Cranach - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto]
Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto]
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden
23.11.2017 - 00:53
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Painting:
CDA ID / Inventory NumberDE_SKD_GG1906BB
Persistent Linkhttp://lucascranach.org/DE_SKD_GG1906BB
FR (1978) No.FR013
Title:
Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto][CDA 2011]
Attribution:
Lucas Cranach the Elder [Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, 2011] [Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
Hans Baldung Grien [Gleisberg 2000, 116][1] [Speck von Sternberg 1827, No. 197][1] [1][Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 381, 387]
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Dating:
1506[central panel dated]
Owner / Repository / Location:
OwnerStaatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden
RepositoryStaatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden
LocationDresden
Dimensions:
Dimensions of support: 121.4 x 64 cm [Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
Support:
Painting on Lime wood [Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
Signature / Date:
Artist's insignia on the central panel at the bottom edge: 'L 1506 C'
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
Reverse of the panel: Gal.-Nr.; in blue chalk: '2' Exhibition label Berlin 1937; in red chalk: '33' [Schlegel 2003, 6][1] [1][Schlegel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
Description:
The landscape background extends over both interior wing panels, which each depict three female saints and their attributes: on the left panel Sts Dorothea, Agnes and Kunigunde, on the right Barbara, Ursula and Margaret. Although the figures are arranged in a group the saints appear isolated, unrelated to each other and the event taking place on the central panel. Common to all is the richness and variety of their attire. It is clear that Cranach's main interest lay here as the saints' robes seem to display the latest fashion in the Saxon court. [Görres, in Bonnet, Kopp-Schmitt, Görres 2010, 142]
Provenance:
- one of the first paintings, that Elector Friedrich III. the Wise commissioned from Lucas Cranach for the Wittenberg Schlosskirche
- before 1586 the altarpiece was taken to Torgau, Schloss Hartenfels
- 1738 the altarpiece was taken to Dresden by the court painter Bonaventura Rossi (Vorrat der Gemäldegalerie)
- in the 18th century the panel was split. The panel was auctioned in 1797/1798
- presumably in the collection of Heinrich Wilhelm Campe (Leipzig) as Hans Baldung Grien
- 1827 acquird by Maximilian Speck von Sternburg
- 1931 given on permanent loan to the Gemäldegalerie Dresden
- 1955 returned from Russia
- 1996 acquired by the Gemäldegalerie

[Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 382]
Exhibitions:
Dresden 1899, No. 2, 3
Berlin, 1937, No. 10
Dresden 1937, 11
Eisenach 1994,106-113
Stuttgart 1998
Sources / Publications:
Reference on PageCatalogue NumberFigure/Plate
Bonnet, Görres 201526-297p. 26, 29
Maaz 201018-21
Brinkmann 200719, 23
Heydenreich 2007 A27, 57, 60, 61, 66, 67, 75, 88, 89, 100, 102, 108, 109, 112, 113, 120, 134, 150, 174, 182, 185, 187, 190, 199, 205, 210, 215,219, 253, 256, 292, 303, 306, 307, 308-311, 326
Heydenreich 2007 B46
Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005378-387No. 29.1
Schölzel 2005182-185
Schlegel 20036
Exhib. Cat. London 2002144-147
Gleisberg 2000116
Sandner 1998 B87, 89, 91, 92, 103, 106-11213.1Figs.13.1, 13.1.1a-e, 13.1.2a und b
Exhib. Cat. Eisenach 1998103, 106-11213.1Figs. 13.1, 13.1a-d, 13.2a-b
Grimm 199871-75, 77
Schuchardt 1998 B13
Heydenreich 1998 A186, 188, 189, 192, 194, 198
Giebe, Schölzel 199663-88
Marx 1996 A
Sandner 199552-57
Schuchardt 199476-78
Sandner 1994197-200
Thümmel 1994170, 171
Erichsen 1994 B181, 182Fig. A120
Grimm 199431, 35, 38Figs. A18, A24, A25, A26
Hambrecht 199453, 55Fig. A31
Sandner, Ritschel 1994187-189, 191Fig. A133
Cat. Dresden 1992155, 156
Riemann 1980116, 117, 151, 152
Friedländer, Rosenberg 197968, 69No. 13Fig. 13
Exhib. Cat. Basel 197448, 51, 255, 268, 552under No. 414
Schade 197424, 25
Lüdecke 197220, 21
Gronau 1972
Mahn 1972
Behrend 196726
Alpatow 196624
Menz 1962152, 153
Maedebach 1961No. 2
Aragon, Cocteau 195727, 141
Balzer 195618
Lüdecke 1953 B34
Rudloff-Hille 1953 A
Rudloff-Hille 1953 B14, 15
Posse 194313, 14, 52, 53
Lilienfein 194221-23
Posse 194213, 14, 52, 53
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 193711
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1937No. 10
Cat. Dresden 1937Nos. 69, 70 (Bd. 1)
Posse 1936
Friedländer, Rosenberg 19321612-14
Kaemmerer 1931/32
Heyck 192775, 76
Glaser 192342-46
Loßnitzer 1912
Heyck 190864
Cat. Dresden 1905614, 615
Flechsig 1900 A82, 83, 85, 252
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1899Nos. 2, 3
Cat. Dresden 1892200, 201
Cat. Dresden 1887No. 1960
Lindau 188345
Schäfer 1860862-866
Waagen 185839, 40
Hübner 1856No. 1659
Schuchardt 1851 C45
Cat. Leipzig 1837No. 196
Cat. Dresden 1835Nos. 69, 70 (Bd. 1)
Material / Technique:
  • Date: 13.10.2013
  • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
  • Infrared reflectography
  • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - Infrared Images
  • Underdrawing
    • photographed by: Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden
    • Date: 2005
    • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
    • Framing
    • - new frame: bare oak wood frame, mid 20th century
      [Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
        • Date: 2005
        • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
        • Infrared reflectography
        • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - Infrared Images
        • Underdrawing
        • The underdrawing, which was executed with a brush, reveals the artist’s struggles to finalize the composition and forms; linear contours are combined with a detailed drawing of the main features within the forms; radical changes were made in the painted version to the sightlines and the poses of the figures eg. the boy who was first shown in profile, the head of St Agnes, which has been altered as has the hairstyle of St Dorothea

