Cranach - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian
Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur
23.11.2017 - 00:55
Choose objects with for comparison
Painting:
CDA ID / Inventory NumberCH_SORW_1925-1b
Persistent Linkhttp://lucascranach.org/CH_SORW_1925-1b
FR (1978) No.FR006
Title:
Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian
The Wedding Portrait of Dr. Johannes Cuspinian and Anna Cuspinian-Putsch[Koepplin, Cat. Winterthur 2003]
Hide content...
Attribution:
Lucas Cranach the Elder [Heydenreich 1998 A, 182]
Dating:
1502[Koepplin 2003, 127]
about 1502-1503[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1978, 66] [Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994, 298][Heydenreich 1998 A, 182]
Hide content...
Owner / Repository / Location:
OwnerSammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur
RepositorySammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur
LocationWinterthur
Dimensions:
Dimensions of support: 60.3 x 45.5 x 0.45-0.55 cm (almost original size)
Support:
Painting on spruce (Picea sp.)
Signature / Date:
None
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
Original Inscriptions:
Fragmentary painted remains of the combined coat of arms of the Spiessheimer (latinized Cuspinianus) and Putsch families on the reverse of the panel
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
The reverse of the panel is branded with the insignia 'CR' (Carlus Rex) on the bottom right, above which there is a crown (it is identical to the markings on the reverse of the Portrait of Anna Cuspinian)
Description:
Half-length Portrait of the historiographer Dr. Johannes Cuspinian (actually called Spiessheimer) Part of a diptych (Pendant piece to the portrait of Anna Cuspinian)
Provenance:
- King Charles I of England
- Locker-Lampson Family, England
- Baron of Sandys, England
- art market A. -G., Luzern, Julius Böhler gall.
- acquired by Reinhart in 1925
Exhibitions:
Bern 1939-1940, No. 62-63, Plate III
Zurich 1940-1941, No. 39-40, Plates XI-XII
Winterthur 1955, No. 42-43, Plate V.
Kronach 1994, No. 118
Sources / Publications:
Reference on PageCatalogue NumberFigure/Plate
Bonnet, Görres 201517-193p. 18
Exhib. Cat. Vienna 2011113Fig. 1a
Martin 201050
Borggrefe 201069, 70Fig. 3, p. 68
Borchert 201027
Heydenreich 2007 A39, 47, 52, 55, 56, 86, 87, 97, 102, 115, 140, 149, 178, 185, 193, 196, 200, 221, 227,309
Evans 200750, 511
Brinkmann 200718
Cat. Winterthur 2003127-133
Heiser 2002
Warnke 1999157, 382
Sandner 1998 B83, 122, 123Fig. 14.3
Exhib. Cat. Eisenach 1998122-12314.3Fig. 14.3
Heydenreich 1998 A186, 197
Heydenreich 19979
Cat. Nuremberg 1997124
Marx 199718
Rebel 1994131, 133Fig. A72
Stievermann 199466
Hinz 19939-11
Frehner 199318-20
Wood 199347, 73ff.
Schneider 199282-87
Silver 1983
Friedländer, Rosenberg 197967No. 6Fig. 6
Silver, Koepplin 1976
Cat. Winterthur 197537, 329, 330
Schade 197415, 17-18
Exhib. Cat. Basel 197419, 81, 121, 130, 131, 142, 160-168Fig. 55
Koepplin 1973 A
Koepplin 1973 B70-71
Rosenberg 196933f.
Benesch 196664-67
Grote 1965166
Stange 196458
Ruhmer 196386
Ankwicz Kleehoven 195930-34
Buchner 1953
Lüdecke 1953 B28-30, 83
Pinder 1939/1940
Friedländer, Rosenberg 19326, 7
Ankwicz Kleehoven 1927
Friedländer 1926
Interpretation / History / Discussion:
This panel and its pendant piece (Anna Cuspinian) can be considered together as a single work, which was probably commissioned as a wedding portrait. The sitter is Johannes Cuspinian, a humanist born in Franken. In 1492, attracted by the intellectual circles, he moved to Vienna. Here he met his future wife Anna Putsch, the daughter of the royal treasurer Ulrich Putsch and depicted in the pendant piece. The continuous landscape into which the sitters have been placed is only divided by the frame and thus supports the theory that both portraits were conceived as a unit. The original frame was probably hinged so that it could be closed or propped upright and did not necessarily hang on the wall. Various elements subtly convey both Christian and humanistic symbolic meaning, some alluding to love and wedlock. 'In den Worten von Ernst Buchner 'Der frühlingshafte Zauber eines neuen Weltzeitalters liegt über den Tafeln.' (In the words of Ernst Buchner 'A spring magic of a new age envelopes these panels.')
[Koepplin 2003, 133]
Description in [Friedlander, Rosenberg 1978, 66-67]; [Koepplin 1973]
Material / Technique:
  • Date: 29.03.1998
  • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
  • Support
  • Identification of wood species; Microscopy of cross-section:
    Result: Species: Spruce (Picea sp.)
    Sample taken by Heydenreich 1995

