The Martyrdom of St Erasmus

The Martyrdom of St Erasmus

Title

The Martyrdom of St Erasmus

[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 142]

Painting on lime wood

Medium

Painting on lime wood

[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 142]
[Klein, Report 2006]

'St Erasmus, Bishop of Antiochia (d. 303) was arrested and martyred on numerous occasions during the Diocletianic Persecution of the Christians. One of the torturous acts inflicted upon him consisted of winding his intestines around a winch. This martyrdom is seldom depicted more frequently the intestines wound on a winch

'St Erasmus, Bishop of Antiochia (d. 303) was arrested and martyred on numerous occasions during the Diocletianic Persecution of the Christians. One of the torturous acts inflicted upon him consisted of winding his intestines around a winch. This martyrdom is seldom depicted more frequently the intestines wound on a winch are shown beside the bishop as an attribute.

The artist depicts the terrible act as a technical problem and observes with the same sober view as those present, who - either on foot or on horseback - crowd in or look down from the balcony. In the sky Christ appears as the Man of Sorrows to take the soul of the blood witness, who lying outstretched on the bier accepts the end of his life as a follower of Christ with the composure of a saint.

The commissioner of the painting, Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg, bestows honor upon the patron of his family the Hohenzollers of Brandenburg. In 1516 Albrecht had the remains of the saint transferred from Magdeburg to Halle to revive the cult of the saint; the panel may have been created for this reason. The coat-of-arms was added in 1518 or later - in 1518 Albrecht received the red hat - together with the insignia of a cardinal.'

[Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg 2007, 269, 270]

Attributions
Heinrich Vogtherr
Anonymous Master from the Cranach Workshop

Attributions

Heinrich Vogtherr

[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 142]
[Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg 2007, 269, 270]
'[Walter] Gräff' unpublished opinion and his interpretation of the monogram as that of 'Heinrich Vogtherr the Elder' (latin: Henricus Satrapitanus) was entered in the catalogue of 1932, only to be revised in the catalogue of 1933 ('Monogrammist H.S.').'
'Lucas Cranach the Elder (workshop, Heinrich Vogtherr the Elder)' [Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 287]
[Emmendörffer 1998, 207]

Anonymous Master from the Cranach Workshop

'In the catalogue from 1975 the painting was - also due to the provenance - classified under the group attributed to an 'Anonymous Master from the Cranach workshop', where it clearly does not belong.'
[Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg 2007, 270]
'Lucas Cranach the Elder (workshop, Heinrich Vogtherr the Elder)' [Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 287]

Simon Franck

[Tacke 1992, 33, 41-169]

Production date
1516

Production date

1516

[dated]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 97.2 x 80.2 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 97.2 x 80.2 cm

  • [Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 142]

Owner
Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
Repository
Staatsgalerie im Schloss Johannisburg, Aschaffenburg
Location
Aschaffenburg
CDA ID
DE_BStGS_6275
FR (1978) Nr.
FRSup005
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_BStGS_6275/

Provenance

  • originally in the St Magdalene Chapel of the Moritzburg, Halle [1]
  • presumably until 1541 in the collegial church, Halle
  • removed from the collegial church, Aschaffenburg in 1802/1803[1]
    [1] [Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg 2007, 269]

[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 142]

