Rest on the Flight into Egypt

Rest on the Flight into Egypt

Titles

Rest on the Flight into Egypt

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, 67, no. 10]]

The Holy Family

[Koepplin, Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974, 127]

Painting on lime wood (Tilia sp.)

Medium

Painting on lime wood (Tilia sp.)

[Klein, Report 2013]
[Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]

Rest on the Flight into Egypt. The Virgin, who wears a red robe, sits with the infant Christ in a mountainous landscape. Eight angels perform music and play beside her. Joseph stands behind them supported by a stick and holding his hat in front of his chest.

[Gemäldegalerie Berlin, Unsinn 2010]

Attribution
Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attribution

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, 67, no. 10]
[Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]

Production date
1504

Production date

1504

[dated]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 70.9 x 53 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 70.9 x 53 cm

  • Dimensions including frame: 100.8 x 79.5 cm

  • [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]

  • Dimensions of support: 70.5-70.8 x 51.9-52.7 x 1.5 cm (including cradle: 2.5 cm)

  • Original size: c. 71 x 53 cm

  • Dimensions of the painted surface: 70-70.2 x 51.6-52.2 cm

  • Dimensions including frame: c. 99.5 x 79 x 13 cm

  • [Undine Köhler, Gemäldegalerie Berlin, August 2010]

Signature / Dating
Artist's insignia on two labels on a tree trunk: 'LC' (linked) and dated '1504'

Signature / Dating

  • Artist's insignia on two labels on a tree trunk: 'LC' (linked) and dated '1504'

Inscriptions and Labels
Reverse of the panel: - top left: in paint '6' - bottom left: small label, legible upsidedown: '778' Central batten glued to the …

Inscriptions and Labels

Stamps, Seals, Labels:

  • Reverse of the panel: - top left:
  • in paint '6'
  • - bottom left:
  • small label, legible upsidedown: '778'
  • Central batten glued to the reverse:
  • - centre:
  • label with stamp: 'Zollamt Wiesbaden Hauptbahnhof'
  • - beneath:
  • label: 'Staatliche Museen Berlin-Gemäldegalerie Inv.Nr. IV 512/ 564A/ Cranach Ruhe auf der Flucht'
  • [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]
  • - top left:
  • red wax seal (probably Napoleon)
  • - top right:
  • Paper label with a serrated edge, handwritten, red pen: '718'
  • - beneath:
  • in red paint: '(illegible) 4'
  • - bottom right:
  • Handwritten in red paint: '9' (or the other way around 6 (?), the rest is illegible)
  • - at the top of the vertical bar attached to the reverse:
  • Paper label, in black print or handwritten: 'Staatliche Museen Berlin Gem. - (/) Inv. Nr. /V512 (/) 564A (/) Cranach d.Ä. Ruhe auf der Flucht'
  • - centre:
  • Paper label, in green print: 'zollamtlich (/) abgefertigt'
  • blue stamp: 'Zollamt Wiesbaden Hauptbahnhof'
  • Lion and paper label in black print: 'Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz (/) Gemäldegalerie Berlin (/) Kat. Nr. 584A (/) CRANACH, Lucas d.Ä. (/) Ruhe auf der Flucht'
  • [Undine Köhler, Gemäldegalerie Berlin, August 2010]
Owner
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
Repository
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
Location
Berlin
CDA ID
DE_smbGG_564A
FR (1978) Nr.
FR010
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_smbGG_564A/

Provenance

  • 1873 Galleria Sciara, Rome
  • before 17 April, 1893 in the collection of Konrad Fiedler, Munich
    [Lichtwark 1924, 133, 134]
  • 1902 acquired by the Staatlichen Museen Berlin from the heir of K. Fiedler's estate, Frau Dr. Fiedler-Levi, Partenkirchen
    [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]

