Cranach - The Fourteen Helpers in Need (recto), Man of Sorrows between two angels (verso)
The Fourteen Helpers in Need (recto), Man of Sorrows between two angels (verso)
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Ev. Kirchgemeinde St. Marien, Torgau
23.11.2017 - 00:54
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Painting:
CDA ID / Inventory NumberDE_StMT
Persistent Linkhttp://lucascranach.org/DE_StMT
FR (1978) No.FR016
Title:
The Fourteen Helpers in Need (recto), Man of Sorrows between two angels (verso)[cda 2011]
Attribution:
Lucas Cranach the Elder [Sandner 1998 B, 103] [Friedländer, Rosenberg 1978, 69, No. 16]
Dating:
about 1505 - 1508[Heydenreich, cda, 2011] [Ritschel 1995, 53]
about 1505[Sandner 1998 B, 103][Grimm 1998, 70] [Schade, Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1971, 100]
1505[Michaelson 1902, 24] [Flechsig 1900 A, 82] [Woltmann, Woermann 1882, 419]
about 1505-1507[Heydenreich 2007 A, 60]
1505-1506[Vogel 1832, 82]
about 1506[Harksen, Magirius 1993, 12f.]
1506with a questionmark [Gronau 1972, Bd. 2, 82-106] [Mielsch 1924] [Glaser 1921, 47]
about 1507[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1978, 69, No. 16] [Harksen, Magirius 1962, 26] [Exhib. Cat. Weimar, Wittenberg 1953, 20] [Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1937, 16] [Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932, 30, No. 15] [Friedländer 1899, 244] [Woermann, Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1899, 31]
about 1506-1508[Swarzenski 1907, 61]
1507[Barbe 1939, 11] [Mielsch 1936, 20] [Tucholski 1930, 8] [Mielsch 1923, 20]
1509[Harksen 1958, 38][Schuchardt 1998 B, 13]
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Owner / Repository / Location:
OwnerEv. Kirchgemeinde St. Marien, Torgau
RepositoryEv. Kirchgemeinde St. Marien, Torgau
LocationTorgau
Dimensions:
Dimensions of support: 84.3 x 117.8 x 0.8 - 0.9 cm (original) Dimensions including frame: 96.2 x 129.8 x 5.2 cm [Heydenreich, cda 2011]
Support:
Painting on lime wood (Tilia sp.) [Heydenreich, CDA 2011]
Signature / Date:
None
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
- there are various dates, initials and inscriptions on the reverse of the panel from 16th century to more recent times [Heydenreich, CDA 2011]
Description:
Recto: 'In the middle, a St Christopher. On the left Sts Maurice, with armor and banner; Pantaleon, with both hands nailed to this head; Blasius, with a burning candle; George with the dragon; Achatius with the switch of thorns; and Eustace with the stag. On the right are Barbara; Catherine; Vitus with the rooster; Erasmus with the entrails wound around a spit; Cyprian with the chained dragon; Giles with the she-dog; and the beheaded Dionysius, holding his head in both hands.' Verso: 'On the reverse is a partially damage Man of Sorrows between two angels.' [Friedländer, Rosenberg 1978, 69, No. 16]
Provenance:
'This panel is probably the predella of the vast 'Altarpiece of St Anne and the Fourteen Helpers in Need' in the entrance to the choir of the Marienkirche in Torgau. The altar was donated by Friedrich III the Wise and his brother Johann the Steadfast in memory of the latter's first wife Sophie of Mecklenburg (died July 12, 1503), and was dedicated on July 19, 1505.'

