Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg in front of the Crucified Christ

Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg in front of the Crucified Christ

Title

Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg in front of the Crucified Christ

[CDA 2010]

Painting on fir (Abies alba)

Medium

Painting on fir (Abies alba)

[Klein, Report 2013]
[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 138, no. 3819]
[Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, revised 2010]

Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg is positioned on the left side of the painting. He is depicted kneeling on the ground in half profile looking to the right at Christ on the cross. There is a birch tree to his left, the sky is becoming dark and a view of a

Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg is positioned on the left side of the painting. He is depicted kneeling on the ground in half profile looking to the right at Christ on the cross. There is a birch tree to his left, the sky is becoming dark and a view of a distant landscape is visible in the background.

Attributions
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Pseudo- Matthias Grünewald

Attributions

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, revised 2010]
[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 138, No. 3819]

Pseudo- Matthias Grünewald

[Flechsig 1900 A]

Simon Franck

[Tacke 1992, 33, 41-169]

Production dates
1520 - 1525
1520 - 1525

Production dates

1520 - 1525

[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 138, No. 3819][Sandner 1998 B, 85]

1520

[Grimm 1994, 36]

about 1520

[Rebel 1994, 136, 137]

1520 - 1525

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, 109, No. 183]

1525 - 1530

[Flechsig 1900 A]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 158.4 x 112.4 x 2.2 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 158.4 x 112.4 x 2.2 cm

  • [Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, revised 2010]

Signature / Dating
None
Inscriptions and Labels
Reverse of the panel: Inventory label 1822: 7281 Inventory label 1855: 3819 Label from the Cranach exhibition Berlin 1937

Inscriptions and Labels

Stamps, Seals, Labels:

  • Reverse of the panel: Inventory label 1822: 7281
  • Inventory label 1855: 3819
  • Label from the Cranach exhibition Berlin 1937
Owner
Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
Repository
Alte Pinakothek, Munich
Location
Munich
CDA ID
DE_BStGS_3819
FR (1978) Nr.
FR183
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_BStGS_3819/

Provenance

  • 1829 removed from the collegial church in Aschaffenburg, put up for sale and acquired by the State

[Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, revised 2010]
[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 138, No. 3819]

