Cranach - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist
Portrait of the wife of a Jurist
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
23.11.2017 - 00:55
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Painting:
CDA ID / Inventory NumberDE_smbGG_1907
Persistent Linkhttp://lucascranach.org/DE_smbGG_1907
FR (1978) No.FR009
Title:
Portrait of the wife of a Jurist[CDA 2010]
Portrait of the wife of Dr Johann Stephan Reuss [?][Friedländer, Rosenberg 1978, 67, No. 9]
Portrait of the wife of a Scholar (Portrait of Reuss)[Cat. Berlin 1969, 122. No. 1907]
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Attribution:
Lucas Cranach the Elder [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010] [Sandner 1998 B, 120]
Dating:
1503[Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]
Owner / Repository / Location:
OwnerStaatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
RepositoryStaatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
LocationBerlin
Dimensions:
Dimensions of support: 52.6 x 36.7 cm Dimensions including frame: 63 x 48 cm [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010] Dimensions of support: 52.5 - 52.4 x 36.3 - 36.2 x 0.6 cm Original dimensions of support: c. 52.5 x 36.5 cm Dimensions of painted surface: 52.5 - 52.4 x 36.3 - 36.2cm [Undine Köhler, Gemäldegalerie Berlin, Sept. 2010]
Support:
Painting on Spruce (Picea sp.) [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]
Signature / Date:
None
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
Reverse of the panel: - top left: label: '1907/ Lucas Cranach d.Ä./ Bildnis der Frau des Johannes Reuss/ /948/ 0,57/0,75[?] ' - beneath, on the left: label:'Staatliche Museen Berlin - Gemäldegalerie/ Inv.Nr. IV/948/ Kat.Nr. 1907/ Lucas Cranach' - beneath, on the right: label: 'Minneapolis Art Institut/ No. L48.1298/ Lent by Cleveland/ Museum of Art' - centre: label with a stamp: 'Zollamt Wiesbaden' - bottom: label: 'Kunstmuseum Basel Ausstellung/ Cranach Ausstellung 1974/ Künstler: Lucas Cranach d. Ae./ Titel: Frau Reuss [89]/ Leihgeber: Staatliche Museen Berlin' - bottom, far right: label: '730' [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010] Reverse of the panel: - top left: paper label, printed in black and written on in black pen, rotated to the left at a 90° angle: 'Staatliche Museen Berlin Gemäldegaleri(e) (/)Inv.- Nr. IV/ 948 (handschriftlich) (/)Kat. - Nr. 1907 (handschriftlich) (/) Lucas Cranach (handschriftlich)' - on the right beside it: paper label, printed in black: 'Minneapolis Art (/) Institute (/) No. L48.1298 (after No. Type script)(/) Lent by Cleveland (type script) (/) (illegible) museum of art' - top centre: Paper label writen in black: '1904 (/) Lucas Cranach ? (/) Bildnis der Frau (/) des Johann Reuss(/) IV/948 (illegible)' - centre: paper label, printed in green and blue stamp: 'Zollamtlich (/) (stamp illegible)' - bottom, centre: Paper label, printed in black and filled out with a type writer: 'Kunstmuseum Basel. Ausstellung (/) Cranach-Ausstellung 1974 (typoskript)(/) Künstler: Lucas Cranach d.Ä., (typoskript) (/) Titel: Frau Reuss (typoskript) 89 (roter Stempel)(/) Leihgeber: Staatl. Museen, Berlin' - on the right beside this: paper label written in red: '730' Reverse of the frame: - top member: paper label attached with tape, printed in black: 'KFM 46 Cranach, Lucas, The elder (/) German (/) Frau Reuss 1472-1553 (/) Panel 20 7/16 x x14 1/8' - right corner: Grafit pencil: '/6'/4' - top left: remains of a paper label with a serrated edge - left member, top: Paper laber with a red edge: '(illegible -9620)' - beside this: a label of similar width, printed in black: 'TR 9006/20' white paper label, printed in black: 'Gemäldegalerie Berlin (/) Rahmeninventarnr. 93248' - bottom member: black print: 'S 1622 v.d.' [Undine Köhler, Gemäldegalerie Berlin, Sept. 2010]
Description:
Right wing of a diptych. A portrait of a lady against the backdrop of a mountainous landscape. She is wearing a red dress with a gold embroidered boarder and bodice, her belt is also of gold and she wears a whitish ochre bonnet on her head. Her fingers are decorated with gold rings. A green tree rises to the sky on her left, while on her right there is a bare tree. [Gemäldegalerie Berlin, Unsinn 2010]
Provenance:
- from the collection of the Duke of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Schloss Heidecksburg in Rudolstadt.
- 1923 (January/ February) acquired on Berlin art market

[Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]
Exhibitions:
Erfurt 1903, No. 131
Berlin 1937, 14, No. 7
Weimar, Wittenberg 1953, No. 80
Berlin 1973, No. 17
Basel 1974, 182, No. 89, Fig. 79
Festung Rosenberg, Kronach 1994, 132, Fig. A71
Frankfurt am Main 2007/2008, 128
Sources / Publications:
Reference on PageCatalogue NumberFigure/Plate
Heydenreich 2007 A51, 52, 116, 138, 178, 196, 227, 393Figs. 25, 26, 154
Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007128p. 128
Heydenreich 2007 B42, 4330
Evans 200751
Heiser 200232, 33Fig. 4
Cat. Berlin 199884
Sandner 1998 B120, 12114.2Figs. 14.2, 14.2a
Exhib. Cat. Eisenach 1998120, 12114.2Figs. 14.2, 14.2a
Heydenreich 1998 A182, 191Fig. 21.9
Heydenreich 1998 B106
Cat. Berlin 199635Fig. 75
Rebel 1994131, 132Fig. A71
Friedländer, Rosenberg 197967No. 9Fig. 9
Löcher 197916-22
Cat. Berlin 1975 ANo. 1907
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974159, 164, 182No. 89Fig. 79
Schade 1974Plate 15
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1973No. 17
Cat. Berlin 1969122No. 1907
Koepplin 1964214
Buchner 1953164, 165No. 188
Posse 194352No. 9
Posse 194252No. 9
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 193714No. 7
Friedländer, Rosenberg 19329
Baldass 1922 A75
Friedländer 19057Plate 6
Exhib. Cat. Erfurt 1903No. 131
Lehfeldt 189463
Schmidt 1892118
Interpretation / History / Discussion:
'Right hand pendant of the portrait of the Scholar Johann Stephan Reuss (1504 Rector of the University of Vienna), dated 1503 and now in the Germanischen Museum, Nuremberg.'

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932, No. 9]
Material / Technique:
  • Date: 15.03.2011
  • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
  • UV-light photography
  • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - UV Images
    • photographed by: Fotowerkstatt, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin
    • Date: 01.09.2010
    • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
    • Light microscopy
    • Dendrochronology
    • Infrared reflectography
    • X-radiography
    • Stereomicroscopy
    • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - ReverseLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - UV Images
    • Support
    • Macroscopic and microscopic examination carried out by Dipl. Rest. Undine Köhler
      (LEICA MS 5; f=100; magnification on the microscope: 0,6 - 4; magnification: 60 - 400x)
      UV examination
      Infrared reflectograph (Schmidt 2010)
      X-radiograph (Schmidt 2010)
      Dendrochronological report (Klein1989):


      - wooden panel: (details of the construction)
      - the panel consists of one tangentially cut spruce wood plank (cut close to the heartwood)
      - height: 52.4 cm on the right and 52.5 cm on the left side; width: 36.3 cm at the bottom and 36.2 at the top; 0.6 cm thick
      - the grain runs in a vertical direction
      - a knot (0.8 cm in diameter) is visible in the x-radiograph at the centre of the left side of the panel (viewed from the front)
      - there are two square inserts in the right half of the panel above and below the centre (the upper one measures: 6.5 x 0.5 cm; the lower one: 7.2 x 1.4 cm). The reverse has been covered with an application of tow fibres to prevent them from falling out
      - there is a slight bevel on the reverse along the top and bottom edges. Along the bottom edge it measures about 2 cm at its widest point and only 0.8 cm along the top
      - the original surface on the reverse has not been preserved
    • Ground and Imprimatura
    • Size:
      A sizing layer could not be identified with either the naked eye or under the stereomicroscope, but it may be assumed that one was applied.

      Ground:
      A white porous layer, presumably a glue/chalk ground was applied to the wooden panel and is clearly visible under the stereomicroscope along the top edge.

      Imprimatura:
      Above this is a thinner, lead white layer, which functioned as an imprimatura. This layer is visible in areas of paint loss, along the edge of the panel and in the x-radiograph it appears white. It shows a streaky application, which frequently changes direction. In the right area of the shoulder depressed lines are visible in the ground running diagonally from the top right to the bottom left c. 0.1 cm apart. They are visible to the naked eye in raking light and appear as white lines on the x-radiograph. These may have been caused when the panel was sanded down.
    • Underdrawing
    • - in the light areas of the painting (flesh paint, clothing) the lines of the underdrawing are clearly visible to the naked eye through the thin paint layers and in the infrared reflectograph. It appears that the drawing was carried out in a black fluid material over the entire composition as is shown in the infrared reflectograph.
      The imprimatura containing lead white was applied over this. Lines of two widths can be identified. One measures 0.1 - 0.2 cm and the other only 0.05 cm. The thicker lines were primarily employed to execute the contours of the clothes whereas the thinner lines were used to describe the face. The width of the broader line varies, it is pointed at the end and paint has collected at either the beginning or the end. The uniformity in width of the thinner lines is conspicuous. The lines in the face may have been transferred from a template. This is supported by the slight off-set at the tip of the sitter’s nose or the pupils or the precise lines in the eyes.
    • Framing
    • - wooden frame with a narrow inner round rod and a broader rod along the outer edge; black coating, centre and corners decorated with stencilled gold floral ornaments

      Dimensions of the frame: 62.5 x 47.3 x 5.5 cm
      Inv.-No.: 93.248
    • Paint Layers and Gilding
    • see pdf
      • written by: Undine Köhler
      • Date: 01.08.2010
      • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
      • X-radiography
      • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - X-Radiographs
        • photographed by: Fotowerkstatt, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin
        • Date: 01.01.2010
        • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
        • Infrared reflectography
        • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - Infrared Images
        • Underdrawing
        • DESCRIPTION