    [Letter in the archive, Oskar Reinhart Collection 'am Römerholz', Winterthur]
    - Old catalogue entry by Frehner: Limewood
    • analysed by: Peter Klein
    • Date: 06.09.1995
    • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
    • X-radiography
    • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
    • Instrumental material analysis
    • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
    • Stereomicroscopy
    • Infrared reflectography
    • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - ReverseLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - ReverseLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Infrared Images
    • Ground and Imprimatura
    • The painting has a white ground. It appears to be a glue/chalk ground (EDX analysis of a sample from the Portrait of Anna Cuspinian showed the presence of calcium). In the x-radiograph light scratches are visible to the left of the head that may have occurred when the panel was sanded down. A burr created by the ground is present on all four sides of the panel about 0.5 cm from the edge (on the left 0.3-0.2 cm). Particles of wood are attached to the bare wood along the burr. The area to which ground was applied measures 59.1 x 44.5-44.8 cm. There are no incised lines visible along the edge. The burr is covered with a layer of black paint. There is a very thin white ground on the reverse.
      A pigmented imprimatur cannot be identified.
    • Support
    • The support consists of one broad tangentially cut pinewood plank (60.3 x 45.4 cm; a ratio of c. 4:3) with the grain running vertically. A knot close to the bottom edge, left of the centre, has been preserved. It may be concluded from the rings visible in the x-radiograph that both panels of the diptych are from the same plank. The top edge of the panel depicting Anna Cuspinian can be matched with the bottom edge of the panel depicting Johannes. In the area to the left of his head attire a local application of fibres (flax tow) is visible in the x-radiography. The reverse of the panel has been smoothed with a plane. The edge of the panel has been slightly bevelled/chamfered on the reverse along all sides. The left side of the panel may have been cropped by 2-3 mm.
    • Underdrawing
    • Black fluid drawing medium, probably applied with a brush. Visible with the naked eye in amongst others the area of the upper lip. Lines have partially separated into single islands of colour, possibly resulting from a water-based ink and the repellent action of an oily isolating layer.
      [ Infrared reflectogram (Konrad, Berlin)]
    • Paint Layers and Gilding
    • Gilding:
      The stars and rings were created with gold coloured metal leaf, which appears to be gold leaf. The rays emanating from the stars were created by applying blue pigment to the metal leaf and then extended this with yellow paint.

      Paint Layers:
      The initial layer of the flesh paint is a pinkish dead colouring. It is a rather flat application predominantly in the vertical direction. The subsequent modelling of the physiognomy was carried out with coloured glazes and lighter admixtures with lead white. While opaque mixtures of red and white were employed for the pink tones, brown tones were rather transparent. Small amounts of blue pigment were identified in the areas of shadow.
      In the x-radiograph the face appears to be executed with a degree of fluidity and exhibits a relatively weak absorption profile (an apparent profile, which is created by the varying x-ray absorption subject to the pigments and the layer thickness). The forehead, cheekbone and nose are emphasized with highlights to clarify the facial features and lighting. The eyeballs are painted bluish white; the iris blue and the pupils are black without reflections. The modelling beneath the eye is reddish in tone, while the eyelid is painted in brown to black shadow. The lips are described in pink paint and a brown line separates the upper from the lower.

      The sky was initially painted with a violet to grey admixture (identified as fluorite and lead white (EDX) in the portrait of Anna Cuspinian. This grey underpainting was lightened to white along the horizon.