Exhibitions

Dresden 1899, No. 1
Berlin 1937, 14, No. 8
Berlin 1973, 13, No. 1, Fig. 11

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure/Plate
Bonnet, Görres 2015 24-25 6 p. 25
AuthorAnne-Marie Bonnet, Daniel Görres
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. - Maler der Deutschen Renaissance
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2015
Bonnet, Kopp-Schmidt, Görres 2010 140-141 6
AuthorAnne-Marie Bonnet, Gabriele Kopp-Schmidt, Daniel Görres
TitleDie Malerei der deutschen Renaissance
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2010
Coliva 2010 35
AuthorAnna Coliva
TitleLa presenza della Venere e Cupido che ruba il favo di miele di Cranach nella collezione di Scipione Borghese; The presence of Cranach's Venus with Cupid the Honey Thief in the Scipione Borghese Collection
Publicationin Anna Coliva, Bernhard Aikema, eds., Cranach l'altro rinascimento, a different Renaissance, Exhib. Cat. Rome
Place of PublicationMilan
Year of Publication2010
Pages34 - 37
Exhib. Cat. Brussels 2010 104
EditorBozarbooks & Lannoo, Guido Messling
TitleDie Welt des Lucas Cranach. Ein Künstler im Zeitalter von Dürer, Tizian und Metsys [anlässlich der Ausstellung "Die Welt des Lucas Cranach", Palast der Schönen Künste, Brüssel, 20. Oktober 2010 - 23. Januar 2011]
Place of PublicationBrussels
Year of Publication2010
Messling 2010 20, 21 16
AuthorGuido Messling
TitleBlicke auf Cranach
Publicationin Guido Messling, ed., Die Welt des Lucas Cranach. Ein Künstler im Zeitalter von Dürer, Tizian und Metsys, Exhib. Cat. Brussels
Place of PublicationBrussels
Year of Publication2010
Pages12-25
Brinkmann 2007 18, 22 4
AuthorBodo Brinkmann
TitleDas Lächeln der Madonna. Lucas Cranach und die Folgen
Publicationin Bodo Brinkmann, ed., Cranach der Ältere, Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Pages17-27
Evans 2007 51
AuthorMark Evans
Title"Die Italiener, sonst so ruhmsüchtig, bieten Dir die Hand": Lucas Cranach und die Kunst des Humanismus
Publicationin Bodo Brinkmann, ed., Cranach der Ältere, Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Pages49-61
Heydenreich 2007 A 27, 39, 55, 97, 105, 107, 124, 187, 198, 306, 393 Figs. 29, 52, 71, 89, 101, 160, 175, 176
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleLucas Cranach the Elder
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
Year of Publication2007
Link https://lucascranach.org/application/files/6116/2097/3099/Heydenreich_2007_Lucas_Cranach_the_Elder.pdf
Heydenreich 2007 B 35-36 11
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
Title"... dass Du mit wunderbarer Schnelligkeit malest". Virtuosität und Effizienz in der künstlerischen Praxis Lucas Cranachs d. Ä.
Publicationin Bodo Brinkmann, ed., Cranach der Ältere, Exhib. Cat. FrankfurtA
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Pages29-47
Kolb 2005 A 141, 170 Fn. 137
AuthorKarin Kolb
TitleCranach - Die Gemälde in Dresden und ihre Geschichte
Publicationin Harald Marx, Ingrid Mössinger, Karin Kolb, eds., Cranach. Gemälde aus Dresden, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication2005
Pages112-173
Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003 168
EditorBucerius Kunst Forum, Werner Schade
TitleLucas Cranach. Glaube, Mythologie und Moderne [Bucerius Kunst Forum, Hamburg]
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Koepplin 2003 C 154, 164, Fn. 61
AuthorDieter Koepplin
TitleEin Cranach-Prinzip
Publicationin Heinz Spielmann, Werner Schade, eds., Lucas Cranach. Glaube, Mythologie und Moderne, Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Pages144-165
Heiser 2002 32, 112-119 Figs. 1, 83, 84, 85
AuthorSabine Heiser
TitleDas Frühwerk Lucas Cranachs des Älteren. Wien um 1500 - Dresden um 1900
SeriesNeue Forschungen zur Deutschen Kunst
Volume6
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication2002
Cat. Berlin 1998 86
AuthorHenning Bock
EditorStaatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
TitleGemäldegalerie Berlin: 200 Meisterwerke
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1998
Heydenreich 1998 A 182, 194, 195 Figs. 21.14, 21.15
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleHerstellung, Grundierung und Rahmung der Holzbildträger in den Werkstätten Lucas Cranachs d.Ä.
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages181-200
Sandner 1998 A 52, 53 Figs. 7.1, 7.2
AuthorIngo Sandner
TitleZeichengeräte um 1500
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages51-60
Sandner 1998 B 84, 85
AuthorIngo Sandner
TitleCranach als Zeichner auf dem Malgrund
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages83-95
Wittmann 1998 169
AuthorJan Wittmann
TitleDie Bedeutung des Marienbildes im Schaffen Cranachs
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Link http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/artdok/volltexte/2012/2050
Pages169-180
Cat. Berlin 1996 34 Fig. 60
AuthorRainald Grosshans, Henning Bock
EditorStaatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
TitleGemäldegalerie Berlin. Gesamtverzeichnis
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1996
Erichsen 1994 B 180
AuthorJohannes Erichsen
TitleVorlagen und Werkstattmodelle bei Lucas Cranach
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhof, eds., Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26/94
