Cranach - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto]
Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto]
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden
23.11.2017 - 00:55
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Painting:
CDA ID / Inventory NumberDE_SKD_GG1906B
Persistent Linkhttp://lucascranach.org/DE_SKD_GG1906B
FR (1978) No.FR012
Title:
Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto][CDA 2011]
Attribution:
Lucas Cranach the Elder [Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, 2011] [Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378] [Woermann, Cat. Dresden 1905, 614, 615][1] [1][Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, 2011]
Unknown'unbekannter Meister L.C.' [Woermann, Cat. Dresden 1892, 200, 201][1] [Mattäi, Cat. Dresden 1837, Bd. 1, No. 69, 70][2] 'unbekannt' (associates artist with Martin Schongauer) [Mattäi, Cat. Dresden 1835, Bd. 1, No. 69, 70][2] [1][Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, 2011] [2][Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 380, 387]
Daniel Fritsch [Woermann, Cat. Dresden 1887, No. 1960][1] [1][Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 380, 387]
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Dating:
1506[central panel dated]
Owner / Repository / Location:
OwnerStaatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden
RepositoryStaatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden
LocationDresden
Dimensions:
Dimensions of support: 124.5 x 66 cm [Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
Support:
Painting on Lime wood [Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
Signature / Date:
Artist's insignia on the central panel at the bottom edge: 'L 1506 C'
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
Reverse of the panel: Gal.-Nr. (repeatedly); Sammlungsnachweis Pillnitz (repeatedly): 'Inv. 25' Sammlungsnachweis Dresden, repeatedly; Exhibition label Berlin 1937; in roter Kreide: '33' [Schlegel 2003, 9][1] [1][Schlegel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
Description:
The landscape background extends over both interior wing panels, which each depict three female saints and their attributes: on the left panel Sts Dorothea, Agnes and Kunigunde, on the right Barbara, Ursula and Margaret. Although the figures are arranged in a group the saints appear isolated, unrelated to each other and the event taking place on the central panel. Common to all is the richness and variety of their attire. It is clear that Cranach's main interest lay here as the saints' robes seem to display the latest fashion in the Saxon court. [Görres, in Bonnet, Kopp-Schmitt, Görres 2010, 142]
Provenance:
- one of the first paintings, that the Elector Friedrich III. the Wise commissioned from Lucas Cranach for the Wittenberg Schlosskirche

- before 1586 the altarpiece was taken to Torgau, Schloss Hartenfels

- 1738 the altarpiece was taken to Dresden by the court painter Bonaventura Rossi (Vorrat der Gemäldegalerie)

- 1835 first recorded (as 'unbekannt') in a catalogue of the Dresden Gemäldegalerie

[Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 380]
Exhibitions:
Dresden 1899, No. 2, 3
Berlin, 1937, No. 10
Dresden 1937, 11
Eisenach 1994,106-113
Sources / Publications:
Reference on PageCatalogue NumberFigure/Plate
Bonnet, Görres 201526-297p. 26, 29
Schuchardt 2015 A10
Exhib. Cat. Brussels 201011878
Maaz 201018-21
Heydenreich 2007 B46
Brinkmann 200719, 23
Heydenreich 2007 A27, 57, 60, 61, 66, 67, 75, 88, 89, 100, 102, 108, 109, 112, 113, 120, 134, 150, 174, 182, 185, 187, 190, 199, 205, 210, 215,219, 253, 256, 292, 303, 306, 307, 308-311, 326
Schölzel 2005182-185
Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005378-387No. 29.3
Schlegel 20039
Exhib. Cat. London 2002144-147
Schuchardt 1998 B13
Heydenreich 1998 A186, 188, 189, 192, 194, 198
Sandner 1998 B87, 89, 91, 92, 103, 106-11213.1Figs.13.1, 13.1.1a-e, 13.1.2a und b
Grimm 199871-75, 77Fig. 9.10
Exhib. Cat. Eisenach 1998103, 106-11213.1Figs. 13.1, 13.1a-d, 13.2a-b
Marx 1996 A
Giebe, Schölzel 199663-88
Sandner 199552-57
Schuchardt 199476-78
Erichsen 1994 B181, 182Fig. A120
Thümmel 1994170, 171
Sandner 1994197-200
Grimm 199431, 35, 38Figs. A18, A24, A25, A26
Sandner, Ritschel 1994187-189, 191Fig. A133
Schade, Schuttwolf 1994
Hambrecht 199453, 54
Cat. Dresden 1992155, 156
Riemann 1980116, 117, 151, 152
Friedländer, Rosenberg 197968, 69No. 12Fig. 12
Exhib. Cat. Basel 197448, 51, 255, 268, 552under No. 414
Schade 197424, 25
Mahn 1972
Gronau 1972
Lüdecke 197220, 21
Behrend 196726
Alpatow 196624
Menz 1962152, 153
Maedebach 1961No. 2
Aragon, Cocteau 195727, 141
Balzer 195618
Lüdecke 1953 B34
Rudloff-Hille 1953 A
Rudloff-Hille 1953 B14, 15
Posse 194313, 14, 52, 53
Posse 194213, 14, 52, 53
Lilienfein 194221-23
Cat. Dresden 1937Nos. 69, 70 (Bd. 1)
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 193711
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1937No. 10
Posse 1936
Friedländer, Rosenberg 19321612-14
Kaemmerer 1931/32
Heyck 192775, 76
Glaser 192342-46
Loßnitzer 1912
Heyck 190864
Cat. Dresden 1905614, 615
Flechsig 1900 A82, 83, 85, 252
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1899Nos. 2, 3
Cat. Dresden 1892200, 201
Cat. Dresden 1887No. 1960
Lindau 188345
Schäfer 1860862-866
Waagen 185839, 40
Hübner 1856No. 1659
Schuchardt 1851 C45
Cat. Leipzig 1837No. 196
Cat. Dresden 1835Nos. 69, 70 (Bd. 1)
Material / Technique:
  • Date: 13.10.2010
  • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
  • Infrared reflectography
  • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Infrared Images
  • Underdrawing
      • Date: 2007
      • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
      • Support
      • [Heydenreich 2007 A, 57, 60, 61, 66]
      • Ground and Imprimatura
      • [Heydenreich 2007 A, 88, 89, 100, 102]
          • Date: 2005
          • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
          • Framing
          • - new frame: bare oak wood frame, mid 20th century
            [Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
              • Date: 2005
              • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
              • Infrared reflectography
              • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Infrared Images
              • Underdrawing
              • The underdrawing , which was executed with a brush reveals the artist’s struggles to finalize the composition and forms; it exhibits linear contours and a detailed drawing of the main features within the forms with little use of cross-hatching eg. the cheek of St Barbara; radical changes were made in the painted version of St Ursula's head (originally facing right and inclined)