          [Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]

          Further literature:
          [Gronau 1972]
          [Riemann 1980, 116, 117, 151, 152]
          [Sandner, Ritschel 1994]
          [Sandner 1994]
          [Sandner 1995]
          [Giebe, Schölzel 1996, 67-71]
          [Sandner 1998, 106-113]
          [Bomford, Exhib. Cat. London 2002, 144-147]
          [Schölzel 2005, 182-185]
          [Heydenreich 2007 A, 108, 109]
            • Date: 2003
            • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
            • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - OtherLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - Reverse
            • Support
            • - lime wood
              - 0.26-0.4 cm thick (thinned)
              - 9 horizontal planks

              [Schlegel 2003, 6][1]
              [1][Schlege, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
                • Date: 1996
                • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - Analysis
                • Ground and Imprimatura
                • [Giebe, Schölzel 1996, 65-66, 71]
                • Underdrawing
                • [Giebe, Schölzel 1996, 67-71]
                • Paint Layers and Gilding
                • [Giebe, Schölzel 1996, 71-84]
                • Support
                • [Giebe, Schölzel 1996]
                    • Date: 1995
                    • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                    • Infrared reflectography
                    • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - Infrared Images
                    • Underdrawing
                      • photographed by: Ingo Sandner
                      • Date: 27.10.1993
                      • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                      • X-radiography
                      • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden - Altarpiece with the Martyrdom of St Catharine: St Dorothea, St Agnes, St Kunigunde [left wing, recto] - X-Radiographs
                          Condition Reports:
                          • Date: 2003
                          • Support: - the panel has been trimmed on all four sides - marks from a plane on the reverse - cradle consisting of nine vertical and four cross-battens - the joins are reinforced with wooden blocks - reddish glaze on the reverse and the cradle Painted surface: - woodworm damage, particularly along the joins (open channels) - retouches (joins, splits, irregularities in the wood) - prominent craquelée with small paint lossses and retouches - old, glossy varnish [Schlegel 2003, 6][1] [1][Schlegel, Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
                            • Date: 05.06.1998
                            • see pdf
                              • Date: 1996
                              • In the 18th century the wing panels were sawn to create four separate panels [Giebe, Schölzel 1996, 63]
                                History of Restoration:
                                • Date: 1993
                                • [GGAM, Abt. Restaurierung, Meldung][1] [1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
                                  • Date: 1988
                                  • [GGAM, Abt. Restaurierung, Meldung][1] [1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
                                    • Date: 1978
                                    • [GGAM, Abt. Restaurierung, Meldung][1] [1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
                                      • Date: 22.11.1965
                                      • conservation treatment (see pdf for details)
                                        • Date: 1955
                                        • [GGAM, Abt. Restaurierung, Sowjetischer Gemäldepass][1] [1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]
                                          • Date: 1931
                                          • [Sächs, HStADD, 13458 SKD, GG Nr. 8, Bd. 6, Bl. 138, 200, 202, 208, 209, 213, 221, 223, 224, 229][1] [1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 378]