Crucifixion of Christ with Saints

Crucifixion of Christ with Saints

Title

Crucifixion of Christ with Saints

[cda 2013]

Painting on fir

Medium

Painting on fir

[Mieth 1993, 28]

Gathered under the crucified Christ are on the left the Virgin and St John the Baptist, and on the right John the Evangelist and St Francis. In addition Mary Magdalene kneels at the bottom of the cross and looks up at Christ, while embracing the shaft of the cross and

Gathered under the crucified Christ are on the left the Virgin and St John the Baptist, and on the right John the Evangelist and St Francis. In addition Mary Magdalene kneels at the bottom of the cross and looks up at Christ, while embracing the shaft of the cross and holding her hands in an attitude of prayer. John the Baptist points at the Lamb of God visible in front of him and carrying the victory banner. Christ's corpse is covered with traces of blood, the tips of his loincloth waft out on either side and stand in contrast with the sky, which is dark in the upper third of the image, however the last rays of sunshine are still visible on the horizon.

[Görres, cda 2013]

Attributions
Lucas Cranach the Elder and Workshop
Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attributions

Lucas Cranach the Elder and Workshop

[Schade 1993 A, 22]

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Sandner 1998 B, 102]

Workshop of Lucas Cranach the Younger

[Harksen 1937, 42]

Production dates
about 1523
about 1564 - 1565

Production dates

about 1523

[Schade 1993 A, 22]

about 1520

[Sandner 1998 B, 90]

about 1564 - 1565

[Harksen 1937, 42]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 220 x 118.5 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 220 x 118.5 cm

  • [Mieth 1993, 28]

Signature / Dating
None
Inscriptions and Labels
- at the top of the cross: '.I.N.R.I.'

Inscriptions and Labels

Inscriptions, Badges:

  • - at the top of the cross: '.I.N.R.I.'
  • [cda 2013]
Owner
Ev. Kirchgemeinde St. Johannis und St. Marien, Dessau
Repository
Ev. Kirchgemeinde St. Johannis und St. Marien, Dessau
Location
Dessau
CDA ID
DE_JD_NONE-JD002
FR (1978) Nr.
FR-none
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_JD_NONE-JD002/

Provenance

  • from the Church of St Marien, Dessau
  • castle inventory from 1693: in a room before the salon near the winding stair: 'In der ersten Cammer darbey 1 große Schilderei des Nachtmahl des Herrn 1 große Schilderei mit dem Crucifix 1 große Schilderei mit dem Ölberg' [LHASA, Dessau, Abt, A 13 b, Nr. 10, Blatt 56][1]
  • since 1992 in the Johannis Church, Dessau
    [1][Melzer 2005, 57, Fn. 11]
    [cda 2013]

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure / Plate
Reinis 2020 82-84 Figs. 1, 2
AuthorAustra Reinis
TitleThe Historia vom Leiden, Sterben, Aufferstehung vnd Himelfart Christi of Margarethe, Princess of A n ha lt (1473 – 1530)
JournalThe Sixteenth Century Journal
IssueVol. LI, no. 1, Spring 2020
Year of Publication2020
Pages79-108
Reinis 2019 123 Figs. 1
AuthorAustra Reinis
TitleDie geistlichen Schriften der Fürstin Margarethe von Anhalt (1473-1530)
Publicationin Stadtarchiv Dessau-Roßlau, ed., Bücherwelten der Reformation. Die Bibliothek des Fürsten Georg III. von Anhalt. Eine wissenschaftliche Konferenz
Volume25
Place of PublicationDessau-Roßlau
Year of Publication2019
Pages123-157
Melzer 2015 20
AuthorReinhard Melzer
TitleDie Cranach-Ausstellung im Gotischen Haus in Wörlitz - eine Einführung
Publicationin Kulturstiftung Dessau-Wörlitz, ed., Cranach im Gotischen Haus in Wörlitz, Exhib. Cat. Wörlitz
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2015
Pages16-21
Rebmann 2015 218, 219, 222, 223
AuthorRuben Rebmann
TitleDas Geistliche Cabinet im Dessauer Residenzschloss (1665-1750). Eine Cranach-Sammlung der Vorgänger des Fürsten Leopold III. Friedrich Franz von Anhalt Dessau
Publicationin Kulturstiftung Dessau-Wörlitz, ed., Cranach im Gotischen Haus in Wörlitz, Exhib. Cat. Wörlitz
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2015
Pages217-228
Deutschländer 2013 206-207
AuthorGerrit Deutschländer
TitleDie Stadt- und Schlosskirche zu Dessau - ein Ort symbolischer Interaktion zwischen Hof und Bürgerschaft?
Publicationin Gerrit Deutschländer, Marc Höh, Andreas Ranft, eds., Symbolische Interaktion in der Residenzstadt des Spätmittelalters und der Frühen Neuzeit
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication2013
Pages199-220
Melzer 2005 48, 57, Fn. 11
AuthorReinhard Melzer
TitleCranach in Wörlitz. Das Gotische Haus als frühe Sammlungsstätte altdeutscher Malerei
Publicationin Harald Marx, Ingrid Mössinger, Karin Kolb, ed., Cranach. Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication2005
Pages44-58
Exhib. Cat. Eisenach 1998 102 under No. 11.2 Fig. 11.2d
EditorWartburg-Stiftung, Eisenach, Fachhochschule , Ingo Sandner
TitleUnsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen. Ausstellungskatalog und Tagungsband Katalogteil 1; 2: Werkstatt und Schüler Cranachs; 3: Süddeutsche Meister; 4: Albrecht Dürer und sein Kreis; 5: Rheinische Meister
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages229-240
Sandner 1998 B 90
AuthorIngo Sandner
TitleCranach als Zeichner auf dem Malgrund
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages83-95
Fritsche et. al. 1994
AuthorHiltrud Fritsche, Angela Günther, Ekkehard Koch, Andreas Mieth
TitleCranach-Projekt Dessau. Tafelbild "Kreuzigung". Dokumentation Teil III
Place of PublicationDessau
Year of Publication1994
Schade 1994 A 24-26
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleEine Altartafel zur Weihe der Marienkirche von 1523
JournalDessauer Kalender
Issue38
Year of Publication1994
Pages24-26
Mieth 1993 28-39
AuthorAndreas Mieth
TitleDie Restaurierung der Tafelgemälde
Publicationin Evangelisches Pfarramt St. Johannis und St. Marien, Dessau, ed., Bilder erleben. Tafelbilder Lucas Cranach des Älteren und des Jüngeren laden ein. St. Johanniskirche Dessau
Place of PublicationDessau
Year of Publication1993
Pages28-36
Schade 1993 A 21-27
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleDie drei Gemälde
Publicationin Evangelisches Pfarramt St. Johannis und St. Marien, Dessau, eds., Bilder erleben. Tafelbilder Lucas Cranach des Älteren und des Jüngeren laden ein. St. Johanniskirche Dessau
Place of PublicationDessau
Year of Publication1993
Pages21-27
Harksen 1937 42 74
AuthorMarie Luise Harksen
TitleDie Stadt Dessau
SeriesDie Kunstdenkmale des Landes Anhalt
Volume1
Place of PublicationBurg near Magdeburg
Year of Publication1937
  • Crucifixion of Christ with Saints, about 1523

