Saint Jerome in the Wilderness

Saint Jerome in the Wilderness

Title

Saint Jerome in the Wilderness

[Exhib. Cat. Rome 2010, No. 45]

Painting on limewood (probably)

Medium

Painting on limewood (probably)

[Condition Report, Laura Resenberg, Ferdinandeum 2014]

The saint is depicted in a wooded, mountainous landscape, kneeling in front of a crucifix, that is propped up against a tree. His red cardinal's robe and broad rimmed hat are located at the foot of the cross. In his left hand St Jerome holds the stone with which he

The saint is depicted in a wooded, mountainous landscape, kneeling in front of a crucifix, that is propped up against a tree. His red cardinal's robe and broad rimmed hat are located at the foot of the cross. In his left hand St Jerome holds the stone with which he will chastise himself. There is an unusually large number of animals shown in the scene. Particularly striking are the two bird-like creatures with human heads, whose male and female heads can be seen reflected in the water of the pond.

[Görres, cda 2015]

Attributions
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Hans Cranach

Attributions

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, No. 169]

Hans Cranach

[Flechsig 1900 B, No. 95]

Master of the Mass of St Gregory

'Lucas Cranach the Elder or (and?) Master of the Mass of St Gregory' [Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976, No. 409]

Production dates
about 1525
about 1527

Production dates

about 1525

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, No. 169]

about 1527

[Flechsig 1900 B, No. 95]

about 1550 - 1552

[Friedländer 1899, 92]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 89.8 x 66.9 x 1.1-1.4 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 89.8 x 66.9 x 1.1-1.4 cm

  • Dimension including frame: 106 x 76.6 x 6.5 cm

  • [condition report Laura Resenberg, Ferdinandeum 2014]

Signature / Dating
None. The insignia (winged serpent) added later at the bottom left on the tree trunk was removed during treatment by Ludwig Neuhauser (between 1957 and 1986).

Signature / Dating

  • None. The insignia (winged serpent) added later at the bottom left on the tree trunk was removed during treatment by Ludwig Neuhauser (between 1957 and 1986).

  • [Ferdinandeum, revised 2014]

Inscriptions and Labels
Reverse of the panel: - a label from the Cranach exhibition in the Deutsches Museum Berlin, 1937

Inscriptions and Labels

Stamps, Seals, Labels:

  • Reverse of the panel: - a label from the Cranach exhibition in the Deutsches Museum Berlin, 1937
  • [Condition Report, Laura Resenberg, Ferdinandeum 2014]
Owner
Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck
Repository
Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck
Location
Innsbruck
CDA ID
AT_TLFI_Gem116
FR (1978) Nr.
FR169
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/AT_TLFI_Gem116/

Provenance

  • 1864 acquired from H. G. Fincke in Bamberg with funds from Josef Tschager's bequest
    [Ferdinandeum, revised 2014]

Exhibitions

Dresden 1899, No. 92
Berlin 1937
Basel 1974, No. 409
Berlin 1983, No. D 62
Chemnitz 2005/2006, pl. 1
Frankfurt/London 2007/2008, No. 55
Rome 2010, No. 45