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1978, 69, No. 16]
Exhibitions:
Dresden 1899
Berlin 1937
Weimar 1972
Kronach 1994, No. 199
Sources / Publications:
Reference on PageCatalogue NumberFigure/Plate
Heydenreich 2007 A8, 9, 32, 57, 60, 61, 94, 100, 102, 107, 108, 111, 112, 116, 118-120, 149, 150, 163, 184-187, 193, 199, 208, 210, 215, 220, 222,
Heydenreich 2007 B37-38, 4412, 13
Cat. Frankfurt 2005214, 218, 219
Heydenreich 1998 A186, 195Fig. 21.17
Sandner 1998 B87, 89, 103-105, 10712Figs. 12.1, 12.2, 12.3
Exhib. Cat. Eisenach 1998103-105, 10712Figs. 12.1, 12.2, 12.3
Schuchardt 1998 B13
Grimm 199869, 70Fig. 9.3
Ritschel 19967-26
Neelmeijer et al. 1995326-329
Ritschel 199538-62
Sandner, Ritschel 1994190, 191Fig. A131
Thümmel 1994167
Harksen, Magirius 199312f.
Riemann 1980115-118, 151-152
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974255, 450
Schade 1974Figs. 36, 37, 38, 39, 40
Gronau 197224-27 (Bd. 1)
Riemann 1972 A
Exhib. Cat. Weimar 1972 B169No. 2Fig. 35
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1971102
Harksen, Magirius 196226
Harksen 1958
Barbe 19395-11
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1937No. 11Fig. 18
Mielsch 193620
Friedländer, Rosenberg 193215
Tucholski 19308
Mielsch 1924
Mielsch 192320-23
Glaser 192347
Swarzenski 190749-65
Michaelson 190224
Flechsig 1900 B10No. 5
Flechsig 1900 A82
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 189966No. 98
Friedländer 1899244
Woltmann, Woermann 1882419
Bürger, Grulich 1855
Vogel 183281-84
Interpretation / History / Discussion:
Most recent extensive description of the history, dating and attribution: see: [Ritschel 1995, 38-62]
Printed description of the Helpers in Need and the Anna altarpiece in the Marienkirche, Torgau 1671:
'This Altar/ shows the 14 Helpers in Need/ as well as St Anna and other portraits of saints very beautifully and artistically painted/ still stands/ however employed for another and better purpose/ and every Sunday and feast day donations were made on it during the Mass…'
[Hofmann, Paul: 'Christliches und Torgauisches Jubilate oder Predigt in der Churfürstl. Sächs. Schloß-Capelle zu Torgau', Torgau 1671] quoted from [Ritschel 1996, 13]
Treasury invoice (Gotteskastenrechnung) 1697/1698 (Demolition of the altarpiece belonging to the tomb of Sophie):

'... helped pull down the old front altarpiece, bring the stone into the churchyard, created the paintings in the sacresty vaults...'
[Rechnung … des Gemeinen Gotteskastens zu Torgau … Trinitatis 1697 – Trinitatis 1698, 71, Stadtarchiv Torgau, Nr. 2851] quoted from [Ritschel 1996, 13]
Material / Technique:
  • Date: 2011
  • Technical Examination
  • Support
  • - lime wood (Tilia Sp.)
    - 13 vertical planks, butt joined and glued
    - widths seen from the reverse, from the top left to the top right: 11/9.4/11/8.1/9.7/13.7/4.5/10.4/6/8.4/9.6/8.8/7.2 cm;
    from the bottom left to the bottom right: 10.3/8.6/12.1/7.5/11.2/12.8/3.9/10.4/5.4/8.5/8.9/9.6/7.8 cm
    - the edge of the panel is straight; the dimensions are the original (not cropped)
    - a piece of wood measuring c. 2 x 2 cm has been inserted into a damage in the panel in the area of St Erasmus' head
    - the joins do not appear to have been covered with an application of canvas or fibre
    - there are at least seven dowels on the reverse parallel to the top edge; all of the dowels have been cut down to the level of the panel surface and are partially covered by the ground and paint layers; their function is unknown
  • Ground and Imprimatura
  • - there is a thin white ground application on both sides of the panel
    - the barbe along the edge of the ground has been preserved on both sides; c. 1 cm from the edge of the panel
    - incised lines run parallel to the barbe, the gilding extends beyond it in places, indicating that the panel was not fitted in a frame during the painting process
    - lead white imprimitura
    • written by: Gunnar Heydenreich
    • Date: 2007
    • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
    • Support
    • 'In 1507 a Michel Tischer made the panels for an altarpiece of St Anne to be painted by Cranach (app. II, 18). This particular task can possibly be linked with the preserved predella The Fourteen Helpers in Need (c.1505/07) at Torgau.3 As with almost all panels produced between 1505 and 1510, this predella follows a characteristic production method (see p. 60, fi gs 34, 35), suggesting that Michel Tischer prepared the majority of panels used by the court painter during these years. If this is the same person as the Meister Michel Tischer who, among other things, produced doors, windows, shutters and panelling at Schloss Hartenfels between 1514 and 1517 (app. II, 63),4 then we have here some explanation as to why he always glued the planks of the early panels with the grain oriented parallel to the shorter dimension of the panel. For centuries this practice has remained in continuous use for the production of shutters, door panels and wainscoting.'
      [Heydenreich 2007 A, 275]
    • Ground and Imprimatura
    • 'Only a few years later, an extensive modelling of the volumes with greyish washes preceded the ‘working up’ of the Fourteen Helpers in Need (1505/07, fig. p. 8, figs 90, 91). Compared to others, this picture is characterised by a particularly fast application of paint. The underdrawing obviously served to shorten the painting process. The white imprimatura on top of the drawing smoothes out washes, some strokes of hatching, and the outlines, resulting in a grisaille -like undermodelling.'