      The sitter's black brocade robe contains azurite pigment particles (stereomicroscopic examination of the paint surface). In the lighter areas of the robe red lake pigments also appear to be present alongside the azurite.

      The head attire seems to be underpainted in with an opaque red paint, while the subsequent modelling is carried out with a red glaze applied in various thicknesses- in part with the addition of black.
      The book was under painted with bright red paint, the edge of which was removed by the application of a grey glaze. The pattern is partially scratched into the paint. It seems that Cranach pressed his finger into the wet paint to create the impression of bark on the tree trunk (background, left).

      [see 1995 CA10 (Dr Gunnar Heydenreich)]
      • written by: Gunnar Heydenreich
      • Date: 1995
      • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
      • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
      • Microscopy of paint cross-section; incident light, ultraviolet light:
        Sample list: 86
        Cross-section number: EP 184
        Brief description of paint: white paint, painting of a coat of arms
        Location: Reverse, white paint
        Incident Light microscopy: yes
        Incident light microscopy_photo: slide
        Ultraviolet light: yes
        Ultraviolet light microscopy_photo: no
        EDX: no

        Observations:
        2. very thin white layer - paint layer
        1. thin white layer - ground
        0. wood

        Comment: white paint over a thin ground on wood

        [see 06.09.1995 CA10 (Dr Gunnar Heydenreich)]
        • written by: Gunnar Heydenreich
        • Date:
        • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
        • X-radiography
        • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - X-Radiographs
            • Date:
            • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
            • Infrared reflectography
            • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian - Infrared Images
            • Underdrawing
            • DESCRIPTION

              Tools/Materials:
              - fluid, black medium and brush

              Type/Ductus:
              - freehand underdrawing
              - thin lines

              Function:
              - relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; no representation of volume

              Deviations:
              - minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define form

              INTERPRETATION

              Attribution:
              - Lucas Cranach the Elder

              [Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2013]
                Condition Reports:
                • Date: 2003
                • "Das Bild befindet sich in einem guten Zustand. Die Holztafel ist etwas gewölbt. Inkarnat und Himmel sind etwas stark gereinigt. Einige, zum Teil verfärbte Retouchen im Himmel und im Mantel" [Koepplin 2003, 127]
                  • Date: 1995
                  • The painting is in a stable condition. In the past the support was damaged and reconstructed along the bottom and top left edge (top c. 18.5 x 2.5 cm; below c. 7 x 1 cm). The panel is slightly warped and partially weakened by woodworm. On the bottom edge there is a crack. The paint layers are damaged in the area of the fur collar and brocade coat. There are drying cracks in the area of the head attire.
                  • written by: Gunnar Heydenreich
                  History of Restoration:
                  • Date: 1969
                  • Documentation of restoration from 1969 Dr. Paolo Cadorin, Basel Treatment Report: 'A) Small blisters in the paint layer were reduced, particularly in the central part of the image. B) Consolidation of the complete paint layer C) Elimination of disturbing retouches, which had darkened. [Archive, Oskar Reinhart Collection 'am Römerholz', Winterthur, revised 2011]
                  • conservation treatment by: Paolo Cadorin
                  • Date: 1968
                  • Documentation of restoration from 1968 W. Geissmann, Zurich Treatment Report: Frame: old coatings removed and replaced by new gilding [Archive, Oskar Reinhart Collection 'am Römerholz', Winterthur, revised 2011]
                  • conservation treatment by: W Geissmann
                  • Date: 1925
                  • Documentation of restoration from c. 1925 Kinkelin, Munich 'According to the present owner the paintings were restored in Munich (by Kinkelin) shortly after their appearance on the art market. Some overpaint was removed during this intervention.' [Koepplin 1973, 66]
                  • conservation treatment by: Kinkelin
                  • Date:
                  • Documentation of restoration from 19?? Paul Pfister Treatment Report: ,Construction of two climatically controlled display cases, surface cleaning, local application of a dilute solution of dammar varnish to areas where the varnish had sunk.' [Archive, Oskar Reinhart Collection 'am Römerholz', Winterthur, revised 2011]
                  • conservation treatment by: Paul Pfister