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure / Plate
Cat. Coburg 2018 66 under no. 9
AuthorKlaus Weschenfelder
TitleCranach in Coburg. Gemälde von Lucas Cranach d.Ä., Lucas Cranach d.J., der Werkstatt und des Umkreises in den Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2018
Exhib. Cat. Innsbruck 2018 45, 251 002
EditorTiroler Landesmuseen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Dr. Wolfgang Meighörner
TitleCranach Natürlich. Hieronymus in der Wildnis
Place of PublicationInnsbruck
Year of Publication2018
Resenberg 2014
AuthorLaura Resenberg
TitleNeueste Erkenntnisse über das Holztafelgemälde 'Hl. Hieronymus' von Lucas Cranach d. Ä., um 1525, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum Gem 116
JournalWissenschaftliches Jahrbuch der Tiroler Landesmuseum
Place of PublicationInnsbruck
Year of Publication2014
Selliers 2013 304-305
EditorDiane de Selliers
TitleÉrasme. Éloge de la folie illustré par les peintres de la Renaissance du Nord
Place of PublicationParis
Year of Publication2013
Exhib. Cat. Rome 2010 269 - 271 No. 45 Pl. p. 271
EditorGalleria Borghese, Rome, Anna Coliva, Bernard Aikema
TitleCranach. L'altro rinascimento / a different renaissance, [Rome, Galleria Borghese 15 ottobre 2010 - 13 febbraio 2011]
Place of PublicationMilan
Year of Publication2010
Cohen 2008 16-19, 112, 250 pl. III, fig. 4
AuthorSimona Cohen
TitleAnimals as Disguised Symbols in Renaissance Art
SeriesBrill's Studies in intelligent History
Place of PublicationLeiden, Boston
Year of Publication2008
Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007 228-229 55 p. 229
EditorBodo Brinkmann
TitleCranach der Ältere, [Frankfurt, Städel Museum, 23 Nov 2007 - 17 Feb 2008]
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Heydenreich 2007 A
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleLucas Cranach the Elder
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
Year of Publication2007
Link https://lucascranach.org/application/files/6116/2097/3099/Heydenreich_2007_Lucas_Cranach_the_Elder.pdf
Tacke 2007 C 88
AuthorAndreas Tacke
TitleMit Cranachs Hilfe: Antireformatorische Kunstwerke vor dem Tridentiner Konzil
Publicationin Bodo Brinkmann, ed., Cranach der Ältere, [Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt am Main]
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Link http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/artdok/volltexte/2012/2000
Pages81-89
Stadlober 2006 204-220
AuthorMargit Stadlober
TitleDer Wald in der Malerei und der Graphik des Donaustils
SeriesArs viva
Volume10
Place of PublicationVienna, Böhlau
Year of Publication2006
Marx, Mössinger, Roth 2005 16, 17 Pl. 1
AuthorHarald Marx, Ingrid Mössinger, Martin Roth
TitleVorwort
Publicationin Harald Marx, Ingrid Mössinger, Karin Kolb, ed., Cranach. Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication2005
Pages10-17
Rosenauer 2003 481
AuthorA. Rosenauer
TitleSpätmittelalter und Renaissance
SeriesGeschichte der bildenden Kunst in Österreich
Volume3
Place of PublicationMunich, Berlin, London et al.
Year of Publication2003
Ammann, Hastaba 1998 100
EditingGert Ammann, Ellen Hastaba
TitleSammelLust. 175 Jahre Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
Place of PublicationVienna, Innsbruck
Year of Publication1998
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1983 284 D 62 p. 273
EditorAltes Museum, Berlin
TitleKunst der Reformationzeit
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1983
Cat. Innsbruck 1979 43
EditorTiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck
TitleFührer durch die Schausammlungen. Katalog Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
Place of PublicationInnsbruck
Year of Publication1979
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 104 169
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 548, 551 409 Fig. 290a
AuthorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Castelli 1971 84 pl. XXXII-XXXIII
AuthorE. Castelli
TitleImages et symboles
Place of PublicationParis
Year of Publication1971
Thöne 1965 60
AuthorFriedrich Thöne
TitleLucas Cranach der Ältere
SeriesDie blauen Bücher
Place of PublicationKönigstein i. Taunus
Year of Publication1965
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1937 25 051 Pl. 49
EditorStaatliche Museen, Berlin
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. und Lucas Cranach d. J. Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Graphik
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1937
Cat. Innsbruck 1933 51 116
EditorTiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck
TitleFührer durch das Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
Place of PublicationInnsbruck
Year of Publication1933
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 144
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Weingartner 1930 76
AuthorJosef Weingartner
TitleDie altdeutschen Gemälde
JournalTirol. Natur, Kunst, Volk, Leben
Issue2/12-13 (1930)
Year of Publication1930
Pages66-76
Baldass 1928 81
AuthorLudwig Baldass
TitleCranachs Büssender Hieronymus von 1502
JournalJahrbuch der Preußischen Kunstsammlungen
Issue49
Year of Publication1928
Pages76-81
Cat. Innsbruck 1928 20 116
EditorJoseph Ringler
TitleMuseum Ferdinandeum Innsbruck. Katalog der Gemäldesammlung
Place of PublicationInnsbruck
Year of Publication1928
Flechsig 1900 A 172-174, 280
AuthorEduard Flechsig
TitleCranachstudien
Volume1
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1900
Link page/n5/mode/2up
Flechsig 1900 B 29 95
AuthorEduard Flechsig
TitleTafelbilder Lucas Cranachs d. Ä. und seiner Werkstatt
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1900
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/flechsig1900tafeln
Cat. Dresden 1899 92
AuthorKarl Woermann
TitleKatalog der Königlichen Gemäldegalerie zu Dresden. Grosse Ausgabe
Place of PublicationDresden
IssueFourth edition
Year of Publication1899
Link https://digital.slub-dresden.de/werkansicht/dlf/91887/7
Friedländer 1899 92
AuthorMax J. Friedländer
TitleDie Cranach-Ausstellung in Dresden
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
Issue22
Year of Publication1899
Pages236-249
Strompen 1895 4
AuthorCarl Strompen
TitleMadonnenbilder Lucas Cranachs in Innsbruck
JournalZeitschrift des Ferdinandeums für Tirol und Vorarlberg
Issue39
Year of Publication1895
Link http://www.landesmuseum.at/pdf_frei_remote/VeroeffFerd_3_39_0303-0334.pdf
Pages305-334
Cat. Innsbruck 1890 116
EditorTiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck
TitleKatalog der Gemälde-Sammlung im Ferdinandeum zu Innsbruck
Place of PublicationInnsbruck
Year of Publication1890

