The Stigmatisation of St Francis

The Stigmatisation of St Francis

Title

The Stigmatisation of St Francis

[Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007, 122, No. 5]

Painting on spruce wood

Medium

Painting on spruce wood

[Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, revised 2017]
[Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007, 122, No. 5]

The painting depicts St Francis, who according to the legend received the marks of Christ's wounds in 1224 when a seraph appeared while he prayed on Mount Averna in the presence of a sleeping fellow friar.

[see Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007, 122, No. 5]

Attribution
Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attribution

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, revised 2017]
[Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007, 122, No. 4]
[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, 66, no. 2]

Production dates
about 1502 - 1503
after 1500

Production dates

about 1502 - 1503

[Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007, 122, No. 5]
[Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, revised 2017]

after 1500

'Shortly after 1500' [Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, 66, No. 003]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 86.7 x 47.4 x 0.8 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 86.7 x 47.4 x 0.8 cm

  • Dimensions of painted surface: 86.7 x 46 cm

  • Dimensions including frame: 96.8 x 56.8 x 6.7 cm

  • [Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, revised 2017]

Signature / Dating
None
Inscriptions and Labels
- on the reverse of the panel: 1 label on the upper cross-member 2 labels between the lower and …

Inscriptions and Labels

Inscriptions, Badges:

  • - on the reverse of the panel: 1 label on the upper cross-member
  • 2 labels between the lower and middle cross-members
  • inscription 'AKADEMIE' above the lower cross-member
  • [Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, revised 2017]
Owner
Österreichische Galerie Belvedere
Repository
The Paintings Gallery of the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna
Location
Vienna
CDA ID
AT_OGBW_1273
FR (1978) Nr.
FR003
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/AT_OGBW_1273/

Provenance

  • collection of Ladislaus Ritter von Viktor in Lemberg, donated 1912 to the Österreichischen Galerie
    [Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, revised 2017]
    [Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007, 122, No. 5]

Exhibitions

Berlin 1937, no. 3
Vienna 1972
Basel 1974, Cat.-No. 86
Frankfurt/London 2007/2008, Cat.-No. 5

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure/Plate
Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007 122 No. 5
EditorBodo Brinkmann
TitleCranach der Ältere, [Frankfurt, Städel Museum, 23 Nov 2007 - 17 Feb 2008]
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Kolind Poulsen 2003 133, 134 Fig. 7
AuthorHanne Kolind Poulsen
TitleFläche, Blick und Erinnerung. Cranachs Venus und Cupido als Honigdieb im Licht der Bildtheologie Luthers
Publicationin Heinz Spielmann, Werner Schade, eds., Lucas Cranach. Glaube, Mythologie und Moderne, Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Pages130-143
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 66 No. 3 Fig. 3
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 086
AuthorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Schade 1974 Figs. 10, 11
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleDie Malerfamilie Cranach
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1974
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schade1974
Exhib. Cat. Vienna 1972 5ff.
AuthorKarl Schütz
EditorKunsthistorisches Museum, Wien
TitleLucas Cranach der Ältere und seine Werkstatt. Jubiläumsausstellung museumseigener Werke 1472-1972
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1972
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1937 13 003 Pl. 7
EditorStaatliche Museen, Berlin
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. und Lucas Cranach d. J. Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Graphik
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1937
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 No. 3
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Grimschitz 1921
AuthorBruno Grimschitz
TitleEin unbekanntes Frühwerk L. Cranachs
JournalDie bildendene Künste
IssueBd. 4
Year of Publication1921
Pages148-150
  • The Stigmatisation of St Francis, about 1502 - 1503

Images

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Technical studies

1995Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr
  • irr

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Material:

- fluid, black medium, brush

Type/Ductus:

- freehand underdrawing

Function:

- only partially binding for the final painted version; broader lines delineate the main contours whereas the details and facial features are defined with a few thinner lines; no representation of volume with hatching-strokes

Deviations:

- corrections to forms were made during the painting process

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Sandner, Smith-Contini, Heydenreich, cda 2017]

  • photographed by Österreichische Galerie Belvedere
  • Infrared reflectography
  • X-radiography
  • UV-light photography
  • Stereomicroscopy

Support

- spruce wood, at least 3 knots are visible

- 2 vertically aligned planks, butt-joined and planed: Plank 1: 86.7 x 41.9 (41.3 cm at the bottom) x 0.8 cm; Plank 2: 86.7 x 5.5 (6.1 cm at the bottom) x 0.8 cm

- three tapered moveable cross-members slide into the panel from the left.

- exit holes from previously active woodworm are visible on the right side of the panel

- plank 2 has been cropped

- splits are visible at the centre of the top edge, here a rectangular block was inserted and glued

- at the left edge there are marks from a previous mounting system

Ground and Imprimatura

- smooth, white chalk/glue ground

- despite the fact that the panel has been trimmed there is a slightly raised barbe is evident at both the left and right hand sides

- an imprimatura tinted with pale ochre (sky) and dark ochre (landscape and flesh paint) is visible beneath the more transparent paint layers

Underdrawing

- there is an underdrawing, which was probably executed with a brush

- it is visible to the naked eye in areas where the paint layers have become more transparent over time.

Paint Layers and Gilding

- the paint was applied with a brush in a number of both glazed and thick, opaque layers. The highlights were added last.

- the haloes of the saint and the angels were gilded over a red bole; the saint’s halo is decoratively enriched with two circular grooves

Framing

- the frame is new, glazed and protected on the reverse with plexiglas

[Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, revised 2017]

Condition Reports

Date21.12.2017 -

  • the support exhibits a vertical washboard effect.

  • horizontal splits have developed due to tension. Exit holes are visible on the right side of the panel, but the woodworm is no longer active.

  • the paint is abraded down to the imprimatura in many areas. Drying cracks and wrinkling have created small islands of paint in the darker areas. These stand out optically from the surrounding paint.

  • the haloes are abraded and the bole is visible in places.

[Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, revised 2017]

Conservation History

The panel was cropped at the top and bottom edges as well as at the right side.

There are numerous old retouches particularly in the abraded areas. A natural resin varnish was applied recently.

[Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, revised 2017]

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'The Stigmatisation of St Francis', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/AT_OGBW_1273/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'The Stigmatisation of St Francis', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/AT_OGBW_1273/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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