Cranach - Saint Jerome in the Wilderness
Saint Jerome in the Wilderness
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck
25.08.2019 - 16:13
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Painting:
CDA ID / Inventory NumberAT_TLFI_Gem116
Persistent Linkhttp://lucascranach.org/AT_TLFI_Gem116
FR (1978) No.FR169
Title:
Saint Jerome in the Wilderness[Exhib. Cat. Rome 2010, No. 45]
Attribution:
Lucas Cranach the Elder [Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, No. 169]
Hans Cranach [Flechsig 1900 B, No. 95]
Master of the Mass of St Gregory 'Lucas Cranach the Elder or (and?) Master of the Mass of St Gregory' [Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976, No. 409]
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Dating:
about 1525[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, No. 169]
about 1527[Flechsig 1900 B, No. 95]
about 1550 - 1552[Friedländer 1899, 92]
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Owner / Repository / Location:
OwnerTiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck
RepositoryTiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck
LocationInnsbruck
Dimensions:
Dimensions of support: 89.8 x 66.9 x 1.1-1.4 cm Dimension including frame: 106 x 76.6 x 6.5 cm [condition report Laura Resenberg, Ferdinandeum 2014]
Support:
Painting on lime wood (probably) [Condition Report, Laura Resenberg, Ferdinandeum 2014]
Signature / Date:
None. The insignia (winged serpent) added later at the bottom left on the tree trunk was removed during treatment by Ludwig Neuhauser (between 1957 and 1986). [Ferdinandeum, revised 2014]
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
Reverse of the panel: - a label from the Cranach exhibition in the Deutsches Museum Berlin, 1937 [Condition Report, Laura Resenberg, Ferdinandeum 2014]
Description:
The saint is depicted in a wooded, mountainous landscape, kneeling in front of a crucifix, that is propped up against a tree. His red cardinal's robe and broad rimmed hat are located at the foot of the cross. In his left hand St Jerome holds the stone with which he will chastise himself. There is an unusually large number of animals shown in the scene. Particularly striking are the two bird-like creatures with human heads, whose male and female heads can be seen reflected in the water of the pond. [Görres, cda 2015]
Provenance:
- 1864 acquired from H. G. Fincke in Bamberg with funds from Josef Tschager's bequest
[Ferdinandeum, revised 2014]
Exhibitions:
Dresden 1899, No. 92
Berlin 1937
Basel 1974, No. 409
Berlin 1983, No. D 62
Chemnitz 2005/2006, pl. 1
Frankfurt/London 2007/2008, No. 55
Rome 2010, No. 45
Sources / Publications:
Reference on PageCatalogue NumberFigure/Plate
Cat. Coburg 201866under no. 9
Resenberg 2014
Selliers 2013304-305
Exhib. Cat. Rome 2010269 - 271No. 45Pl. p. 271
Cohen 200816-19, 112, 250pl. III, fig. 4
Tacke 2007 C88
Heydenreich 2007 A
Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007228-22955p. 229
Stadlober 2006204-220
Marx, Mössinger, Roth 200516, 17Pl. 1
Rosenauer 2003481
Ammann, Hastaba 1998100
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1983284D 62p. 273
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979104169
Cat. Innsbruck 197943
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974548, 551No. 409Fig. 290a
Castelli 197184pl. XXXII-XXXIII
Thöne 196560
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 193751
Cat. Innsbruck 193351116
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932144
Weingartner 193076
Baldass 192881
Cat. Innsbruck 192820116
Flechsig 1900 B2995
Flechsig 1900 A172-174, 280
Cat. Dresden 189992
Friedländer 189992
Strompen 18954
Cat. Innsbruck 1890116
Interpretation / History / Discussion:
See pdf document with article by Laura Resenberg, Neueste Erkenntnisse über das Holztafelgemälde "Hl. Hieronymus" von Lucas Cranach d. Ä, um 1525, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum Gem 116, first published in: Meighörner, Wolfgang (Hg.), Wissenschaftliches Jahrbuch der Tiroler Landesmuseen 2014, Innsbruck 2014, S. 218-239.
Material / Technique:
  • Date: 01.06.2014
  • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
  • Infrared reflectography
  • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck - Saint Jerome in the Wilderness - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck - Saint Jerome in the Wilderness - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck - Saint Jerome in the Wilderness - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck - Saint Jerome in the Wilderness - Infrared Images
  • Underdrawing
  • DESCRIPTION
    (Evaluation based on a number of details)

    Tools/Material:
    - fluid, black medium, brush

    Type/Ductus:
    - freehand underdrawing
    - thin to slightly broader lines
    - occasional hatching-strokes

    Function:
    - relatively binding for the final painted version; the lines delineate the main contours, describe essential details and facial features; occasional representation of volume with hatching-strokes (only on the neck)

    Deviations:
    - minor corrections were made to the forms during the painting process; small changes