      [Heydenreich 2007 A, 107-108]
    • Paint Layers and Gilding
    • 'On the Fourteen Helpers in Need , Cranach underpainted the cloak of St Christopher with red iron oxide , red lead and vermilion (fig. 84), and the folds are defi ned with red iron oxide, vermilion and black paint. Shadows are deepened in black and illuminated edges are indicated with vermilion. Finally, luminosity was heightened by a red glaze applied over
      large passages (D, fig. 134). In contrast the robes of St Panthaleon, the infant Christ and the angel on the verso are given shape with lead white mixed with red lake pigments (B, figs 95, 187). The underlying paint is an opaque pink, layered over with semi-transparent shades and, fi nally, translucent red glazes . A higher content of white emphasises the folds and rich red glazes accentuate the shadows. Here the specifi c red lake pigment used for fi nal glazing differs from that used in the underpainting (see p. 139). St Erasmus' mitre and St Dionysius2019 robe are again worked up in a different technique (figs 34, 95).
      Here the painter achieved the velvety effect simply with red glazes over black washes of the underdrawing (A). On the reverse of the same panel, the inner lining of the robe of the angel on the left, painted with red iron oxide and lead tin yellow in yellow-red tone, demonstrates Cranach's extensive repertoire (P).'

      [Heydenreich 2007 A, 185]

      'Because of the high calcium content in the black background paint of the Fourteen Helpers in Need , Neelmeijer, Wagner and Schramm concluded that ivory black had been used.260 However, EDX examination of cross-sections showed that, although the black paint contains traces of white calcium salt,
      there is no phosphorus to indicate the presence of bone black or ivory black. There are various reasons why calcium carbonate would be present as a component of paint containing soot: it could be a residue from combustion, vestiges of calcium from the preparation process,261 or a mixture with an organic lake pigment containing chalk as an extender or substrate.262 It is also conceivable that chalk was added to the soot black , which is of small particle size, in order to improve its handling properties and/or to reduce the amount of binding medium. The addition of chalk would also improve the drying properties (see p. 133).'

      [Heydenreich 2007 A, 163]

      'On various works such as the Crucifixion (1503), the panel with the Fourteen Helpers in Need (c.1505/07) and the Altarpiece of the Holy Kinship (1509), hands are used to finely disperse glazes.'