Exhibitions

Halle 2006, no. 72

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure/Plate
Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011 142
AuthorMartin Schawe
EditorBayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
TitleCranach in Bayern
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2011
Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg 2007 269-270 No. 13 Fig. p. 272
EditorGerhard Ermischer, Andreas Tacke
TitleCranach im Exil. Aschaffenburg um 1540. Zuflucht - Schatzkammer - Residenz. Ausstellungskatalog Schloss Johannisburg und Kunsthalle Jesuitenkirche
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2007
Frankhäuser 2007 205 Fig.9
AuthorGernot Frankhäuser
TitleWie Dalberg Grünewald suchte und Cranach fand. Zur Beschäftigung mit altdeutscher Malerei in Mainz und Aschaffenburg um 1800.
Publicationin Gerhard Ermischer, Andreas Tacke, eds., Cranach im Exil. Aschaffenburg um 1540. Zuflucht, Schatzkammer, Residenz, Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2007
Pages197-213
Schawe 2007 A 215, 221 Fig. 1
AuthorMartin Schawe
TitleCranach in Aschaffenburg. 1814 bis heute
Publicationin Gerhard Ermischer, Andreas Tacke, ed., Cranach im Exil- Aschafffenburg um 1540. Zuflucht, Schatzkammer, Residenz
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2007
Pages215-225
Schawe 2007 B 236, 239, 241 Figs. 12, 13
AuthorMartin Schawe
TitleVerborgene Meisterwerke. Die Unterzeichnungen auf den Cranach-Tafeln
Publicationin Gerhard Ermischer, Andreas Tacke, eds., Cranach im Exil - Aschafffenburg um 1540. Zuflucht, Schatzkammer, Residenz, Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2007
Pages235-241
Exhib. Cat. Halle 2006 157, 158 072 (see also no. 73) Pl. p. 160
EditorThomas Schauerte
TitleDer Kardinal Albrecht von Brandenburg. Renaissancefürst und Mäzen. Bd. 1: Katalog
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2006
Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005 287, 288 Fn.12 under No. 14 Fig. 128
EditorHarald Marx, Karin Kolb, Ingrid Mössinger
TitleCranach Anlässlich der Ausstellung Cranach vom 13. November 2005 bis 12. März 2006 in den Kunstsammlungen Chemnitz. Eine Ausstellung in Kooperation mit der Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication2005
Krischel 2003 18-22
AuthorRoland Krischel
TitleCranach in Köln. Zum 450. Todestag des Schnellmalers von Wittenberg
JournalKölner Museums-Bulletin
Issue2
Year of Publication2003
Pages4-22
Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg 2002 No. 159
EditorRainhard Riepertinger, Evamaria Brockhoff, Katharina Heinemann, Jutta Schumann
TitleDas Rätsel Grünewald [Schloss Johannisburg, Aschaffenburg]
Place of PublicationAugsburg
Year of Publication2002
Emmendörffer 1998 207, 208 Fig. 22.4
AuthorChristoph Emmendörffer
TitleDie selbständigen Cranachschüler
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages203-228
Müller 1997 No. 30
AuthorFrank Müller
TitleHeinrich Vogtherr l'Ancien. Un artiste entre Renaissance und Réforme
Place of PublicationWiesbaden
Year of Publication1997
Tacke 1992 33, 41-169
AuthorAndreas Tacke
TitleDer katholische Cranach. Zu zwei Großaufträgen von Lucas Cranach d. Ä., Simon Franck und der Cranach-Werkstatt (1520 - 1540)
SeriesBerliner Schriften zur Kunst
Volume2
Place of PublicationMainz
Year of Publication1992
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 No. Sup 5
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Cat. Aschaffenburg 1975 60-61
Authorn. a.
TitleBayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Galerie Aschaffenburg. Katalog
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication1975
Steinmann 1968 A 72f., 86
AuthorUlrich Steinmann
TitleDer Bilderschmuck der Stiftskirche zu Halle. Cranachs Passionszyklus und Grünewalds Erasmus-Mauritius-Tafel
SeriesForschungen und Berichte. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin
Volume11
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1968
Pages69 - 104

Description/ Interpretation/ Comments

'A 'verguldte tafell mitt der Marter Erasmj' (gilded panel depicting the martyr Erasmus) is recorded in the church inventory from 1525 on a pillar next to the Erasmus Altarpiece in the southern side nave of the collegial church (Stiftskirche) in Halle.'

[Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg 2007, 270]

  • The Martyrdom of St Erasmus, 1516

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Technical studies

2007Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
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Underdrawing

'The underdrawing of the painting depicting 'The Martyrdom of St Erasmus', which is attributed to Heinrich Vogtherr, has a very distinctive character. [1] It is an elaborate and readily visible brush drawing executed like an autonomous freehand drawing, but without completely defining forms: numerous alterations were made during the painting process, particularly to the onlookers in the background. The forth man from the left now wearing turban, had a cap on his head. The moor looking out of the picture beside the man on horseback with a visor was merely indicated as an amorphous figure; the small man in red originally wore a jester’s hat and had donkey’s ears and looked grumpily out of the image. The physiognomies of the onlookers on the balcony have all been changed: the man with a long beard, probably the Emperor Diocletian, originally wore a turban. The crown can therefore be interpreted as a revision made for the sake of historical accuracy. The figure standing beside him holding his beard, looked towards him - sympathetically ? - in the underdrawing. The portrait-like rendering of the clergyman to the right on the balcony was originally a stout, standardized figure.'

[1] I refer to: Iris Schaefer, Caroline von Saint-George, Zur Unterzeichnung von Gemälden Lucas Cranachs d. Ä. und seines Umkreises, in: Kölner Museums-Bulletin 2, 2003, 23-38, specifically 35-38

[Schawe 2007 B, 239, 240]

30.03.2006Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

Identification of wood species: lime wood (Tilia sp.)

  • analysed by Peter Klein

2006Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Materials:

- fluid, black medium and brush of varying widths

Type/Ductus:

- detailed and freehand underdrawing in two phases; the final underdrawing was executed over an initial design in a diluted medium

- thin to broader lines; darker, thin lines employed to define details

- hatching-strokes

- washes

Function:

- binding for the final painted version; lines delineate contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; representation of volume (washes and hatching-strokes)

Deviations:

- minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define form; corrections also between the first and second phase of the underdrawing; numerous changes (e.g. the lances behind the soldiers, the angels‘ heads surrounding Christ)

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Heinrich Vogtherr the Elder

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2013]

  • photographed by BStGS Doerner Institut

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'The Martyrdom of St Erasmus', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_BStGS_6275/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'The Martyrdom of St Erasmus', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_BStGS_6275/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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