The Altarpiece of the Holy Kinship [central panel]

The Altarpiece of the Holy Kinship [central panel]

Titles

The Altarpiece of the Holy Kinship [central panel]

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, No. 18]

The so-called 'Torgauer Altar' [central panel]

[CDA 2011]

Painting on lime wood

Medium

Painting on lime wood

[Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2008, 154, No. 19]
[Cat. Frankfurt 2005, 204-225]
[Klein, Report 1993]

The central panel depicts Joseph, the Virgin, Anna and the Christ Child as well as Anna's three husbands in the background: Joachim, Cleophas (with the physiognomy of Emperor Maximilian I) and Salomas (with the physiognomy of Sixtus Oelhafens).

The Holy Kinship is shown in a large room with high ceilings, bluish

The central panel depicts Joseph, the Virgin, Anna and the Christ Child as well as Anna's three husbands in the background: Joachim, Cleophas (with the physiognomy of Emperor Maximilian I) and Salomas (with the physiognomy of Sixtus Oelhafens).

The Holy Kinship is shown in a large room with high ceilings, bluish grey plastered walls and a tiled floor in three colours. In the foreground a profiled stone bench stretches across the entire width of the room. On the right and left edges it supports two marble columns. At the top of the panel a larger cloth with black and red patterned gold brocade has been hung between the columns. In the middle distance a gallery juts into the centre of the room. Its frieze is decorated with six putti and the coats-of-arms of six electors are interspersed between them. There is a window on the left of the back wall.

The Virgin sits in the foreground on a stone bench wearing a blue robe and Anna sits next to her in a red dress. Anna holds the Christ Child on her right knee. The Child turns towards the Virgin, who offers him an apple with her right hand and holds a book in her left hand. Behind the Virgin Joseph is seated asleep on the floor.

Three other figures stand in the gallery. The man standing on the left (probably Joachim) in timeless clothing looks towards the group of women. The other two wear contemporary dress and converse with each other.

Two boys stand on the left in the foreground. The elder of the two (Simon) wears a green and red striped robe and in his right hand he holds a walking stick over his shoulder from which a basket filled with apples and grapes hangs. He turns from the frontal position slightly to the left, towards his younger brother (Judas), who reaches for the basket with his right hand. He pulls a sledge made from twigs and filled with apples with his left hand. A brown dachshund cowers on the ground to the right.

[see Cat. Frankfurt 2005, 204-225]

Attribution
Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attribution

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2008, 154, No. 19]
[Cat. Frankfurt 2005, 204-225]
[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, 70-71, No. 18]

Production date
1509

Production date

1509

[dated]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 121.1 x 100.4 x 0.5 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 121.1 x 100.4 x 0.5 cm

  • [Cat. Frankfurt 2005, 204-225]

  • Dimensions of painted surface: 120.6 x 99.3 cm

  • [Cat. Frankfurt 2005, 204-225]

Signature / Dating
Artist's insignia on the plaque attached to the right column: 'LVCAS CHRONVS FACIEBAT ANNO 1509'

Signature / Dating

  • Artist's insignia on the plaque attached to the right column: 'LVCAS CHRONVS FACIEBAT ANNO 1509'

  • [Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2008, No. 19]

  • [Cat. Frankfurt 2005, 204-225]

  • [Friedländer, Rosenberg, 70-71, No. 18]

Inscriptions and Labels
Reverse of the panel: - top: in blue: '7359' - top third: in pencil: 'Inv.N. 1398'

Inscriptions and Labels

Stamps, Seals, Labels:

  • Reverse of the panel:
  • - top: in blue: '7359'
  • - top third:
  • in pencil: 'Inv.N. 1398'
  • [Cat. Frankfurt 2005, 204-225]
Owner
Städel Museum Frankfurt a.M.
Repository
Städel Museum Frankfurt a.M.
Location
Frankfurt am Main
CDA ID
DE_SMF_1398A
FR (1978) Nr.
FR018
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_SMF_1398A/

Provenance

      • 28.06.1906 auction of the Molinier Collection at Brame in Paris (No. 136), acquired by the Städel with financial assistance from the City of Frankfurt, private patrons and friends, the Städelschen Museums-Vereins and the Carl Schaub'schen Stiftung
        [Cat. Frankfurt 2005, 204-225]

