Venus and Cupid

Venus and Cupid

Title

Venus and Cupid

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, 72, No. 22]

Painting on wood, transferred to canvas

Medium

Painting on wood, transferred to canvas

[Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017, 148-149, No. 60]

Cranach, who has proudly indicated his authorship on the cartellino prominently positioned against a dark ground, introduced in this elaborate manner an Italian pictorial subject into the North European painting repertoire, one that draws on works by Botticelli and is impressively represented by Lorenzo Costa's Venus. Clear parallels between the

Cranach, who has proudly indicated his authorship on the cartellino prominently positioned against a dark ground, introduced in this elaborate manner an Italian pictorial subject into the North European painting repertoire, one that draws on works by Botticelli and is impressively represented by Lorenzo Costa's Venus. Clear parallels between the two works led to the suggestion in earlier research that Costa's painting served Cranach as a direct prototype. However Costa's work was identified as one of the paintings sent in 1518 as a gift by Gianfrancesco II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua to Francis I, King of France, thus dating it about 1515/18. Moreover Friedrich III of Saxony had already announced his interest for Italian artworks as early as 1507 in a letter to Gonzaga - particularly those by Gianfrancesco's court painter Andrea Mantegna - and had offered the Mantuan duke works of similar quality by German artists - here he probably had works by his court painter in mind. There is no record that Cranach spent time in Italy, which poses the question of where he may have encountered such Italian prototypes and in this respect it would appear that the animated communication between the European courts is a factor not to be underrated.

[Görres, Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017, 148-149, No. 60]

Attribution
Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attribution

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017, 148-149, No. 60]
[Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003, No. 61]
[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, 72, No. 22]

Production date
1509

Production date

1509

[dated]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 213 x 102 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 213 x 102 cm

  • [Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017, 148-149, No. 60]

Signature / Dating
Artist's insignia at the left of centre: serpent (with elevated wings), initials 'LC' and dated '1509'

Signature / Dating

  • Artist's insignia at the left of centre: serpent (with elevated wings), initials 'LC' and dated '1509'

Inscriptions and Labels
Inscription: 'PELLE CVPIDINEOS TOTO CONAMINE LVXVS NE TVA POSSIDEAT PECTORA CECA VENVS'

Inscriptions and Labels

Inscriptions, Badges:

  • Inscription:
  • 'PELLE CVPIDINEOS TOTO CONAMINE LVXVS NE TVA POSSIDEAT PECTORA CECA VENVS'
Owner
The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg
Repository
The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg
Location
St. Petersburg
CDA ID
RU_ESP_GE680
FR (1978) Nr.
FR022
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/RU_ESP_GE680/

Provenance

Acquired in 1769 with the collection of Count Brühl in Dresden
[Cat. St. Petersburg 1986, 23]

Exhibitions

Dresden 1899, no. 5
Weimar 1972, no. 4
Berlin 1983, no. E9
Hamburg 2003, no. 61
St. Petersburg 2016, no. 1
Moscow 2016, no. 1
Düsseldorf 2017, no. 60

