The Mass of St Gregory with Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg

The Mass of St Gregory with Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg

Title

The Mass of St Gregory with Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg

[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 141]

Painting on wood (paint layers transferred to a new panel)

Medium

Painting on wood (paint layers transferred to a new panel)

[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 141]

Softwood

[Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg 2007, 270]

The subject of Christ's apparition to Pope Gregory the Great (c. 540-604) is first depicted in art in the 15th century. The miracle of trans-substantiation during the Mass could thus also be proved in visual form [...] The famous Mosaic in the church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme in Rome

The subject of Christ's apparition to Pope Gregory the Great (c. 540-604) is first depicted in art in the 15th century. The miracle of trans-substantiation during the Mass could thus also be proved in visual form [...] The famous Mosaic in the church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme in Rome is the point of origin of the legend - which served to legitimize the worship of the icon -, according to which Pope Gregor saw the figure of Christ as a Man of Sorrows (Imago Pietatis) while celebrating the Mass [...]

The basic disposition of the composition is after a woodcut by Albrecht Dürer from 1511, but the execution is quite free. Idiosyncrasies in the perspective of the painting serve the legibility of all details [...]. Pope Gregor, a deacon and a sub-deacon kneel before the steps of the altarpiece on which the tiara, the papal triple crown (as a symbol of the imperial power of the bishops of Rome) and the utensils necessary for the celebration of the Mass: the missal, the chalice, the corporale and the paten are displayed. Above the altarpiece Christ appears as the Redeemer with outspread arms, a crown of thorns and wounds as if about to climb from the sarcophagus. Here it is important to understand that predella were sometimes referred to a 'coffins' ('Sarg') in contemporary literature. The double meaning is emphasized by the icon of Vera, Christ's true countenance, on the wall. The vision replaces the painting on the altarpiece. Depicted in a cloud formation enlivened by cherubs behind and above Christ are the Arma Christi, motifs symbolizing the Passion: a ladder, the flagellation column, a lance, details of Pilatus washing his hands, the trial of Christ, St Peter's denial etc.

The figures kneeling before the altarpiece do not appear to take notice of the miracle; Albrecht of Brandenburg has no chance to enjoy the vision either [...] the depiction of Albrecht appears, like so many other portraits, to be after the engraved prototype created by Cranach in 1520. Above the back wall of the renaissance style choir stalls is the spiritual ruler's coat-of-arms showing his dominion. In the background choir boys sing under the direction of a tonsured praeceptor.

A particular moment during the celebration of the Mass is not depicted nor was it intended.'

[Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg 2007, 271]

Attributions
Anonymous Master from the Cranach Workshop
Simon Franck

Attributions

Anonymous Master from the Cranach Workshop

[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 141]

Simon Franck

[Tacke 1992, 33, 41-169]

Master of the Mass of St Gregory

[Emmendörffer 1998, 203][Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, No. Sup012]

Hans Cranach

[Flechsig 1900 A, 283]

Production dates
about 1520 - 1525
about 1520

Production dates

about 1520 - 1525

[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 141]

about 1520

[Emmendörffer 1998, 203]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 150.2 x 110 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 150.2 x 110 cm

  • [Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 141]

Owner
Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
Repository
Staatsgalerie im Schloss Johannisburg, Aschaffenburg
Location
Aschaffenburg
CDA ID
DE_BStGS_6270
FR (1978) Nr.
FRSup012
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_BStGS_6270/

Provenance

  • until 1541 presumably in the Collegial Church, Halle
  • until 1802/1803 in the Collegial Church, Aschaffenburg[1]
    [1] [Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg 2007, 270]
    [Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 141]