Exhibitions

Frankfurt a. M. 2008, No. 19

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure/Plate
Price 2017 20
AuthorDavid H. Price
TitleLucas Cranach e la Riforma
Publicationin Francesca de Luca, Giovanni Maria Fara, eds., I volti della Riforma. Lutero e Cranach nelle collezioni medicee , Exhib. Cat. Florence, 2017
Place of PublicationFlorence, Milan
Year of Publication2017
Pages12-27
Wegmann 2017 22, 23 Fig. 4
AuthorSusanne Wegmann
TitleDer selbstbewusste Maler. Lucas Cranach der Ältere im Selbstbildnis
Publicationin Gunnar Heydenreich, Daniel Görres, Beat Wismer, eds., Lucas Cranach der Ältere. Meister - Marke - Moderne. [Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017]
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2017
Pages20-27
Bonnet, Görres 2015 30-33 8 p. 30, 31
AuthorAnne-Marie Bonnet, Daniel Görres
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. - Maler der Deutschen Renaissance
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2015
Trümper 2015 20, 24 Fig. 4
AuthorTimo Trümper
TitleInszenierungsstrategien der Ernestiner
Publicationin Julia Carrasco, Justus Lange, Benjamin D. Spira, Timo Trümper, Stiftung Schloss Friedenstein Gotha and Museumslandschaft Hessen Kassel, eds., Bild und Botschaft. Cranach im Dienst von Hof und Reformation, [Exhib. Cat. Gotha, Kassel]
Place of PublicationHeidelberg
Year of Publication2015
Pages17-28
Bonnet, Kopp-Schmidt, Görres 2010 146-149 8
AuthorAnne-Marie Bonnet, Gabriele Kopp-Schmidt, Daniel Görres
TitleDie Malerei der deutschen Renaissance
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2010
Borchert 2010 28, 29 21
AuthorTill-Holger Borchert
TitleCranach der Ältere in den Niederlanden
Publicationin Guido Messling, ed., Die Welt des Lucas Cranach. Ein Künstler im Zeitalter von Dürer, Tizian und Metsys, Exhib. Cat. Brussels
Place of PublicationBrussels
Year of Publication2010
Pages26-29
Heydenreich 2010 A 66
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleReisende Bilder im Wandel
Publicationin Guido Messling, ed., Die Welt des Lucas Cranach. Ein Künstler im Zeitalter von Dürer, Tizian und Metsys, Exhib. Cat. Brussels
Place of PublicationBrussels
Year of Publication2010
Pages66-79
Müller 2010 64
AuthorMatthias Müller
Title"Menschen so zu malen, daß sie erkannt werden und zu leben scheinen" Naturnachahmung als Problem in Lucas Cranachs höfischer Porträtmalerei
Publicationin: Apelles am Fürstenhof. Facetten der Hofkunst um 1500 im Alten Reich Exhib. Cat. Coburg 2010
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication2010
Pages57-73
Wimböck 2010 B 87
AuthorGabriele Wimböck
TitleUm Glaube und Kunst. Religiöse Kunst um 1500 und ihre Künstler
Publicationin: Apelles am Fürstenhof. Facetten der Hofkunst um 1500 im Alten Reich Exhib. Cat. Coburg 2010
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication2010
Pages81-89
Brinkmann 2007 19
AuthorBodo Brinkmann
TitleDas Lächeln der Madonna. Lucas Cranach und die Folgen
Publicationin Bodo Brinkmann, ed., Cranach der Ältere, Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Pages17-27
Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007 154-158 19 pp. 154, 156-157
EditorBodo Brinkmann
TitleCranach der Ältere, [Frankfurt, Städel Museum, 23 Nov 2007 - 17 Feb 2008]
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Heydenreich 2007 B 39-40 16, 25
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
Title"... dass Du mit wunderbarer Schnelligkeit malest". Virtuosität und Effizienz in der künstlerischen Praxis Lucas Cranachs d. Ä.
Publicationin Bodo Brinkmann, ed., Cranach der Ältere, Exhib. Cat. FrankfurtA
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Pages29-47
Schade 2007 91, 92, 94 1
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleCranachs Berührung durch die Niederlande. Antinomien einer Reisebetrachtung
Publicationin Bodo Brinkmann, ed., Cranach der Ältere, Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Pages91-97
