Portrait of a young Lady at knee-length

Portrait of a young Lady at knee-length

Titles

Portrait of a young Lady at knee-length

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, 128, No. 299]

Portrait of a young woman

[Finnish National Gallery, revised 2013]

Painting on beech wood

Medium

Painting on beech wood

[Klein, Reports 1982, 1993]
[Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]

The lady in the portrait is wearing a luxurious, décolleté court dress in deep red typical of the fashions of the 1520s. She has a bronze, large-linked collar of status wound several times around her neck, underneath which can be seen a Saxon neck-band. Her hair has been tucked into

The lady in the portrait is wearing a luxurious, décolleté court dress in deep red typical of the fashions of the 1520s. She has a bronze, large-linked collar of status wound several times around her neck, underneath which can be seen a Saxon neck-band. Her hair has been tucked into a hairnet and a wide-brimmed hat. She has gloves with narrow slits on the fingers.

The woman's painted mouth has the suggestion of a smile. No rings or emblematic reveal the identity of the sitter.

[cf. Exhib. Cat. Helsinki 1988]

Attribution
Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attribution

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Finnish National Gallery, revised 2013]
[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, 128, No. 299]
[TUURNALA et al. 1991, 63-72]
[Exhib. Cat. Helsinki 1988]

Production dates
1525
about 1530

Production dates

1525

[ dated]

about 1530

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, 128, No. 299]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support:

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support:

  • 41 x 27 cm

  • [Finnish National Gallery, revised 2013]

  • [Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]

Signature / Dating
Artist's insignia bottom right corner: winged serpent with elevated wings and date '1525'

Signature / Dating

  • Artist's insignia bottom right corner: winged serpent with elevated wings and date '1525'

Owner
Finnish National Gallery, Helsinki
Repository
Sinebrychoffin Taidemuseo, Helsinki
Location
Helsinki
CDA ID
FIN_FNG_AI316
FR (1978) Nr.
FR299
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/FIN_FNG_AI316/

Provenance

In 1851 the Russian Crown Prince - who became Tsar Alexander II - presented on behalf of his son (Alexander Alexandrovich, Grand Duke of Finland) an art collection acquired from the estate of Baron Otto Wilhelm Klinckowström to the Finnish Society of Art for establish its art gallery. This collection included Cranach's Portrait of a Young Woman.
[TUURNALA et al. 1991, pp. 63-72]
[Finnish National Gallery, revised 2013]

Exhibitions

Helsinki 1988 - 1989

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure/Plate
Cat. Coburg 2018 172 under no. 37
Author / EditorKlaus Weschenfelder
TitleCranach in Coburg. Gemälde von Lucas Cranach d.Ä., Lucas Cranach d.J., der Werkstatt und des Umkreises in den Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2018
Cat. Helsinki 2013 20
Author / EditorMinerva Keltanen
TitleArt and Atmosphere
Place of PublicationHelsinki
Year of Publication2013
Bierende 2002
Author / EditorEdgar Bierende
TitleLucas Cranach d.Ä. und der deutsche Humanismus. Tafelmalerei im Kontext von Rhetorik, Chroniken und Fürstenspiegeln
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication2002
Follak 2002
Author / EditorJan Follak
TitleLucretia zwischen positiver und negativer Anthropologie: Coluccio Salutatis Declamatio Lucretie und die Menschenbilder im exemplum der Lucretia von der Antike bis in die Neuzeit
Place of PublicationKonstanz
Year of Publication2002
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:352-opus-9144
Klein 1994 A 198, 199 Tab. 7
Author / EditorPeter Klein
TitleLucas Cranach und seine Werkstatt. Holzarten und dendrochronologische Analyse
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhoff, eds.,Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Coburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages194-200
Tuurnala et al. 1991 63-72
Author / EditorT. Tuurnala, A. Hautojärvi, Sirka Nurminen
TitleA factory of beautiful pictures? A physical study of three paintings by Lucas Cranach the Elder
JournalRevue des archéologues et historiens d'art de Louvain
Issue24
Year of Publication1991
Pages63-72
Exhib. Cat. Helsinki 1988
Author / EditorSirka Nurminen, Dan Holm, Sinebrychofes Konstmuseum, Helsinki
TitleLucas Cranach vanh
Place of PublicationHelsinki
Year of Publication1988
Klein 1983 209-222
Author / EditorPeter Klein
TitleDating of Art Historical Objects
JournalMitteilungen der Bundesforschungsanstalt für Forst- und Holzwirtschaft
Issue141
Year of Publication1983
Pages209-222
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 128 No. 299 Fig. 299
Author / EditorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg, G. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 228b
Author / EditorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932

Description/ Interpretation/ Comments

Idealisation or portrait?