          Tools/Materials:
          - fluid, black pigmented medium, brush

          Type/Ductus:
          - detailed and freehand underdrawing
          - fine lines executed with a brush in a diluted medium are followed by more precise lines; some hatching-strokes

          Function:
          - relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate contours and generally describes inner forms and facial features; some representation of volume (hatching-strokes)

          Deviations:
          - alterations made during the painting process to clearly define form

          INTERPRETATION

          Attribution:
          - Lucas Cranach the Elder

          [Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]
          • photographed by: Ingo Sandner
          • photographed by: Gunnar Heydenreich
          • Date: 2000
          • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
          • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
          • Instrumental material analysis
          • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - Analysis
          • CDA ID/Inventory No: DE_smbGG_1907
            Object No: FR 009
            Cross-section No.: EP120
            Brief description of paint: blue sky on grey underpaint/layer
            Sample location: upper edge, at the right above the tree
            Sample No.: 188

            Observations:
            3. two layers of varnish, these fluoresce in UV-light, none of the other layers fluoresce
            2. blue layer, blue (azurite) and white, sky paint
            1. greyish-brown layer, black, brown transparent (does not fluoresce under UV-light, white, single red pigment; warm grey underpaint
            0. white layer, ground

            Comments: a warm grey uderpaint was applied over the ground layer followed by an admixture of an intense azurite blue and white
            [cda 2015]
            • analysed by: Aviva Burnstock
            • analysed by: Gunnar Heydenreich
            • Date: 2000
            • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
            • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
            • Instrumental material analysis
            • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - Analysis
            • CDA ID/Inventory No: DE_smbGG_1907
              Object No: FR 009
              Cross-section No.: EP 121
              Brief description of paint: green from the landscape in the background
              Sample location: right edge, at the height of the ellbow, green background
              Sample No.: 190

              Observations:
              2. dark green glaze, does not fluoresce under UV-light
              1. light green layer, no imprimitura visible, green amorphous particles, single blue, red and brown particles.
              0. white ground
              0. Wood

              Comments: two green layers applied over the ground layer
              [cda 2015]
              • analysed by: Aviva Burnstock
              • analysed by: Gunnar Heydenreich
              • Date: 2000
              • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
              • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
              • Instrumental material analysis
              • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - AnalysisLucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - Analysis
              • CDA ID/Inventory No: DE_smbGG_1907
                Object No: FR 009
                Cross-section No.: EP 119
                Brief description of paint: gilding on original frame on red garment with black outline
                Sample location: lower edge, right corner
                Sample No.: 187
                Methods: EDX

                Observations:
                5. black layer (with cloudy yellow fluorescence in UV-light, followed by 1- 3 layers(?) of varnish, and a split between the embedding medium and sample
                4. gold leaf approx. 400-500 nm thick; probably the gold from the original frame
                3.yellowish-red layer, white and reddish ochre pigments, a lot of binding medium (yellow fluorescence in UV-light) mordant for gilding, between this and the layer beneath there is a partially darker, very thin isolating layer (single black piments and red) in EDX Fe, Al, Pb (or S) and Ca. Iron oxide (yellow ochre) and lead white
                2. dark red transparent layer, red lake (in UV-light the individual particles fluoresce orange, some dark red like above and yellow fluorescence). In SEM/ EDX dark, Al, S or Pb, Ca, Si, Cl, K, Mn? red lake on an aluminous substrate, glaze
                1. red layer, red cristalline particles in orange-red medium (in UV-light it appears very homogenous, dark red particles, broken shapes) (Hg, Si) vermillion(?), red underpaint
                0. white layer, upper section more transparent, ground layer
                Comments: the red underpaint (dark red in UV-light) was applied directly over the white ground, followed by a red lake glaze (different components are visible in UV-light). Then the gold leaf was applied to a mordant containing yellow ochre, followed by a black paint layer and numerous varnish layers
                [cda 2015]
                • analysed by: Aviva Burnstock
                • analysed by: Gunnar Heydenreich
                • Date: 1996
                • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                • Infrared photography
                  • photographed by: Fotowerkstatt, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin
                  • Date: 08.11.1971
                  • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                  • Infrared photography
                    • photographed by: Fotowerkstatt, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin
                    • Date: 01.06.1971
                    • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                    • X-radiography
                    • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - X-Radiographs
                      • photographed by: Fotowerkstatt, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin
                      • Date:
                      • Technical Examination
                      • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie - Portrait of the wife of a Jurist - Other
                      • Framing
                      • Earlier, possibly original frame
                          Condition Reports:
                          • Date: 01.09.2010
                          • - the original dimensions of the panel have not been preserved. The reverse was also reworked. - the panel is slightly warped - there are small splits running vertically from the top and bottom edges - in 1979 a cradle that had been previously attached to the reverse was removed - a split at the top left was reinforced with a wooden bar - the varnish has yellowed slightly
                          • written by: Undine Köhler