                [Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]

                Further literature:
                [Gronau 1972]
                [Riemann 1980, 116, 117, 151, 152]
                [Sandner, Ritschel 1994]
                [Sandner 1994]
                [Sandner 1995]
                [Giebe, Schölzel 1996, 67-71]
                [Sandner 1998, 106-113]
                [Bomford, Exhib. Cat. London 2002, 144-147]
                [Schölzel 2005, 182-185]
                [Heydenreich 2007 A, 108, 109]
                  • Date: 2003
                  • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                  • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Reverse
                  • Support
                  • - lime wood
                    - 0.26-0.4 cm thick (thinned)
                    - 10 horizontal planks

                    [Schlegel 2003, 2][1]
                    [1][Schlegel, Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
                      • Date: 2001
                      • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                      • Infrared reflectography
                      • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Infrared Images
                      • Underdrawing
                          • Date: 1996
                          • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                          • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Analysis
                          • Ground and Imprimatura
                          • [Giebe, Schölzel 1996, 65-66]
                          • Underdrawing
                          • [Giebe, Schölzel 1996, 67-71]
                          • Paint Layers and Gilding
                          • [Giebe, Schölzel 1996, 71-84]
                          • Support
                          • [Giebe, Schölzel 1996, 63-65]
                              • Date: 1995
                              • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                              • Infrared reflectography
                              • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - Infrared Images
                              • Underdrawing
                                • photographed by: Ingo Sandner
                                • Date: 27.10.1993
                                • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                                • X-radiography
                                • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Barbara, St Ursula, St Margaret [right wing, recto] - X-Radiographs
                                    Condition Reports:
                                    • Date: 2003
                                    • Support: - marks from a toothed plane - square exposed area at the bottom - cradle consisting of eleven vertical and five cross-battens - the bottom plank is reconstructed in part - the joins are reinforced with paper - splits on the right edge are reinforced with wooden blocks - reddish glaze on the reverse and the cradle Painted surface: - woodworm damage, particularly along the joins - retouches (joins, splits) - later addition in the bottom right corner - paint layers abraded (dragon) - prominent craquelée with small paint lossses and retouches - old, glossy varnish [Schlegel 2003, 9][1] [1][Schlegel, Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
                                      • Date: 27.02.1991
                                          History of Restoration:
                                          • Date: 1966
                                          • [GGAM, Abt. Restaurierung, Meldung][1] [1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
                                            • Date: 1965
                                            • [GGAM, Abt. Restaurierung, Meldung][1] [1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378] see also pdf
                                              • Date: 1957
                                              • [GGAM, Abt. Restaurierung, Restaurierungsprotokoll, Meldung][1] [1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378] see also pdf
                                                • Date: 20.11.1934
                                                • [Sächs, HStADD, 13458 SKD, GG Nr. 8, Bd. 6, Bl. 138, 200, 202, 208, 209, 213, 221, 223, 224, 229][1] [1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378] see also pdf
                                                  • Date: 1898
                                                  • [Sächs, HStADD, 13458 SKD, GG Nr. 8, Bd. 6, Bl. 138, 140, 155][1] [1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
                                                    • Date: 1877
                                                    • [Sächs, HStADD, 13458 SKD, GG Nr. 8, Bd. 8 a, Bl. 167; Bd. 8 b, Bl. 83][1] [1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
                                                      • Date: 1872
                                                      • [Sächs, HStADD, 13458 SKD, GG Nr. 8, Bd. 4 Bl. 17][1] [1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]