MaxJ. Friedländer notes that it cannot be said with certainly whether this is a genuine portrait or merely an idealisation of women in general. The purpose of both, the sitter portraied and the painting itself, is to give pleasure. Cranach has used line rythms in a masterly way and this is typical of his treatment of the enchantress type in his lage mythological compositions. However, this lady is without illusions, she knows her own worth.

[cf. Exhib. Cat. Helsinki 1988]

The woman in the portrait is wearing a low-cut dark red court gown and large-looped chains round her neck. A Saxon chocker is visible under the chains. Her hair is protected by a hairnet. Originally she also wore a wide-brimmed hat which has since been painted over, though the outlines can still be seen. The model for this painting may have been a courtesan or a mistress from the court of the Saxon Prince-Elector. It is likely, however, that the portrait does not represent a real person but is an idealized image of a woman.

[Minerva Keltanen, Finnish National Gallery, revised 2013]

  • Portrait of a young Lady at knee-length, 1525

Images

Compare images
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  • overall
  • reverse
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  • x_radiograph

Technical studies

08. 2013Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • X-radiography
  • x_radiograph
  • created by Kirsti Harva

08. 2013Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr
  • irr
  • irr
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Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

- an underdrawing is not readily visible; an initial design may have been reinforce with a fluid drawing medium and a brush (occasionally visible in the dress)

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich cda 2014]

  • photographed by Sinebrychofes Konstmuseum, Helsinki

18.01.1993Scientific analysis

  • Dendrochronology / identification of wood species

Support

Identification of wood species: beech

The youngest annual ring is from 1521 The panel was created after 1524.

[Klein Report, 18.01.1993]

  • analysed by Peter Klein

1991Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • X-radiography

The radiograph reveals that, during painting, the bend on the inside of the left hand elbow has been moved upwards and nearer to the torso. Also the shoulder line has been taken in slightly.'

[Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]

  • Bearbeiter/in Jana Herrschaft

1991Naturwissenschaftliche Materialanalyse

  • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
  • Instrumental material analysis

PIXE /PIGME:

Pigment analysis by PIXE/PIGME giving following results:

Filling material of the ground is pure chalk. Probably a thin lead white imprimatura is above.

The yellow pigment is lead tin yellow.

The earth pigments contain some iron-titanium compound as an impurity.

[Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]

  • Bearbeiter/in Jana Herrschaft

Date1991

  • Stereomicroscopy
  • Infrared reflectography
  • X-radiography

Support

Single plank of red beech

Ground and Imprimatura

'The gesso primer does not extend right to the edge of the panel, which means that the panel has been fixed to working or actual frame during painting. Probably a very thin lead white imprimatur lies on the ground.'

[Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]

Underdrawing

'IR analyses failed to reveal any sketches.'

Paint Layers and Gilding

'The paint layer does not extend right to the edge of the panel like the ground.

The brush technique used in this painting is very fine and no brushstrokes are visible. Most colours have been pre-mixed on a palette with ground fine pigments. A multi-layer technique has been used to a certain extent. The paint layers though mainly thin still give full covering, albeit in certain areas they are also transparent. Impasto has been found on the jewellery and decoration areas. The paint layer on the skin area is fully covering.'

[TUURNALA et al. 1991, 63-72]

1991Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography

Underdrawing

- an underdrawing is not visible

[Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]

18.08.1982Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

Dendrochronological analysis carried out by Dr. Peter Klein established that the red beech used for this painting was felled in 1521.

[TUURNALA et al. 1991, 63-72]

  • analysed by Peter Klein

Condition Reports

Date1991

'Aging has caused craquelure, especially in the skin areas.'

[Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]

Conservation History

Date1991

Restorations performed at different times have concealed minor damage to the paint layers, mainly on the background and skirt.

The brim of the hat can hardly be seen today. It is covered with the same brown used for the background, but under it a layer of green can be seen. The top coat of brown was either originally painted to cover the brim or, more probably, is a later addition. On the basis of the cracks in the paint layer it would be in any case appear that the brim was over-painted at an early stage.

The signature was hidden under a thin overpaint, discovered in 1988 by a microscopic study.'

[Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'Portrait of a young Lady at knee-length', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/FIN_FNG_AI316/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'Portrait of a young Lady at knee-length', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/FIN_FNG_AI316/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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