Exhibitions

Dresden 1899
Berlin 1937

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure / Plate
Bonnet, Görres 2015 54-55 16 p. 55
AuthorAnne-Marie Bonnet, Daniel Görres
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. - Maler der Deutschen Renaissance
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2015
Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011 104-109, 138 Nos. 21, 3819 Figs. p. 105-109
AuthorMartin Schawe
EditorBayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
TitleCranach in Bayern
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2011
Bonnet, Kopp-Schmidt, Görres 2010 166-167 16
AuthorAnne-Marie Bonnet, Gabriele Kopp-Schmidt, Daniel Görres
TitleDie Malerei der deutschen Renaissance
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2010
Koepplin 2009 68, Fn. 9
AuthorDieter Koepplin
TitleHöllenfahrten. Warum belieferten Cranach und seine Schüler die altgläubigen Auftraggeber Kardinal Albrecht und Kurfürst Joachim II. von Brandenburg mit traditionellen Altarbildern?
Publicationin Stiftung Preußische Schlösser und Gärten Berlin-Brandenburg, Evangelische Kirchengemeinde St. Petri-St. Marien, eds., Cranach und die Kunst der Renaissance unter den Hohenzollern. Kirche, Hof und Stadtkultur, Exhib. Cat. Berlin
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication2009
Pages59-71
Frankhäuser 2007 204
AuthorGernot Frankhäuser
TitleWie Dalberg Grünewald suchte und Cranach fand. Zur Beschäftigung mit altdeutscher Malerei in Mainz und Aschaffenburg um 1800.
Publicationin Gerhard Ermischer, Andreas Tacke, eds., Cranach im Exil. Aschaffenburg um 1540. Zuflucht, Schatzkammer, Residenz, Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2007
Pages197-213
Heydenreich 2007 B 40
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
Title"... dass Du mit wunderbarer Schnelligkeit malest". Virtuosität und Effizienz in der künstlerischen Praxis Lucas Cranachs d. Ä.
Publicationin Bodo Brinkmann, ed., Cranach der Ältere, Exhib. Cat. FrankfurtA
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Pages29-47
Merkel 2007 B 192, 194 Fig. 8
AuthorKerstin Merkel
TitleDas Tor zum Paradies. Albrechts Denkmal als Inszenierung der Jenseitssicherung.
Publicationin Gerhard Ermischer, Andreas Tacke, eds., Cranach im Exil. Aschaffenburg um 1540. Zuflucht, Schatzkammer, Residenz, Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2007
Pages187-195
Schawe 2007 A 218-220 Fig. 3
AuthorMartin Schawe
TitleCranach in Aschaffenburg. 1814 bis heute
Publicationin Gerhard Ermischer, Andreas Tacke, ed., Cranach im Exil- Aschafffenburg um 1540. Zuflucht, Schatzkammer, Residenz
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2007
Pages215-225
Cat. Munich 2006 44, 118 f.
AuthorMartin Schawe
EditorBayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
TitleAltdeutsche und altniederländische Malerei
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2006
Hinz 2006 19-27
AuthorBerthold Hinz
TitleDes Kardinals Bildnisse - vor allem Dürers und Cranachs
Publicationin Andreas Tacke, ed., Der Kardinal Albrecht von Brandenburg, Renaisssancefürst und Mäzen Exhib. Cat. Halle
Volume2
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2006
Heiden 1998 146-149
AuthorRüdiger an der Heiden
TitleDie Alte Pinakothek. Sammlungsgeschichte, Bau und Bilder
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication1998
Sandner 1998 B 85
AuthorIngo Sandner
TitleCranach als Zeichner auf dem Malgrund
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages83-95
Grimm 1994 36 Fig. A21
AuthorClaus Grimm
TitleLucas Cranach 1994
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhoff, eds., Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Regensburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages18-43
Rebel 1994 136, 137 Fig. A78
AuthorErnst Rebel
TitleLucas Cranach Porträtkunst. Personendarstellungen zwischen Vitalität und Formel
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhoff, eds.,Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26
Place of PublicationCoburg, Augsburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages131-138
Tacke 1992 33, 41-169
AuthorAndreas Tacke
TitleDer katholische Cranach. Zu zwei Großaufträgen von Lucas Cranach d. Ä., Simon Franck und der Cranach-Werkstatt (1520 - 1540)
SeriesBerliner Schriften zur Kunst
Volume2
Place of PublicationMainz
Year of Publication1992
Exhib. Cat. Mainz 1990 88 f.
EditorHorst Reber, Berthold Roland
TitleAlbrecht von Brandenburg. Kurfürst, Erzkanzler, Kardinal, 1490 - 1545. Zum 500. Geburtstag eines deutschen Renaissancefürsten
Place of PublicationMainz
Year of Publication1990
Cat. Munich 1983 151 f.
EditorBayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
TitleAlte Pinakothek München. Erläuterungen zu den ausgestellten Gemälden
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication1983
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 107 No. 183 Fig. 183
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 101, 119-120, 450, 488, 493 Fig. 53
AuthorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Cat. Munich 1963 60 f.
AuthorC. Altgraf zu Salm, Gisela Goldberg
EditorBayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
TitleKatalog II. Altdeutsche Malerei
Volume2
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication1963
Marette 1961 283 974
AuthorJ. Marette
TitleConnaissance des Primitifs par l'étude du bois du XIIe au XVIe siècle
Place of PublicationParis
Year of Publication1961
Dölling 1957 172, Fn. 3
AuthorR. Dölling
TitleByzantinische Elemente in der Kunst des 16. Jahrhunderts
Publicationin Aus der byzantinischen Arbeit der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik
Volume2
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1957
Girshausen 1957 397
AuthorTheo Ludwig Girshausen
TitleL. Cranach d. Ä.
Publicationin Neue Deutsche Biographie
Place of PublicationBerlin
Issue3
Year of Publication1957
Schneider 1957 627
AuthorErnst Schneider
TitleEin Cranachaltar aus dem Aschaffenburger Stift
JournalAschaffenburger Jahrbuch für Geschichte, Landeskunde und Kunst des Untermaingebietes
Issue4, II
Year of Publication1957
Pages627-644
Jahn 1953 A 62
AuthorJohannes Jahn
TitleDer Weg des Künstlers
Publicationin Heinz Lüdecke, ed., Lucas Cranach d. Ä. im Spiegel seiner Zeit. Aus Urkunden, Chroniken, Briefen, Reden und Gedichten
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1953
Pages17-81
Posse 1943 28, 59 No. 63
AuthorHans Posse
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä.
Place of PublicationVienna
IssueSecond edition
Year of Publication1943
Lilienfein 1942 67
AuthorHeinrich Lilienfein
TitleLukas Cranach und seine Zeit
Place of PublicationBielefeld
Year of Publication1942
Posse 1942 28, 59 No. 63
AuthorHans Posse
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä.
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1942
Zülch 1938 391
AuthorWalter Karl Zülch
TitleDer historische Grünewald
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication1938
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1937 23 043 Pl. 46
EditorStaatliche Museen, Berlin
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. und Lucas Cranach d. J. Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Graphik
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1937
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 59 155
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Luz 1925 41 ff, 62 ff.
AuthorWilhelm August. Luz
TitleDer Kopf des Kardinals Albrecht von Brandenburg bei Dürer, Cranach und Grünewald
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
Issue45
Year of Publication1925
Pages41-77
Glaser 1923 143 f.
AuthorCurt Glaser
TitleLukas Cranach
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1923
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/glaser1923
Worringer 1908 118
AuthorWilhelm Worringer
TitleLukas Cranach
SeriesKlassische Illustratoren
Volume3
Place of PublicationLeipzig, Munich
Year of Publication1908
Flechsig 1900 A 168 f.
AuthorEduard Flechsig
TitleCranachstudien
Volume1
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1900
Link page/n5/mode/2up
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1899 88 141
EditorKarl Woermann
TitleDeutsche Kunstausstellung Dresden 1899. Abteilung Cranach-Ausstellung. Wissenschaftliches Verzeichnis der ausgestellten Werke
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1899
Link http://resolver.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/SBB00002A2400000000
Rieffel 1895 426
AuthorFranz Rieffel
TitleKleine kunstwissenschaftliche Controversfragen
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
Issue18
Year of Publication1895
Link http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/artdok/volltexte/2014/2651
Pages424-428
  • Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg in front of the Crucified Christ, 1520 - 1525