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure/Plate
Exhib. Cat. Prague 2016 112, 113
Author / EditorOlga Kotková
TitleCranach. Ze všech stran. From all sides.
Place of PublicationPrague
Year of Publication2016
Pages16-180
Heydenreich 2015 120, Fn. 33
Author / EditorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleHans Cranach. Auf der Suche nach seinem verlorenen Oeuvre
Publicationin Elke E. Werner, Anne Eusterschulte, Gunnar Heydenreich, eds., Lucas Cranach der Jüngere und die Reformation der Bilder
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2015
Link https://lucascranach.org/application/files/5415/6232/3883/Heydenreich_2015_-_Hans_Cranach.pdf
Pages116 -127
Tacke 2015 84
Author / EditorAndreas Tacke
TitleGleich dem Kaninchen vor der Schlange? Altgläubige und die Wittenberger Bildpropaganda.
Publicationin Julia Carrasco, Justus Lange, Benjamin D. Spira, Timo Trümper, Stiftung Schloss Friedenstein Gotha and Museumslandschaft Hessen Kassel, eds., Bild und Botschaft. Cranach im Dienst von Hof und Reformation, [Exhib. Cat. Gotha, Kassel]
Place of PublicationHeidelberg
Year of Publication2015
Pages82-90
Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011 141
Author / EditorMartin Schawe, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
TitleCranach in Bayern
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2011
Ermischer 2007 43 Fig. 37
Author / EditorGerhard Ermischer
TitleCranach im Exil - Porträt einer bewegten Epoche
Publicationin Gerhard Ermischer, Andreas Tacke, eds., Cranach im Exil. Aschaffenburg um 1540. Zuflucht, Schatzkammer, Residenz, Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2007
Pages13-53
Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg 2007 270-271 No. 14 Fig. p. 273
Author / EditorGerhard Ermischer, Andreas Tacke
TitleCranach im Exil. Aschaffenburg um 1540. Zuflucht - Schatzkammer - Residenz. Ausstellungskatalog Schloss Johannisburg und Kunsthalle Jesuitenkirche
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2007
Frankhäuser 2007 204
Author / EditorGernot Frankhäuser
TitleWie Dalberg Grünewald suchte und Cranach fand. Zur Beschäftigung mit altdeutscher Malerei in Mainz und Aschaffenburg um 1800.
Publicationin Gerhard Ermischer, Andreas Tacke, eds., Cranach im Exil. Aschaffenburg um 1540. Zuflucht, Schatzkammer, Residenz, Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2007
Pages197-213
Hauschke 2007 174, 177, 182 Fig. 8
Author / EditorSven Hauschke
TitleDas messing gegossen gehewss umb meyn grabe. Albrechts Grabmal in der Aschaffenburger Stiftskirche.
Publicationin Gerhard Ermischer, Andreas Tacke, eds., Cranach im Exil. Aschaffenburg um 1540. Zuflucht, Schatzkammer, Residenz, Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2007
Pages173-185
Schawe 2007 A 215, 219, 221 Figs. 1, 3
Author / EditorMartin Schawe
TitleCranach in Aschaffenburg. 1814 bis heute
Publicationin Gerhard Ermischer, Andreas Tacke, ed., Cranach im Exil- Aschafffenburg um 1540. Zuflucht, Schatzkammer, Residenz
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2007
Pages215-225
Hecht 2006 81-115
Author / EditorChristian Hecht
TitleDie Aschaffenburger Gregorsmessen
Publicationin Thomas Schauerte, Andreas Tacke, eds., Der Kardinal. Albrecht von Brandenburg. Renaissancefürst und Mäzen, Exhib. Cat. Halle
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2006
Meier 2006 254-260 and passim
Author / EditorEsther Meier
TitleDie Gregorsmesse. Funktionen eines spätmittelalterlichen Bildtypus
Place of PublicationCologne, Weimar
Year of Publication2006
Smith 2006 36, 39 Fig. 9
Author / EditorJeffrey Chipps Smith
TitleDie Kunst des Scheiterns
Publicationin Thomas Schauerte, ed., Der Kardinal Albrecht von Brandenburg. Renaissancefürst und Mäzen. Bd. 1: Katalog
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2006
CDA.Bloh 2005 176
Author / EditorJutta Charlotte von Bloh
TitleKleidung und Waffen in den Fürstenbildnissen der Cranachs
Publicationin Harald Marx, Ingrid Mössinger, Karin Kolb, eds., Cranach, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication2005
Pages174-181
Merkel 2004 94f.
Author / EditorKerstin Merkel
TitleJenseits-Sicherung. Kardinal Albrecht von Brandenburg und seine Grabmäler
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2004
Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg 2002 No. 108
Author / EditorRainhard Riepertinger, Evamaria Brockhoff, Katharina Heinemann, Jutta Schumann
TitleDas Rätsel Grünewald [Schloss Johannisburg, Aschaffenburg]
Place of PublicationAugsburg
Year of Publication2002
Emmendörffer 1998 203, 204 Figs. 22.1, 22.1a
Author / EditorChristoph Emmendörffer
TitleDie selbständigen Cranachschüler
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages203-228
Tacke 1992 33, 41-169
Author / EditorAndreas Tacke
TitleDer katholische Cranach. Zu zwei Großaufträgen von Lucas Cranach d. Ä., Simon Franck und der Cranach-Werkstatt (1520 - 1540)
SeriesBerliner Schriften zur Kunst
Volume2
Place of PublicationMainz
Year of Publication1992
Exhib. Cat. Cologne 1982
Author / EditorUwe Westfehling
TitleDie Messe Gregors des Großen
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication1982
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 No. Sup 12
Author / EditorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg, G. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Cat. Aschaffenburg 1975 61-62
Author / Editorn. a.
TitleBayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Galerie Aschaffenburg. Katalog
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication1975
  • The Mass of St Gregory with Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg, about 1520 - 1525

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Technical studies

06. 2012Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Materials:

- fluid, black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- freehand underdrawing; initial design executed with a diluted medium; traced lines in Cardinal Albrecht’s face

- thin lines

- occasional hatching-strokes and washes

Function:

- relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; some representation of volume (hatching-strokes and washes)

Deviations:

- minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define form

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Simon Franck/ Master of the Mass of St Gregory ?

Comments:

- Cardinal Albrecht's facial features have been traced

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2013]

  • photographed by Gunnar Heydenreich
  • photographed by Ingo Sandner

2011Technical examination / Scientific analysis

Support

'Identification of the wood species was not possible as the original support was very damaged by wood worm and had been thinned ‘bis auf Papierdike’ (to the thickness of a sheet of paper) in 1884 (see also Inv. No. 6271 [DE_BStGS_6271_FRSup011])'

[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 141]

Conservation History

Date1884

  • thinned 'bis auf Papierdike' (to the thickness of a sheet of paper) in 1884 (see also Inv. No. 6271 [DE_BStGS_6271_FRSup011])'

[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 141]

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'The Mass of St Gregory with Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_BStGS_6270/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'The Mass of St Gregory with Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_BStGS_6270/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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