pigment particles, white pigment particles (original background colour) Ground missing

            Cross-section No.: EP 071
            Brief description of paint: gilding with black drawing
            Sample location: bottom edge of the panel, belt, gilding with black drawing
            Sample No.: 102
            Incident light microscopy: yes
            UV microscopy: yes
            EDX: yes

            Observations:
            3. Greyish black layer: ornament
            1. Gold, applied directly over the ground, thickness c. 1000nm (rough measurement)
            0. Light red layer: Ground, EDX: Pb, Ca - red lead, lead white, and probably calcium carbonate (chalk)


            Cross-section No.: EP 092
            Brief description of paint: flesh paint, two layers
            Sample location: face, above the right eye
            Sample No.: 155
            Incident light microscopy: yes
            UV microscopy: yes
            EDX: yes

            Observations:

            3. Thin almost white layer: Highlights Pb, Ca - lead white and chalk
            2. Transparent layer: glaze - EDX: Pb, Ca
            1. Light pink layer: with white (lead white!), red (vermillion), brown (EDX: brown ochre, and a brown organic dye), black (vine black), blue pigment particles (azurite) and glassy inclusions. It exhibits a strong fluoresences - EDX: Matrix Pb, Ca, traces of Fe, flesh paint
            0. Light red layer: Ground

            Commentary:
            The composition of the highlights is the same as that of the underpainting, even with regards to the amount of calcium.
            • written by: Gunnar Heydenreich
            Condition Reports:
            • Date: 1997
            • - large wooden insert (3.5 x 2 cm) in the bottom right corner - a split at the right edge of the panel has been reinforced with a nail, which was driven into the side of the panel. Small splinters of wood have been inserted along 6 cm of the split from the reverse - the panel is slightly convexed - old wood worm damage - the panel has been trimmed minimally at the top and by at least the width of the bevel (c. 4-5 cm) at the bottom - the background was overpainted with green at an early stage [Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 160-161]
            • written by: Anna Bartl
            History of Restoration:
            • Date: 1987
            • Restoration: 1981-87 - a green glaze, which had turned brown was removed from the background, but was left beneath the inscription and and the coat-of-arms - abrasion and small losses in the face and the bodice - the gold on the neckband has been partially reconstructed [Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 161]