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure/Plate
Cat. Coburg 2018 34 under no. 1
AuthorKlaus Weschenfelder
TitleCranach in Coburg. Gemälde von Lucas Cranach d.Ä., Lucas Cranach d.J., der Werkstatt und des Umkreises in den Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2018
Bonnet 2017 40, 41 60
AuthorAnne-Marie Bonnet
TitleLucas Cranach der Ältere als Primus inter Pares - Competitio et aemulatio in der deutschen Aktmalerei
Publicationin Gunnar Heydenreich, Daniel Görres, Beat Wismer, eds., Lucas Cranach der Ältere. Meister - Marke - Moderne. [Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017]
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2017
Pages38-43
Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017 148-149 No. 60
EditorGunnar Heydenreich, Daniel Görres, Beat Wismer
TitleLucas Cranach der Ältere. Meister - Marke - Moderne. [anlässlich der Ausstellung "Cranach. Meister - Marke - Moderne", Stiftung Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf, 08. April 2017 - 30. Juli 2017]
Place of PublicationMünchen
Year of Publication2017
Savage, Stijnman 2017 61
AuthorElizabeth Savage, Ad Stijnman
TitleDie Farbholzschnitte von Lucas Cranach dem Älteren
Publicationin Gunnar Heydenreich, Daniel Görres, Beat Wismer, eds., Lucas Cranach der Ältere. Meister - Marke - Moderne. [Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017]
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2017
Pages58-65
Exhib. Cat. Moscow 2016 46-49 1
EditorThe Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation
TitleKranachi: mezdi Renessansom i Man'erizmom / The Cranachs. Between the renaissance and mannerism
Place of PublicationMoscow
Year of Publication2016
Exhib. Cat. St. Petersburg 2016 71-75 001 Fig. p. 71
AuthorMaria Pavlovna Garlova
EditorThe State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg
TitleKranachi: mezdi Renessansom i Man'erizmom / The Cranachs. Between the renaissance and mannerism
Place of PublicationSt. Petersburg
Year of Publication2016
Bonnet, Görres 2015 9
AuthorAnne-Marie Bonnet, Daniel Görres
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. - Maler der Deutschen Renaissance
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2015
Exhib. Cat. Gotha, Kassel 2015 103 under Nos. 6, 7
EditorJulia Carrasco, Justus Lange, Benjamin D. Spira, Timo Trümper, Stiftung Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha
TitleBild und Botschaft. Cranach im Dienst von Hof und Reformation, [Gotha, Herzogliches Museum; Kassel, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Schloss Wilhelmshöhe]
Place of PublicationHeidelberg
Year of Publication2015
Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005 214, 216 Fn. 16 003 (under)
EditorHarald Marx, Karin Kolb, Ingrid Mössinger
TitleCranach Anlässlich der Ausstellung Cranach vom 13. November 2005 bis 12. März 2006 in den Kunstsammlungen Chemnitz. Eine Ausstellung in Kooperation mit der Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication2005
Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003 67, 167, 168, 178, 182 61 Pl. 61
EditorBucerius Kunst Forum, Werner Schade
TitleLucas Cranach. Glaube, Mythologie und Moderne [Bucerius Kunst Forum, Hamburg]
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Foister 2003 119 61
AuthorSusan Foister
TitleCranachs Mythologien. Quellen und Originalität
Publicationin Heinz Spielmann, Werner Schade, eds., Lucas Cranach. Glaube, Mythologie und Moderne, Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Pages116-129
Koepplin 2003 C 158, 159 61 fig. 79
AuthorDieter Koepplin
TitleEin Cranach-Prinzip
Publicationin Heinz Spielmann, Werner Schade, eds., Lucas Cranach. Glaube, Mythologie und Moderne, Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Pages144-165
Robert 2003 108, 109, 112 61 Fig. 5
AuthorJörg Robert
TitleDie Wahrheit hinter dem Schleier. Lucas Cranachs heidnische Götter und die humanistische Mythenallegorese.
Publicationin Heiz Spielmann, Werner Schade, eds., Lucas Cranach Glaube Mythologie und Maderne , Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Pages102-115
Schade 2003 13
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleBildhaftigkeit bei Cranach
Publicationin Heiz Spielmann, Werner Schade, eds., Lucas Cranach Glaube Mythologie und Maderne , Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Pages12-21
Spielmann 10
AuthorHeinz Spielmann
TitleCranach als Parameter
Publicationin Heiz Spielmann, Werner Schade, eds., Lucas Cranach Glaube Mythologie und Maderne , Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Pages6-11
Grimm 1998 74-77 Figs. 9.15, 9.16
AuthorClaus Grimm
TitleDie Anteile von Meister und Werkstatt. Zum Fall Lucas Cranach d.Ä.
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages67-82
Schade, Schuttwolf 1994 17
AuthorWerner Schade, Allmuth Schuttwolf
TitleMalerei und Plastik
Publicationin Allmuth Schuttwolf, ed., Gotteswort und Menschenbild. Werke von Cranach und seinen Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Gotha
Place of PublicationGotha
Year of Publication1994
Pages15-94
Cat. St. Petersburg 1986 23-24
AuthorNikolai Nikulin, Boris Asvarishch
TitleThe Hermitage: German and Austrian Paintings
Place of PublicationLeningrad
Year of Publication1986
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1983 299-301 E9
EditorAltes Museum, Berlin
TitleKunst der Reformationzeit