Cat. Frankfurt 2005 204-225
AuthorStephan Kemperdick, Bodo Brinkmann
EditorStädelsches Kunstinstitut
TitleDeutsche Gemälde im Städel 1500-1550
Place of PublicationMainz
Year of Publication2005
Exhib. Cat. Prague 2005 60 (English version 27) under no. 7
EditorObrazárna Pražského hradu, Kaliopi Chamonikola
TitlePod znamením okrídleného hada. Lucas Cranach a ceské zeme. Under the winged Serpent. Lucas Cranach and the Czech Land
Place of PublicationPrague
Year of Publication2005
Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003 168, 170
EditorBucerius Kunst Forum, Werner Schade
TitleLucas Cranach. Glaube, Mythologie und Moderne [Bucerius Kunst Forum, Hamburg]
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Schade 2003 16, 17 Fig. 13
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleBildhaftigkeit bei Cranach
Publicationin Heiz Spielmann, Werner Schade, eds., Lucas Cranach Glaube Mythologie und Maderne , Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Pages12-21
Exhib. Cat. Eisenach 1998 147 No. 16.7a-c
EditorWartburg-Stiftung, Eisenach, Fachhochschule , Ingo Sandner
TitleUnsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen. Ausstellungskatalog und Tagungsband Katalogteil 1; 2: Werkstatt und Schüler Cranachs; 3: Süddeutsche Meister; 4: Albrecht Dürer und sein Kreis; 5: Rheinische Meister
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages229-240
Grimm 1998 73, 77
AuthorClaus Grimm
TitleDie Anteile von Meister und Werkstatt. Zum Fall Lucas Cranach d.Ä.
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages67-82
Heydenreich 1998 A 187 Fig. 21.4b
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleHerstellung, Grundierung und Rahmung der Holzbildträger in den Werkstätten Lucas Cranachs d.Ä.
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages181-200
Sandner 1998 B 88, 90, 91
AuthorIngo Sandner
TitleCranach als Zeichner auf dem Malgrund
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages83-95
Wittmann 1998 169
AuthorJan Wittmann
TitleDie Bedeutung des Marienbildes im Schaffen Cranachs
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Link http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/artdok/volltexte/2012/2050
Pages169-180
Cat. Kassel 1997 56, 62
AuthorAnja Schneckenburger-Broschek
EditorStaatliche Museen Kassel
TitleAltdeutsche Malerei. Die Tafelbilder und Altäre des 14. bis 16. Jahrhunderts in der Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister und im Hessischen Landesmuseum Kassel. Bestandskatalog staatliche Museen Kassel
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication1997
Ritschel 1996 7-26
AuthorIris Ritschel
TitleDer Frankfurter "Annenaltar" von Lucas Cranach dem Älteren aus dem Jahre 1509: ein Werk aus der Marienkirche zu Torgau?
SeriesKleine Schriften des Torgauer Geschichtsvereins
Volume6
Place of PublicationTorgau
Year of Publication1996
Pages7-26
Ritschel 1995 38-62
AuthorIris Ritschel
TitleDas Gemälde "Die Vierzehn Nothelfer" und "Christus als Schmerzensmann" in der Marienkirche zu Torgau
JournalDenkmalpflege in Sachsen: Mitteilungen des Landesamtes für Denkmalpflege Sachsen
Year of Publication1995
Pages38-62
Schade 1994 B 13
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleCranach in Umrissen
Publicationin Allmuth Schuttwolf, ed., Gotteswort und Menschenbild. Werke von Cranach und seinen Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Gotha
Place of PublicationGotha
Year of Publication1994
Pages13-14
Thümmel 1994 170
AuthorHans Georg Thümmel
TitleLucas Cranachs Prager Altar
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhoff, eds., Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Coburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages166-173
Hinz 1993 32-34
AuthorBerthold Hinz
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä.
Place of PublicationReinbek near Hamburg
Year of Publication1993
Lübbeke 1991 199-200
AuthorSammlung Thyssen-Bornemisza, Isolde Lübbeke