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Coburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages180-185
Klein 1994 A 195 Tab. 1
AuthorPeter Klein
TitleLucas Cranach und seine Werkstatt. Holzarten und dendrochronologische Analyse
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhoff, eds.,Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Coburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages194-200
Sandner, Ritschel 1994 187
AuthorIngo Sandner, Iris Ritschel
TitleArbeitsweise und Maltechnik Lucas Cranachs und seiner Werkstatt
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhoff, eds., Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Coburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages186-193
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 68 No. 10 Fig. 10
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 123, 127, 156, 443, 523, 526, 528-529, 552 under No. 53, 56, 372, 375, 414
AuthorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Schade 1974 Plates 20, 21
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleDie Malerfamilie Cranach
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1974
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schade1974
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1973 13 No. 1 Fig. 11
AuthorWilhelm H. Köhler, Frank Steigerwald
TitleLucas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Druckgraphik
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1973
Ruhmer 1963 Plate 7
AuthorEberhard Ruhmer
TitleCranach
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication1963
Exhib. Cat. Weimar, Wittenberg 1953 No. 81
AuthorWalther Scheidig
EditorDeutsche Lucas Cranach Komitee
TitleLucas Cranach Ausstellung. Weimar und Wittenberg
Place of PublicationWeimar, Wittenberg
Year of Publication1953
Lüdecke 1953 A 133 Plate 3
AuthorHeinz Lüdecke
TitleLucas Cranach der Ältere im Spiegel seiner Zeit. Aus Urkunden, Chroniken, Briefen, Reden und Gedichten
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1953
Lüdecke 1953 B 30 Fig. 23
AuthorHeinz Lüdecke
TitleLucas Cranach der Ältere. Der Künstler und seine Zeit
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1953
Posse 1943 58 No. 53
AuthorHans Posse
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä.
Place of PublicationVienna
IssueSecond edition
Year of Publication1943
Lilienfein 1942 14 Plate 1, Fig. 11
AuthorHeinrich Lilienfein
TitleLukas Cranach und seine Zeit
Place of PublicationBielefeld
Year of Publication1942
Posse 1942 58 No. 53
AuthorHans Posse
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä.
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1942
Wolters 1938 122 Figs. 71, 72
AuthorChristian Wolters
TitleDie Bedeutung der Gemäldedurchleuchtung mit Röntgenstrahlen für die Kunstgeschichte : Dargestellt an Beispielen aus der niederländischen und deutschen Malerei des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur Kunstgeschichte
Volume3
Place of PublicationFrankfurt am Main
Year of Publication1938
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1937 14 008 Pl. 12, 13
EditorStaatliche Museen, Berlin
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. und Lucas Cranach d. J. Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Graphik
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1937
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 10
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Lichtwark 1924 133-134
AuthorAlfred Lichtwark
TitleBriefe an die Kommission für die Verwaltung der Kunsthalle
Volume1
Place of PublicationHamburg
Year of Publication1924
Friedländer 1902 B
AuthorMax J. Friedländer
TitleDer neue Cranach des Berliner Museums
JournalKunst und Künstler
Issue1
Year of Publication1903
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/kk1902_1903/0037
Pages28-29
Friedländer 1902 A 229
AuthorMax J. Friedländer
TitleDie frühesten Werke Cranachs
JournalJahrbuch der Preußischen Kunstsammlungen
Issue23
Year of Publication1902
Pages228-334
Michaelson 1902 Fig. 1
AuthorHedwig Michaelson
TitleLukas Cranach der Ältere. Untersuchung über die stilistische Entwicklung seiner Kunst
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1902
Flechsig 1900 A 60, 70 Plate 3
AuthorEduard Flechsig
TitleCranachstudien
Volume1
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1900
Link page/n5/mode/2up
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1899 No. 1
EditorKarl Woermann
TitleDeutsche Kunstausstellung Dresden 1899. Abteilung Cranach-Ausstellung. Wissenschaftliches Verzeichnis der ausgestellten Werke
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1899
Link http://resolver.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/SBB00002A2400000000
Rieffel 1895 425
AuthorFranz Rieffel
TitleKleine kunstwissenschaftliche Controversfragen
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
Issue18
Year of Publication1895
Link http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/artdok/volltexte/2014/2651
Pages424-428
Schuchardt 1871 186-192 80
AuthorChristian Schuchardt
TitleLucas Cranach des Aeltern Leben und Werke. Dritter Theil
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1871
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schuchardt1871bd3
  • Rest on the Flight into Egypt, 1504