Research History / Discussion

See pdf document with article by Laura Resenberg, Neueste Erkenntnisse über das Holztafelgemälde "Hl. Hieronymus" von Lucas Cranach d. Ä, um 1525, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum Gem 116, first published in: Meighörner, Wolfgang (Hg.), Wissenschaftliches Jahrbuch der Tiroler Landesmuseen 2014, Innsbruck 2014, S. 218-239.

  • Saint Jerome in the Wilderness, about 1525

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Technical studies

06. 2014Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

(Evaluation based on a number of details)

Tools/Material:

- fluid, black medium, brush

Type/Ductus:

- freehand underdrawing

- thin to slightly broader lines

- occasional hatching-strokes

Function:

- relatively binding for the final painted version; the lines delineate the main contours, describe essential details and facial features; occasional representation of volume with hatching-strokes (only on the neck)

Deviations:

- minor corrections were made to the forms during the painting process; small changes

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder or a member of his workshop?

[Sandner, Smith-Contini, Heydenreich, cda 2016]

  • photographed by Johannes Plattner

Condition Reports

Date02. 2014 - 06. 2014

The support is stable and the light coloured wood is visible on the reverse. Old worm channels were truncated and revealed when the panel was thinned, which probably occurred when it was cradled. However this treatment has affected the stability of the panel. There are seven vertical battens glued to the reverse of the panel and six horizontal moveable members. Some of the joins were reglued before the cradle was attached, creating a slight step in the painted surface.

The wooden panel was fixed in a frame during the application of the ground, a barbe is visible along the top and bottom edges. At the top and bottom edges the ground and paint layers begin c. 0.8 cm from the edge of the panel. In places the ground seeped under the rebate where it extends almost as far as the edge of the panel.

In numerous areas tow was applied to the front surface of the panel before or after the ground application, but not over the joins. There are no wood defects or inserts visible where the tow was applied. These tow applications are now visible on the painted surface as circular shapes in relief. this is presumably due to previous solvent action that has swollen fibres and has caused raised paint layers or paint loss.

The paint layers are stable, except along the joins where flaking has occurred due to the lack of adhesion between the ground layers and the wooden surface of the panel. The surface is slightly dirty and exhibits abrasion caused by incorrect use of solvents in the past. Along the joins original paint has been covered by a generous application of fill material. In addition in many places the original paint is covered by extensive retouching. The older retouches have discoloured or are no longer fully present, so that many filled losses are only covered by a thin or no paint layer.