TitleThe Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection. Early German painting 1350-1550
Place of PublicationLondon
Year of Publication1991
Löcher 1985 B 35
AuthorKurt Löcher
TitleBildnismalerei des späten Mittelalters und der Renaissance in Deutschland
Publicationin I. Lübbeke and B. Bushart, Altdeutsche Bilder der Sammlung Georg Schäfer Schweinfurt
Place of PublicationSchweinfurt
Year of Publication1985
Pages31-56
Andersson 1981 43-79
AuthorChristiane D. Anderson
TitleReligiöse Bilder Cranachs im Dienste der Reformation
Publicationin L.W. Spitz, ed., Humanismus und Reformation als kulturelle Kräfte in der Deutschen Geschichte
Place of PublicationBerlin, New York
Year of Publication1981
Pages43-76
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 70, 71 No. 18 Fig. 18
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Wirth 1977 93
AuthorJean Wirth
TitleCranach reconsidéré
JournalRevue de l'art
Issue37
Year of Publication1977
Pages83-99
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 20, 76, 77, 683, 753 Fig. 24
AuthorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Koepplin 1974 A 25-34
AuthorDieter Koepplin
TitleZwei Fürstenbildnisse Cranachs von 1509
JournalPantheon
Issue32
Year of Publication1974
Pages25-34
Schade 1974 28-30, 40, 55-56, 66
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleDie Malerfamilie Cranach
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1974
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schade1974
Ullmann 1974 7
AuthorErnst Ullmann
TitleLucas Cranach der Ältere. Maler und Werk
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1974
Hütt 1973 346
AuthorWolfgang Hütt
TitleDeutsche Malerei und Graphik der frühbürgerlichen Revolution
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1973
Hintzenstern 1972 53-55
AuthorHerbert von Hintzenstern
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. Altarbilder aus der Reformationszeit
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1972
Strieder 1966 8
AuthorPeter Strieder
TitleDeutsche Malerei in der Dürerzeit
Place of PublicationKönigstein i. Taunus
Year of Publication1966
Mitgau 1963 551
AuthorMane Mitgau
TitleDie Heilige Sippe in Legende und Darstellung
JournalGenealogie
Issue12
Year of Publication1963
Pages546-551
Ruhmer 1963 6, 13, 83
AuthorEberhard Ruhmer
TitleCranach
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication1963
Lüdecke 1953 B 40
AuthorHeinz Lüdecke
TitleLucas Cranach der Ältere. Der Künstler und seine Zeit
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1953
Posse 1943 15-16, 53-54
AuthorHans Posse
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä.
Place of PublicationVienna
IssueSecond edition
Year of Publication1943
Lilienfein 1942 30-31
AuthorHeinrich Lilienfein
TitleLukas Cranach und seine Zeit
Place of PublicationBielefeld
Year of Publication1942
Posse 1942 15-16, 53-54
AuthorHans Posse
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä.
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1942
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 018
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Mielsch 1923 20-23
AuthorRudolf Mielsch
TitleDer Torgauer Altar des Lucas Cranach
JournalTorgauer Kreiskalender
Issue8 (1923)
Year of Publication1923
Heyck 1908 17, 59-60, 64
AuthorEduard Heyck
TitleLukas Cranach
SeriesKünstlermonographien
Volume95
Place of PublicationBielefeld
Year of Publication1908
Link https://archive.org/details/lukascranach01heycgoog
Swarzenski 1907 49-65
AuthorGeorg Swarzenski
TitleCranachs Altarbild von 1509 im Städelschen Kunstinstitut zu Frankfurt/M
JournalMünchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst
Issue2
Year of Publication1907
Pages49-65
Rieffel 1906 269-273
AuthorFranz Rieffel
TitleDer neue Cranach in der Sammlung des Städelschen Kunstinstitutes
JournalZeitschrift für bildende Kunst. Kunstchronik
IssueN.F. 17=41.1906
Year of Publication1906
Pages269-273