Images

Compare images
  • overall
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  • overall
  • reverse
  • reverse
  • irr
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  • x_radiograph
  • detail
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Technical studies

08.04.2013Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

Identification of wood species: lime wood

Examined on the 22.09.1989

[cda 2014]

  • analysed by Peter Klein

05.10.2011Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • X-radiography
  • x_radiograph
  • created by Fotowerkstatt, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin

08. 2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
  • UV-light photography
  • Infrared reflectography
  • X-radiography
  • Stereomicroscopy Light microscopy
  • Dendrochronology
  • UV-light photography
  • Infrared reflectography
  • X-radiography
  • Stereomicroscopy Light microscopy
  • Dendrochronology
  • UV-light photography
  • Infrared reflectography
  • X-radiography
  • Stereomicroscopy
  • irr
  • irr
  • x_radiograph

Support

- Macroscopic and microscopic examination (Undine Köhler)

(Carl Zeiss OPMI 1-FC; f=100; magnification setting on the microscope: 0.4-1.6; Magnification:

40 - 160x)

- UV light examination

- Infrared reflectograph (Schmidt 2010)

- X-radiograph (Schmidt 2010):

- Dendrochronological report (Klein 1989)The panel consists of two tangentially cut and vertically aligned lime wood planks. It is 70.5 cm high on the right and 70.8 cm on the left. It is 51.9 cm wide at the bottom and 52.7 cm at the top and is 1.5 cm thick. The widths of the individual planks vary between 27.4 cm and 25.3 cm along the top edge and 25.4 and 26.5 cm along the bottom. The planks were butt joined and glued. In the x-radiograph three knots are visible. The largest of which is in the centre of the upper part of the left plank and is c. 5 cm in diameter. There is a further knot measuring c. 2.5 cm in diameter located in the middle of this plank in the region of the rocky outcrop and finally there is a third knot with a diameter of 2 cm in the right plank just below the centre next to the Virgin. The knots have been left and were leveled off from the front with a fill material, which is partially visible in the x-radiograph as a light area.

On the reverse a rebate of 0.7 cm in width and depth runs around all four edges. Here the panel is only 0.5 cm thick. On the recto a band of unpainted wood c. 0.5 cm in width runs along the edge of the panel. In raking light vertical plane marks running almost parallel and c. 2 cm wide are visible on the front of the panel. The original surface of the reverse of the panel has to a greater extent been preserved. It appears that the panel was smoothed on the reverse in a horizontal direction with a plane, which was 2.5 cm in width. On both external edges a band of c. 4.5 cm in width appears to have been smoothed further in a vertical direction.