    INTERPRETATION

    Attribution:
    - Lucas Cranach the Elder or a member of his workshop?
    [Sandner, Smith-Contini, Heydenreich, cda 2016]
    • photographed by: Johannes Plattner
    Condition Reports:
    • Date: 01.06.2014
    • The support is stable and the light coloured wood is visible on the reverse. Old worm channels were truncated and revealed when the panel was thinned, which probably occurred when it was cradled. However this treatment has affected the stability of the panel. There are seven vertical battens glued to the reverse of the panel and six horizontal moveable members. Some of the joins were reglued before the cradle was attached, creating a slight step in the painted surface. The wooden panel was fixed in a frame during the application of the ground, a barbe is visible along the top and bottom edges. At the top and bottom edges the ground and paint layers begin c. 0.8 cm from the edge of the panel. In places the ground seeped under the rebate where it extends almost as far as the edge of the panel. In numerous areas tow was applied to the front surface of the panel before or after the ground application, but not over the joins. There are no wood defects or inserts visible where the tow was applied. These tow applications are now visible on the painted surface as circular shapes in relief. this is presumably due to previous solvent action that has swollen fibres and has caused raised paint layers or paint loss. The paint layers are stable, except along the joins where flaking has occurred due to the lack of adhesion between the ground layers and the wooden surface of the panel. The surface is slightly dirty and exhibits abrasion caused by incorrect use of solvents in the past. Along the joins original paint has been covered by a generous application of fill material. In addition in many places the original paint is covered by extensive retouching. The older retouches have discoloured or are no longer fully present, so that many filled losses are only covered by a thin or no paint layer. The yellowed coating is particularly apparent in the lighter areas. Aesthically this is not notably disturbing, but the thick, glossy varnish is very unpleasant. It has filled the cracquelée and covers the entire surface in a very thick layer, giving it the appearance of plastic. [Laura Resenberg, Ferdinandeum 2014]
    • examined by: Laura Resenberg
    • Date: 28.10.2005
    • Surface: in good condition Varnish: very glossy (renewed by the restorer Ludwig Neuhauser) The paint layers are adequately attached to the support/ground, damage along the rebate, numerous retouches, partially thinned Support: in good condition Frame: 81 cm in width, c. 40 cm in height, gold coloured slip with an egg-and-dart pattern and gold coloured outer profile, the flat middle plane is blue with ornamentation executed in gold paint at the centre and in the corners; renewed by Ludwig Neuhauser - in good condition [Condition Report, Wilma Wechner, Ferdinandeum 2005]
    • examined by: Wilma Wechner
    • Date: 1986
    • Lime wood: 89 x 60.2 cm; Technique: Tempera and oil Strips of fir wood (left 3.4 cm, right 3.2 cm) with a blue ground application (probably the reverse of a gothic panel painting) were added to either side of the panel. At the same time the panel was unprofessionally cradled. During this treatment the joins were reglued, creating a slight step, that was then levelled out with copious amounts of fill material and incompetently retouched. There are grooves at the top and bottom, which were necessary to fix the panel during the application of the ground. The support is very worm eaten. Three joins can be clearly identified. [Condition Report, Ludwig Neuhauser (active from1957-1986), Ferdinandeum, n. d.]
    • examined by: Ludwig Neuhauser
    History of Restoration:
    • Date: 01.06.2014
    • The reverse of the panel was surface cleaned with a hoover. The painted surface was cleaned first dry and then with a slightly damp sponge (Mikroporenschwämmchen, Deffner & Johann). Then the varnish was first thinned employing a mixture of Isooctane and Isopropanol (50:50 volume parts) and removed as far a possible. In the dark areas of the painting previous solvent action had rendered the paint very sensitive to the solvent mixture making it soluble. Here a thin layer of the old varnish was retained. The blackish-grey painted area with the rocky outcrop in the background was particularly affected. In contrast the green or lighter zones were surprisingly robust with resect to the action of the solvent mixture. The old, thickly applied retouches and overpaint that extended beyond the areas of loss were removed with undiluted Isopropanol or mechanically with a scalpel. The extensive fills covering the area along the joins, where the planks were not flush, was removed mechanically with a scalpel under the microscope. A considerable amount of original paint was revealed. Losses were filled with a glue-chalk fill material. A dammar varnish was applied with a ball to achieve a thin isolating layer. Then the surface of the fills were isolated with schellac. Retouching was carried out employing Gamblin Colors using 1-Methoxy-2-Propanol as a diluent. Finally the painting was sprayed with a thin application of dammar varnish and polished with a soft goat hair brush. It was then fitted in the frame with a glass pane (flabeg ARTControl 100) with UV-protection. The rebate of the frame had been cleaned and a slip was inserted to ensure a suitable distance between the pane and the surface of the painting. The slip had been painted black and cushioned with felt strips fixed in place with methylcellulose. A backboard was mounted on the reverse.
    • restauriert von: Laura Resenberg
    • Date: 1986
    • - a new split in the centre of the panel was glued. The additions [either side] were removed. Some of the overpaint was removed by solvent cleaning, the [remaining] thick, later paint application was removed mechanically. The shaky, uncertain insignia disappeared during cleaning. Small losses were filled and retouched. A new frame was produced. [Treatment Report, Ludwig Neuhauser (active from 1957-1986), Ferdinandeum, n. d.]
    • conservation treatment by: Ludwig Neuhauser