Description/ Interpretation/ Comments

The altar was evidently first mentioned in the literature after the auction in Paris. The authorship and date were already unquestioned due to the conspicuous signature. However lack of knowledge about the legend of the Trinubium lead to an incorrect identification of the depicted figures.

[Cat. Frankfurt 2005, 204-225]

Swarzenski considers the retable to have been commissioned by Friedrich the Wise and Johann the Steadfast, because on the wings both men are depicted in official attire and the electoral saxon coats-of-arms decorate the balustrade of the gallery. Furthermore he identifies the men on the gallery as Emperor Maximilian (centre), the Imperial Councillor (kaiserlicher Rat) Sixtus Oelhafen (right) and the artist (left). According to Swarzenski further portaits are visible in the face of the boy wearing a skirt on the left edge of the central panel, who he believes to be Prince Johann Friedrich and in the face of St Anna on the verso of the right wing, which he identifies as the boy’s mother Sophia of Mecklenburg.

Swarzenki’s presumption about the original function of the altar is based on these possible identifications.

In 1505 Friedrich the Wise and Johann the Steadfast commissioned an Altar for the Marienkirche in Torgau in memory of Sophia of Mecklenburg, who died while giving birth to her son. The church was dedicated to St Anna and the Fourteen Helpers. A panel painting by Lucas Cranach depicting the ‘Fourteen Helpers’ is preserved here and is associated with this altar. Despite stylistic differences Swarzenski identified it as the predella of the present altar, which he considers to be the lost Anna Altar.

Since then this interpretation, particularly the association with the ‚Fourteen Helpers‘, has due to the existing inconsistencies been repeatedly questioned as has the identification of Johann Friedrich and Sophia of Mecklenburg. However the identification of both donors and Emperor Maximilian has remained undisputed. Their roles within the sacred context appear appropriate: Friedrich the Wise and his brother pose as son-in-laws of the emperor and as such loyal follower of Maximilian.

[Cat. Frankfurt 2005, 204-225]

Since this proposal by Swarzenski the term „Torgauer Altar“ has been adopted in the literature. However an optical reconstruction of the Torgau ‚Fourteen Helpers‘ with the Frankfurt triptych was never attempted. This has confirmed the opinion of Schade, Koepplin and Ritschel, that such an assembly is impossible. Neither the absolute format, nor the style nor the scale of the figures is compatible.

[Cat. Frankfurt 2005, 204-225]

Cranach’s signature on this altar is unique in his oeuvre and an extensive interpretation of it was written by Eduard Heyck. [see Heyck 1908, 16-18]

[Cat. Frankfurt 2005, 204-225]

  • The Altarpiece of the Holy Kinship [central panel], 1509

Images

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Technical studies

07. 2011Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Materials:

- fluid, black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- freehand underdrawing

- thin lines; occasional hatching-strokes

Function:

- relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; some representation of volume (hatching-strokes)

Deviations:

- minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define form

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]

  • photographed by Gunnar Heydenreich
  • photographed by Ingo Sandner

2005Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail

Support

- six planks, aligned horizontally

- height from top to bottom: plank I – left 22.0 cm, right 28.0 cm; plank II – left 28.3 cm, right 26.0 cm; plank III – left and right 25.5 cm; plank IV – left 12.7 cm, right 14.0 cm; plank V – left 13.0 cm, right 12.8 cm; plank VI – left 19.0 cm, right 14.5 cm

Underdrawing

- the underdrawing is visible with the naked eye in areas of the flesh paint that have been overcleaned, it is clearly visible in the infrared reflectograph under the paint layers containing yellow and mid-blue pigments, and is less apparent under the red layers

- a few freehand brushstrokes describe the forms; light and shadow are not considered, a curved surface is occasionally marked with hatching-strokes

- the contours, main line of the inner forms and the folds of numerous figures appear to have been indicated with broad brushstrokes

Paint Layers and Gilding

- there is a black painted line c. 0.5-1.0 cm along the left, right and bottom edges (no longer preserved along the top)

- the haloes were executed employing gold leaf

Framing

Modern

[Cat. Frankfurt 2005, 204-225]

2000Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
  • analysis
  • analysis
  • analysis
  • analysis

CDA ID/Inventory Number: DE_SMF_1398A

Cross-section number: EP 103

Paint description: red robe, Anna

Sample location: central panel, Anna, red robe

Sample number: 124

Examination method: microscopy

Observations:

1. red applied in two layers with different red and single white pigments, in UV-light the particles exhibit different fluorescence: there are different pigments in the lower layer a) red crystalline particles, dark red in UV-light, b) less pale glassy/amorphous particles, pale yellow in UV; in the upper layer a) a few red crystalline particles, dark red in UV, b) semi-transparent dark red inclusions predominate, fluorescing orange in UV-light, probably a red lake ?, c) some amorphous white glassy particles

0. the ground is missing

Comments: The robe was underpainted with an intense vermilion red paint and then completed with the application of paint containing a high quantity of red lake. Only a scant amount of white (lead white?) is present.

  • examined by Gunnar Heydenreich

2000Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
  • analysis

CDA ID/Inventory Number: DE_SMF_1398A

Cross-section number: EP 102

Paint description: yellow robe

Sample location: central panel, Joachim’s yellow robe

Sample number: 123

Examination method: microscopy

Observations:

2. transparent layers > 1-2 varnish layers

1. yellow layer: yellow pigmented layer with a single large red pigment particle > yellow robe

0. white layer, just remnants > ground

  • examined by Gunnar Heydenreich

1994 - 2000Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
  • analysis
  • analysis
  • analysis
  • analysis
  • analysis

CDA ID/Inventory Number: DE_SMF_1398A

Cross-section number: EP 101

Paint description: brown curtain with red

Sample location: central panel, top edge, curtain

Sample number: 122

Examination methods: microscopy, SEM-EDX

Observations:

1. reddish brown layer with vermilion, white and glassy splintery brown pigments (brown iron oxide), as well as glassy brown amorphous slightly lighter inclusions (organic, no Fe, no Si) EDX: matrix Fe, Pb, Hg) lead white, vermilion, brown iron oxide, that is to say brown iron oxide and a brown organic material with a fluorescence (brown resin?, it differs from the transparent brown with no fluorescence) and some soot black >paint from the curtain

0-1. white layer, crystalline with glassy and light brown inclusions, appears to be a descrete layer, whiter than the layer beneath, possibly a second application, in UV light the glassy inclusions appear slightly lighter> ground

0. white layer, crystalline > ground

Comments: the ground probably consists of two layers: the lower layer appears greyish, while the upper layer is whiter and exhibits slightly brownish inclusions. In UV-light both layers appear very similar. A pigmented imprimatura is not present. Layer 1. is an admixture of different pigments (lead white, vermilion, iron oxide brown and an organic brown material, that differs both in composition and UV-fluorescence from the iron oxide brown.)

  • examined by Gunnar Heydenreich

1994Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • UV-light photography
  • uv_light
  • uv_light
  • photographed by Gunnar Heydenreich

1994Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Other imaging techniques

False-colour-infrared-image

  • photographed by Gunnar Heydenreich

20.01.1993Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

Identification of wood species: lime wood

  • analysed by Peter Klein

Condition Reports

Date2005

  • the central panel has been thinned and laminated onto a beech wood panel, which was cradled

  • the top edge has been trimmed slightly

  • numerous point retouches cover the entire surface of the painting, particularly on the lower two thirds of the panel

  • the flesh paint has been overcleaned in numerous figures, in St Anna's face the paint layers are partially abraded, revealing the ground layer

  • extensive damage within a horizontal band 10-19 cm in height across the entire width of the panel. This damage was obviously caused by the dimensional change of the support. It runs from the pedestal of the left column, through the Virgin's robe on the balustrade, at knee height through the book and the Virgin's left hand, it continues below Christ's shoulder, between the upper arm and knee of the figure of Anna to the pedestal of the right column; in this area the paint layer consists essentially of retouching

  • a less extensively retouched, but very overcleaned strip of c. 8 cm in height extends over the entire width of the painting at the height of the frieze on the gallery, the haloes have almost completely disappeared and have been reconstructed with shell-gold and brown shadow

[Cat. Frankfurt 2005, 204-225]

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'The Altarpiece of the Holy Kinship [central panel]', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_SMF_1398A/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'The Altarpiece of the Holy Kinship [central panel]', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_SMF_1398A/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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