Ground and Imprimatura

Size:

A sizing layer could not be identified with either the naked eye or under the stereomicroscope, but it may be assumed that one was applied.

Ground:

A fine orange-red layer of ground was applied to the wooden panel, which is clearly visible under the stereomicroscope along the bottom edge.

Imprimatura:

Above this is a thinner, white layer, which functioned as an imprimatura. This layer does not completely cover the fine porosity of the ground and was applied as a glaze so that no complete absorption is visible in the x-radiograph. Instead it shows a streaky application, which at times runs diagonally, like in the area of the Virgin’s head. Near the shoulders of Christ and the Virgin diagonal lines c. 0.1 cm apart are visible in raking light, which run from the top right to the bottom left. They appear as white lines in the x-radiograph and may have been caused when the panel was sanded down.

Underdrawing

The underdrawing is visible to the naked eye in the light areas of the image (flesh paint, clothing), where the paint layers are thin and in infrared examination. The infrared image reveals that it was executed on the red ground with a black fluid medium in all areas of the painting. This is clearly evident in the robes of the angels in the foreground. Here lines of two different widths are visible: one measures 0.1 cm and the other only 0.05 cm. The bolder lines appear to fix the contours, while the thinner ones are hatching-strokes. In part the course of these lines is very long and consists of energetically executed strokes of a similar width. The hatching-strokes in the areas of shadow were executed primarily employing vertical and short lines that are slightly oblique and thinner at the beginning. It is possible that the artist alternated between a pointed brush for the bolder strokes and a feather for the thinner ones. [1] The artist may have intentionally incorporated the underdrawing in the initial modeling stage as can be seen in the yellow dress of the angel playing the flute. Regarded as a whole the underdrawing is very detailed with only very minor corrections. For example the positions of the Virgin’s right eye and her nose have been altered slightly and the vessel under Joseph’s coat was not carried out in the painted version. It can therefore be presumed that an initial sketch was carried out employing a dry drawing medium like chalk or charcoal, which is now no longer visible. A letter ‘D’ can be discerned on the right of the rocky outcrop on the left of the painting. The broader lines describing the head of the sleeping angel in the background, which seem unrelated to the figure, indicate that the angel was probably added at a later stage.

Incised lines in the ground along all four edges, which presumably delineate the size of the picture, may have served the frame maker.

[1] Sandner presumes that a quill was employed. [Siejek 2004, 82]

Paint Layers and Gilding

The artist essentially applied pure hues of paint in two to four layers to achieved the desired effect. Colour mixtures can be found in the sky and the flesh paint.

The artist began by laying in the initial layer of the flesh paint. He chose a mid flesh tone consisting of a mixture of lead white, as is visible in the x-radiograph and a red pigment, presumably vermillion, and a small quantity of black.

This base tone appears to have been brushed beyond the contours indicated in the underdrawing and the final demarcation of the flesh paint fixed by the black underpainting of the background and the garments. The modulation of the flesh paint followed after a drying period during which the draperies were painted. The snail in the angel’s hand was probably executed together with the flesh paint as the artist has employed the mid flesh tone as the base tone. The area appears to have been modulated at a later stage, once the paint was dry.

The black underpainting was applied with a broad brush on the background, on Joseph’s coat, on the angels robes, on the Virgin’s undergarment and in the area of the trees.

Subsequently the draperies were executed beginning in the red areas. The layer structure is visible to the naked eye in both the Virgin’s and Joseph’s robe and in the angel’s dress. The artist employed two methods to achieve colour nuances. The robes of the Virgin and Joseph are a vibrant red. Here the highlights were applied in white paint, which as the x-radiograph shows is probably lead white on an orange reddish ground. The shadows were then added in black paint with a pointed brush and finally a red lake glaze of varying thickness was applied.

The angel’s dress as well as the sleeves of the Virgin’s dress, are a darker red and were by contrast painted over the black underpaint; modelled in white and then drawn together with a red glaze. As the red paint extends over the edge of the sheet of white paper in the angel’s hand it may be assumed that this was executed at the same time as the white highlights.