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1983
Cat. St. Petersburg 1981 202
Authorn. a.
TitleGosudarstvenny Ermitazh: Zapadnoevropeyskaya zhivopis, Katalog 2: Niderlandy, Flandriya, Belgiya, Gollandiya, Germaniya, Avstriya, Angliya, Daniya, Norvegiya, Finlandiya, Shvetsiya, Vengriya, Polsha, Rumyniya, Chekhoslovakiya
Place of PublicationSt. Petersburg
Year of Publication1981
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 72 No. 22 Fig. 22
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Cat. St. Petersburg 1977 84
AuthorJ. Koshina
TitleDie Eremitage: Westeuropäische Malerei des 13. bis 18. Jahrhunderts
Place of PublicationLeningrad
Year of Publication1977
Schade 1974 30, 425
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleDie Malerfamilie Cranach
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1974
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schade1974
Kislych 1973 71-83
AuthorGalina S. Kislych
TitleDie Bilder von Lucas Cranach d. Ä. in den Museen der UdSSR
Publicationin Peter H. Feist, Ernst Ullmann, eds., Lucas Cranach. Künstler und Gesellschaft
Place of PublicationWittenberg
Year of Publication1973
Libmann 1973 57, 58
AuthorMichail Jakovlevič Libmann
TitleKartiny Lukasa Kranacha Staršego v sovetskich sobranijach
JournalIskusstvo
Issue36/2
Year of Publication1973
Pages57-63
Exhib. Cat. Weimar 1972 B 169 4
EditorSchlossmuseum Weimar
TitleLucas Cranach 1472-1553. Ein großer Maler in bewegter Zeit
Place of PublicationWeimar
Year of Publication1972
Libmann 1972 018
AuthorMichail Jakovlevič Libmann
TitleDeutsche Malerei in den Museen der Sowjetunion
Place of PublicationLeningrad
Year of Publication1972
Cat. St. Petersburg 1965 76
EditorW. F. Lewinson-Lessing
TitleMeisterwerke aus der Eremitage. Malerei des 14. bis 16. Jahrhunderts
Place of PublicationPrague
Year of Publication1965
Nemilov 1959 B 173-178
AuthorAlexander Nemilov
TitleDie Gemälde von Lukas Cranach d. Ä. in der Staatlichen Ermitage
JournalBildende Kunst
Year of Publication1959
Pages173-178
Cat. St. Petersburg 1958 318
AuthorV. F. Levinson-Lessing, A. E. Krol, U. A. Rusakov
TitleGosudarstvenny Ermitazh: Otdel zapadnoevropeyskogo iskusstva: Katalog zhivopisi. T.II [State Hermitage: Department of Western/European art: Catalogue of paintings. Vol. II]
Place of PublicationSt. Petersburg, Moscow
Year of Publication1958
Clark 1958 330-332
AuthorKenneth Clark
TitleDas Nackte in der Kunst
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication1958
Kostrov 1954 40-42
AuthorKostrov
TitlePodlinnij format kartini L. Kranacha Starshchevo "Venera i Amur"
JournalSoobscenija Gosudarstvennogo Ermitaza
Issue6
Year of Publication1954
Pages40-42
Nemilov 1953 61
AuthorAlexander Nemilov
TitleLucas Cranach
JournalIskusstvo
Issue16
Year of Publication1953
Pages57-64
Cat. St. Petersburg 1916 461
Authorn. a.
TitleImperatorsky Ermitazh: Kratky katalog kartinnoy galerei [Imperial Hermitage: Concise catalogue of the picture gallery]
Place of PublicationSt. Petersburg
Year of Publication1916
Flechsig 1900 A 86, 252
AuthorEduard Flechsig
TitleCranachstudien
Volume1
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1900
Link page/n5/mode/2up
Waagen 1864 132
AuthorGustav Friedrich Waagen
TitleDie Gemäldesammlungen in der Kaiserlichen Eremitage zu St. Petersburg nebst Bemerkungen über andere dortige Kunstsammlungen
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication1864
Georgi 1790 vol. 2, 481
AuthorJohann Gottlieb Georgi
TitleVersuch einer Beschreibung der Residenzstadt St. Petersburg und der Merkwürdigkeiten der Gegend, 2 vol.
Place of PublicationSt. Petersburg
Year of Publication1790

Description/ Interpretation/ Comments

Cranach’s first years in the service of Friedrich the Wise are characterized by an extreme innovative drive that reaches its zenith in his painted works with this first life-size nude depiction of the goddess north of the Alps. While Cranach’s painting enticingly shows the viewer Venus’ seductive power, the inscription warns against succumbing to the temptations of the Goddess of Love. On the other hand it is Venus who restrains her son Cupid a moment later with a gentle hand gesture from shoot an arrow at the viewer. Her transparent veil is employed in a similarly paradoxical manner and appears to emphasis what it should hide. By combining the game of seeing and hiding with the possibilities of the painted image on multiple levels Cranach establishes a mode of nude depiction that invites the viewer to actively participate and is repeated in many of his later depictions of the nude figure.

[Görres, Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017, 148-149, No. 60]

  • Venus and Cupid, 1509

Images

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Technical studies

2017Technical Examination

Support

The painting has been transferred from a wooden support to a canvas one. During the treatment the dimensions were changed.

[Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017]

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Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'Venus and Cupid', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/RU_ESP_GE680/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'Venus and Cupid', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/RU_ESP_GE680/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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