Images

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Technical studies

07. 2013Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr
  • irr

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Materials:

- fluid, black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- freehand, relatively detailed underdrawing

- thin lines

- occasional hatching-strokes

Function:

- relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate contours and indicate the essential features; occasional representation of volume with hatching-strokes

Deviations:

- minor alterations made during the painting process; numerous small changes (e.g. the direction in in which the Virgin, St John and the Lamb of God are looking; st John’s hands and the position of the skull)

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder and/or workshop

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich revised 2014]

  • photographed by Gunnar Heydenreich
  • photographed by Ingo Sandner

1994Technical Examination

Support

- consists of 15 planks, butt-joined

- dovetail inserts at the front, not covered with canvas

[Fritsche et. al. 1994]

Ground and Imprimatura

smooth chalk/glue ground applied in a number of layers

[Fritsche et. al. 1994]

Underdrawing

- rapid and confident black (?) brushstrokes

- shadows indicated with economic hatching-strokes

- the ductus of the strokes indicating the hair suggest the hand of Cranach the Elder

- the Virgin's robe including the arrangement of the folds is incised in the ground

[Fritsche et. al. 1994]

Paint Layers and Gilding

- a lean tempera layer of azurite was applied over a black underpaint containing oil

- final glazes modulating the arrangement of the folds, in part deviate from the incised lines

[Fritsche et. al. 1994]

Framing

original frame with vine ornaments carved into the chalk ground and gilded with gold leaf over a red bole.

- the external ledge and the inner chamfer are black

[Mieth 1993, 35]

  • conservation treatment by Hiltrud Fritsche
  • conservation treatment by Angela Günther
  • conservation treatment by Ekkehard Koch
  • conservation treatment by Andreas Mieth

Condition Reports

Date1992

  • damaged, pitted, darken surface, particularly in the upper section

  • brittle, shrunk oil/chalk fill material barely bonding with the substrate

[Mieth 1993, 31]

  • examined by Hiltrud Fritsche
  • examined by Angela Günther
  • examined by Ekkehard Koch
  • examined by Andreas Mieth

Conservation History

Date1992

  • conservation of the paint layers, varnish thinned in the thickest areas, where necessary the overpaint was removed, brittle fills were replaced, sparingly retouched

  • a cleaning test was carried out on the left half of the 'INRI' inscription, all the fills were removed and replaced and retouched with fine lines

  • the original surface of the frame was uncovered and it was restored

  • a protective backing of aluminium and arcylic was attached

[Mieth 1993, 28, 31, 35]

  • conservation treatment by Hiltrud Fritsche
  • conservation treatment by Angela Günther
  • conservation treatment by Ekkehard Koch
  • conservation treatment by Andreas Mieth

Date1821

a thick white oil coating was applied to the reverse to protect against woodworm

[Mieth 1993, 28]

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'Crucifixion of Christ with Saints', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_JD_NONE-JD002/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'Crucifixion of Christ with Saints', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_JD_NONE-JD002/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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