The light blue boarder was carried out before the shading in the flesh paint or the black shadow in the golden cape. The black inscription was carried out after the red robe, followed by the execution of the yellow areas. This was evident in the transition from the Virgin’s robe to the yellow dress of the angel with a flute. The light ground appears to have been used in the colour scheme. There was originally a light yellow paint layer over the areas with highlights. Presumably this was covered with a brown glaze, which is now only visible as a remnant above the right arm in front of the flute, under the green vegetation and beneath the left arm.

The shadows were probably indicated by the light grey underdrawing, which is visible through the translucent paint. Dots of black paint and shell-gold were employed to decorate the left arm and were applied considerably later once the underlying paint layer was dry. The golden robe of the angel sitting opposite exhibits a similar layer structure. Here the depth of the folds are applied in black paint directly over the ground and then covered with a thin brown glaze, which extends as far as the black hem of the coat. Pastos decorative ornaments or dots were applied in white paint over the entire surface of the coat. Subsequently parts of the coat were decorated with thin lines of shell-gold. A blue layer of paint was applied over the black underpaint on the lining of the coat. The fact that the paint layers are not blended suggests that the artist maintained a drying time, during which he worked on other parts of the painting. He continued with the white area of the scarf and the wings applying the paint rather thickly. The artist used a light blue admixture, and at times a grey consisting of blue, black and white pigments to modulate the shadows. He essentially worked wet-in-wet to create the wings of the angel on the top left.

Beginning with the white contours of the feathers, which were applied in thick paint he then applied a slightly transparent brown tone and black paint mixed with a small amount of blue pigment. The paint appears to be very medium rich, as the paint is frequently blended. A final red glaze was applied, which also covers the green glaze on the vegetation, indicating that the artist completed the wings after the vegetation and after a drying period. The outline at the top of the wings was applied in white paint, which was also employed for the curls of the hair. The wings of the angel holding a parrot were also painted wet-in-wet with blended bluish grey and white paint and brown glazes. In addition a red glaze was applied to the wings at the back. The artist employed the black underpaint to create the back wing of the angel wearing the golden coat. Here the contours of the feathers were indicated in white paint. It may be presumed that the painting process was continued at a later stage once the white paint was dry. The angel holding a strawberry has a white wing that was probably executed at the stage of the painting process described above. On the other hand the back wing exhibits an initial brown glaze layer, with subsequently applied green patches and black dots in imitation of a peacock’s feather. The upper part of the feather was applied over the lining of Joseph’s coat and in the lower part over the white wing, indicating that this wing was executed after the red robes. The rocky outcrop on the left side of the painting was initially indicated with a very thin dark brown layer of paint applied before the blue paint in the sky. The artist then continued with the execution of areas in blue paint before completing the rocky outcrop. Thus the blue wings of the angel with the flute were executed next as were those of the angel opposite him. Here the artist employed white paint over the black underpaint and then worked them up with blue paint. A similar process can also be observed in the blue robe of the angel with a flute. Here the upper part of the robe has a black layer of underpaint, which has been partially covered with blue paint. The lower part of the robe, whereas the lower half was held in reserve and does not exhibit the same black underpaint. Pink paint was used to indicate the folds and finally the shadows were executed in blue paint, which is partially covered by a black paint that was added later. This phenomenon can also be observed on Joseph’s coat and on his hat. Here the shadows of the folds were initially painted in black, however the areas of the highlights were held in reserve. An application of blue paint followed and subsequently the artist reinforced the spatial effect of the shadows with an additional application of black paint. In the hat the paint was dabbed on.

The sky was painted before the birch tree on the the right and before the other trees (already indicated in black) were completed. This explains the different grey values in the infrared reflectograph. The crown of the birch tree applied in an initial dark brown layer over the painted sky appears much lighter than the trees, which exhibit a black underpaint and were held in reserve.

It extends as far as the black underpaint of the bushes behind the Virgin on the right side of painting. The proportion of blue pigment in the mixture with lead white increases towards the top of the panel. The landscape on the left side of the panel was also executed in blue paint. Here the artist creates the form by employing varying thicknesses of paint, dabbed on and on the left applied with diagonal strokes, or by holding the white area in reserve and incorporating the ground. He only rarely applied a green glaze to emphasize certain details. This was applied later together with the glazes on the vegetation.