The yellowed coating is particularly apparent in the lighter areas. Aesthically this is not notably disturbing, but the thick, glossy varnish is very unpleasant. It has filled the cracquelée and covers the entire surface in a very thick layer, giving it the appearance of plastic.

[Laura Resenberg, Ferdinandeum 2014]

  • examined by Laura Resenberg

Date28.10.2005

Surface: in good condition

Varnish: very glossy (renewed by the restorer Ludwig Neuhauser)

The paint layers are adequately attached to the support/ground, damage along the rebate, numerous retouches, partially thinned

Support: in good condition

Frame: 81 cm in width, c. 40 cm in height, gold coloured slip with an egg-and-dart pattern and gold coloured outer profile, the flat middle plane is blue with ornamentation executed in gold paint at the centre and in the corners; renewed by Ludwig Neuhauser - in good condition

[Condition Report, Wilma Wechner, Ferdinandeum 2005]

  • examined by Wilma Wechner

Date1957 - 1986

Lime wood: 89 x 60.2 cm; Technique: Tempera and oil

Strips of fir wood (left 3.4 cm, right 3.2 cm) with a blue ground application (probably the reverse of a gothic panel painting) were added to either side of the panel. At the same time the panel was unprofessionally cradled. During this treatment the joins were reglued, creating a slight step, that was then levelled out with copious amounts of fill material and incompetently retouched. There are grooves at the top and bottom, which were necessary to fix the panel during the application of the ground. The support is very worm eaten. Three joins can be clearly identified.

[Condition Report, Ludwig Neuhauser (active from1957-1986), Ferdinandeum, n. d.]

  • examined by Ludwig Neuhauser

Conservation History

Date02. 2014 - 06. 2014

The reverse of the panel was surface cleaned with a hoover. The painted surface was cleaned first dry and then with a slightly damp sponge (Mikroporenschwämmchen, Deffner & Johann). Then the varnish was first thinned employing a mixture of Isooctane and Isopropanol (50:50 volume parts) and removed as far a possible. In the dark areas of the painting previous solvent action had rendered the paint very sensitive to the solvent mixture making it soluble. Here a thin layer of the old varnish was retained. The blackish-grey painted area with the rocky outcrop in the background was particularly affected. In contrast the green or lighter zones were surprisingly robust with resect to the action of the solvent mixture.

The old, thickly applied retouches and overpaint that extended beyond the areas of loss were removed with undiluted Isopropanol or mechanically with a scalpel. The extensive fills covering the area along the joins, where the planks were not flush, was removed mechanically with a scalpel under the microscope. A considerable amount of original paint was revealed.

Losses were filled with a glue-chalk fill material. A dammar varnish was applied with a ball to achieve a thin isolating layer. Then the surface of the fills were isolated with schellac. Retouching was carried out employing Gamblin Colors using 1-Methoxy-2-Propanol as a diluent.

Finally the painting was sprayed with a thin application of dammar varnish and polished with a soft goat hair brush. It was then fitted in the frame with a glass pane (flabeg ARTControl 100) with UV-protection. The rebate of the frame had been cleaned and a slip was inserted to ensure a suitable distance between the pane and the surface of the painting. The slip had been painted black and cushioned with felt strips fixed in place with methylcellulose. A backboard was mounted on the reverse.

  • restauriert von Laura Resenberg

Date1957 - 1986

  • a new split in the centre of the panel was glued. The additions [either side] were removed. Some of the overpaint was removed by solvent cleaning, the [remaining] thick, later paint application was removed mechanically. The shaky, uncertain insignia disappeared during cleaning. Small losses were filled and retouched. A new frame was produced.

[Treatment Report, Ludwig Neuhauser (active from 1957-1986), Ferdinandeum, n. d.]

  • conservation treatment by Ludwig Neuhauser

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'Saint Jerome in the Wilderness', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/AT_TLFI_Gem116/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'Saint Jerome in the Wilderness', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/AT_TLFI_Gem116/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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