Images

Compare images
  • overall
  • overall
  • overall
  • overall
  • irr

Technical studies

31.07.2007Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
  • Infrared reflectography
  • Stereomicroscopy
  • irr

Support

- fir (Abies alba)

- 9 vertical planks

- the panel is covered with canvas (except the lower third)

- there are 9 reinforcing blocks on the reverse; in the upper, middle and lower areas of th panel there are holes where horizontal battons were once attached, the surface of the panel has been smoothed in these areas and the wood worm channels are visible

- there is a rebate on all four sides

- there are remnants of nails used to attach a shield (Albrecht of Brandenburg's shield), which no longer exists in the upper left hand corner, in the rebate on the reverse of the panel. Today it's shape is still visible on the front of the panel: 18 cm high (measured from the top edge) and c. 16 cm wide.

- the edge of the rebate has been reduced slightly

- numerous 'pea' sized bumps, sometimes in pairs, in the canvas

- brown coating on the reverse

Ground and Imprimatura

- thinly applied white ground; the surface texture of the canvas and the wood are visible in raking light

- the barbe created by the ground has to a greater or lesser extent been preserved on all four sides

Underdrawing

- Digital IRR 2007

- the underdrawing is clearly visible in the area of the figures and the landscape. The lines are fluid in the figure of Christ and the landscape, whereas the portrait is more schematic with strict contours (stencilled or traced ?)

Paint Layers and Gilding

- probably oil

Framing

- the frame is not original

- no measurements are recorded

  • photographed by Lars Raffelt
  • written by Martin Schawe
  • written by Poll-Frommel

04.04.2007Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

'4 out of 8 planks could be measured; the youngest ring dates from 1518; the earliest date the tee could have been felled is 1518; the earliest date the panel could have been produced is 1520

[Martin Schawe, Alte Pinakothek Munich, 26.03.2010]

  • examined by Peter Klein

2007Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Materials:

- fluid, black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- freehand underdrawing; copied lines in the face of the cardinal (traced?)

- thin to slightly broader lines

- occasional hatching-strokes

Function:

- binding for the final painted version; lines delineate contours and describe essential details and the facial features; some representation of volume (hatching-strokes)

Deviations:

- minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define form; changes (the mountains in the background)

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

Comments:

- the portrait of Cardinal Albrecht appears to have been transferred from a pre-existing design

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2013]

  • photographed by Lars Raffelt

30.03.2006Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

Identification of wood species: Fir (Abies alba)

[Martin Schawe, Alte Pinakothek Munich, 26.03.2010]

  • analysed by Peter Klein

Condition Reports

Date26.03.2010

  • numerous losses, in the lower half of the painting these are quite large

  • the paint surface is very abraded

  • written by Martin Schawe

Conservation History

Date1961

  • isolated losses retouched

[Martin Schawe, Alte Pinakothek Munich, 26.03.2010]

Date1950

  • no record of treatment procedure

[Martin Schawe, Alte Pinakothek Munich, 26.03.2010]

Date1940

  • insitu consolidation of flaking paint (The painting was removed from the Gallery during World War II and stored elsewhere.)

[Martin Schawe, Alte Pinakothek Munich, 26.03.2010]

Date1937

  • the paint layers were consolidated before the painting was sent to the Cranach exhibition in Berlin

  • the wax coating on the surface of the painting was treated to achieve a more homogenous gloss

[Martin Schawe, Alte Pinakothek Munich, 26.03.2010]

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg in front of the Crucified Christ', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_BStGS_3819/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg in front of the Crucified Christ', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_BStGS_3819/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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