Finally the artist returned to completing the flesh paint. He modulated it with admixtures of the basic flesh tone using varying proportions of red, brown, black or white pigments. In areas of the cheeks, the chin, the nostrils and the eyes this brown tone was applied as a glaze to create the shadows. For the highlights on the forehead, the chin and the tip of the nose he employed the base tone with an addition of white. The outlines were emphasized by a line drawn with the brown paint used for the shadows. The eyes were painted over the base tone or over the brown tone of the shadows. First the black pupils, the contours and the eye lashes were painted, and then the highlights were applied around the pupils in an opaque white paint. The eyelids were partially emphasized with a red line. Finally a little blue paint was applied to the eye. The mouths were modulated with a light, orange-red and a dark red, which was applied as a glaze.

Then details like the open mouth painted in black or the teeth applied in thick paint were executed.

Beneath the top lip the artist used grey paint consisting of white, a little blue and black pigment to indicate the highlight bordering on the brown painted shadow. He forms the ears on the base tone with an initial layer in white paint for the highlights, and over this he applies the brown shadow tone and black paint to indicate the inner ear. The artist modulates the hands with thick white paint to indicate the highlights, and which are partially bound by the pink or brown areas of shadow. The fingers are described with brown contour lines. These stages were carried out in quick succession as the paint is at times blended, which has resulted is blurred transitions that appear to have been consciously calculated.

Joseph’s staff was painted at the same time with the same materials and in the same stages. The artist probably also painted the snail/shell, which is modeled in black and white paint at this point.

The wing of the angel sleeping exhibits an initial red shadow layer on top of which the artist applied black and green paint with a pointed brush. This was carried out at the same time as the vegetation. The flutes were painted after the robes were completed and the flesh paint was modulated. The initial layer was applied in a dark ochre tone and then in quick succession the highlights in a light ochre tone and the holes in black paint.

The artist added highlights in white paint to the rocky outcrop, which was already indicated with a brown glaze on the left in the background. He incorporated the black underpaint of the vegetation in the lower and right area in the modulation. Single blades of grass are partially emphasized in light yellow paint mainly on the black underpaint. Then a green glaze was applied over the whole area. The grassy area on the left hill was painted before the branches or needles on the tree in the centre of the painting. The green paint on the edges of some of the angels’ wings was probably carried out at the same time as the vegetation. The green vegetation has, as has already been mentioned, a black underpaint. The rocky foreground was painted over the black underpaint. Then the artist applied the blades of grass, the leaves, a butterfly and part of a tree trunk over this in white or ochre paint. Finally he applied a green glaze over the whole area with some highlights in white or a red glaze. The strawberries were also painted over the black underpaint with white highlights, a green glaze, a red glaze and some orange-red and white dabs of paint. The petals of the flowers were initially painted in pink paint on the green background. Then the artist applied a dark red glaze and finially indicated the highlights with a few white brushstrokes.

The butterfly was created employing a little blue paint in the wings and black around the eye and in the shadows. The tree stump on the left was painted in black paint with a white ring on the top.

The stone with the signature was created with brown paint which was partially applied as a glaze and incorporated the black underpaint over which the vegetation was painted. The signature and the date were probably applied after the painting was completed with a pointed brush in white paint.

It is not possible to tell whether the parrot held by the angel was executed at this time. Under the stereomicroscope it was possible to establish that it was painted after the green ground and the modulation of the flesh paint was dry, as the paint is not blended. The beak and the claws are painted in red and the eye is black. Its feathers are created with many small brushstrokes in red, white, black and green paint, which were applied in quick succession as the paint is partially blended, like in the tail.

The artist appears to have painted the trees from left to right and as such the roots of the tree on the left are covered by the branches of the large coniferous tree in the centre. Grey paint was applied over the sky to create the crown of the birch tree, while the trunk was painted wet-in-wet employing black and a toned white paint. The brushstrokes are clearly visible in the pastos paint. Highlights were applied in white and a final brown glaze was employed to reduce the white contrasts. The artist appears to have used a very soft brush to blend the wet paint. Subsequently the branches were added in dark brown paint and modulated with a reddish brown almost orange paint. A black underpaint was applied as an initial layer for the foliage. Single leaves were indicated in white or light yellow paint and then the whole area was covered with a green glaze. At the bottom edge beneath the angel with a snail there is a ring on a tree stump. The tree was modulated and details carried out in white, brown and red paint over an initial grey layer. The ring is black with white highlights. The houses in the background were executed in a thin glaze, probably at the same time as the trees in this area. The basic form was created with a wet-in-wet application of reddish white paint and completed with black, red and white. The coniferous tree in the centre of the composition exhibits an initial black underpaint, which in accordance with the underdrawing was applied over a large area. Highlights were added in white paint. A green glaze covers the whole area. Shadows were then in part indicated with black paint to emphasis the spatial depth. In other areas the artist worked in black and white, applying grey paint over the black underpaint and then subsequently white paint, which was partially blended and partially pastos, almost dabbed on. In a few areas along the edge he applied a further black layer and a subsequent green glaze. Finally using shell-gold the artist applied the contours of the angels‘ wings, the shell, the feathers of the parrot as well as the gold ornaments on the coat of the angel in the foreground and the yellow dress of the angel with the flute and the Virgin’s halo.

The hair does not appear to have been painted until this late stage as it extends over both the clothing and the background paint. The artist followed a repeated pattern. He applied the single curls of Joseph’s hair with a pointed brush on an initial light brown and slightly stripy layer. There are some green areas from the coniferous tree on the black or white hair. The Virgin’s hair was applied over a reddish brown initial layer. Single strands of hair were applied in white paint and black in the shadows. In addition at the back of the head the artist applied a dark brown glaze. This partially covers the gold lines of the halo. The hair of the angel holding the strawberries was initially painted in ochre coloured paint above which the curls were applied in black and white paint after the draperies.

Framing

- wooden, stepped, profiled frame flanked by two columns with different carved foral ornamentation, small heads with wings decorate the capitals; dark red bole applied over a light ground, final coating in blue paint; the decorative element are gilded

  • written by Undine Köhler

01. 2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr
  • irr

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Materials:

- fluid, black pigmented medium, brush and quill

Type/Ductus:

- detailed and freehand underdrawing

- fine, dark lines in combination with occasional thin lines, some hatching-strokes

Function:

- relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate contours and generally describes the essential inner forms and facial features; some representation of volume (hatching-strokes)

Deviations:

- alterations made during the painting process to clearly define form; small changes in the face of the Virgin; Joseph’s bag was not carried out in the painted version

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]

  • photographed by Gunnar Heydenreich
  • photographed by Ingo Sandner

2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

- the lime wood (Tilia sp.) panel consists of two vertical planks glued together

- the following number of annual rings were counted on each plank respectively:

Plank I: 63 annual rings

Plannk II: 41 annual rings

Underdrawing

'In some areas the underdrawing is visible to the naked eye. However it does not appear to have become more visible due to an increased transparency of the thin glazes, as it is most apparent in the incomplete areas of the devotional image. This can be observed in the yellow robe of the angel in the foreground, where Cranach sketches the folds with loose brushstrokes.'

[Heiser 2002, 114]

  • written by Christine Unsinn

Condition Reports

Date08. 2010

  • the original dimensions of the support have to a greater extent been preserved with the exception of the bottom edge, which was trimmed slightly

  • the panel is slightly warped

  • four vertical splits extend a maximum of 9.5 cm into the centre from the edge of the panel

  • the panel was thinned before it was reinforced with battens

  • the join between to two planks has opened slightly from the top edge extending c. 15 cms

  • the panel has been partially damaged by woodworm

  • on the reverse the worm channels have been filled with wax

  • written by Undine Köhler

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'Rest on the Flight into Egypt', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_smbGG_564A/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'Rest on the Flight into Egypt', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_smbGG_564A/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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