      [Heydenreich 2007 A, 193]

      'On the panel with the Fourteen Helpers in Need (c.1505/07), the washes with a black drawing medium that model shadows create a close link between the underdrawing and the painting process (figs 90, 91). Black ink, the white imprimatura and thin, slightly translucent fl esh tones were used to create grey half shadows. No similar modelling has been observed on any other of the works examined. On this panel the light modelling was achieved either by a stippling application of paint or with softly flowing strokes of the brush without necessarily being related to the anatomical form. The paint was subtly worked up into bright pink fl esh tints or shaded to pale tones, in the latter case using azurite . On the X-radiographs it becomes particularly evident that the smooth shapes of womens' faces were highlighted by stippling the paint with a blunt bristle brush. The intended effect was achieved with a few brown and pink glazes either spread on or hatched. Last, reflections of light, very deep shadow folds and contour lines were emphasised with a pointed brush.

      [Heydenreich 2007 A, 199-200]

      'As already pointed out, the first layer of the fl esh was carried out in a very early stage; but the final graduation of tonal values was one of the last measures in the entire painting process (fig. 174).102 To illustrate this point, the panel with the Fourteen Helpers in Need (c.1505/07) has pink-coloured highlights that have been applied on previously painted drapery in the areas of the necks of St Cyprian and St Giles (fig. 177), while flesh tints on St Giles at the end have again been trimmed by the borderline of the paint modeling the black robe.'

      [Heydenreich 2007 A, 210]

      Gilding
      'The gold on several panels such as the Portrait of the Wife of a Viennese Scholar (1503), the Fourteen Helpers in Need (c.1505/07) and the Holy Trinity (c.1515) was beaten to a thickness of approximately 500 nanometres (that is, 0.0005
      millimetres).'

      [Heydenreich 2007 A, 116]

      'On the Fourteen Helpers in Need (1505/07), the adhesive is a drying oil containing lead white , lead-tin yellow, chalk , ochre , copper green and vermilion .'

      [Heydenreich 2007 A, 119-20]

      'The practices varied in the case of matt gilding . On the panel depicting the Fourteen Helpers in Need (c.1505/07, fifig. 34), the areas that were to be mordant gilded were outlined with a stylus before the white imprimatura was applied. Several details of drapery are also marked under the gold (figg. 94). However, when applying red-brown glazes on the gilding to model the shadows, Cranach largely ignored the incisions. It was not even necessary to mark the outline for this gilding technique, since the mordant could be applied exactly to the designated areas and thus adhesion could be restricted to these surfaces.
      Thus, the spandrels on the verso of the panel with the Fourteen Helpers in Need are no longer delineated with incisions.'

      [Heydenreich 2007 A, 112]

      'On the Fourteen Helpers in Need (c.1505/07), he gave spatial effect to the metal leaf by extensive red-brown glazing (ifi gs 34, 187).'

      [Heydenreich 2007 A, 120]
        • Date: 1995
        • Scientific analysis
        • Instrumental material analysis
        • PIXE - Analysis
          • examined by: Wolfgang Wagner
          • examined by: Christian Neelmeijer
          • examined by: Hans-Peter Schramm
          • Date: 1995
          • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
          • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
          • Instrumental material analysis
          • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Ev. Kirchgemeinde St. Marien, Torgau - The Fourteen Helpers in Need (recto), Man of Sorrows between two angels (verso) - Analysis
          • Analysis of cross-sections; Incident light microscopy; UV fluorescence; Staining tests; SEM/EDX:

            Probenliste Heydenreich [50]
            Object No.: FR 016
            Coss-section No. EP 081
            Brief description of paint: green robe of St Blase
            Sample location: front, green robe of St Blase, edge of loss along the join
            Sample No.: 143
            Incident light microscopy: yes
            Incident light microscopy, photograph: yes
            UV fluorescence: yes
            UV fluorescence, photograph: yes
            Observations:
            8. brown transparent layer - yellowish fluorescence - glaze, varnish
            7. brown pigmented layer - no fluorescence - glaze?, retouching?
            6. brown transparent layer - yellow fluorescence - glaze?, varnish?
            5. green layer - little fluorescence - modelling, three green layers increasing in intensity towards the top
            4. green layer - little fluorescence - modelling
            3. green layer - green transparent lumps with unclear contours, whitish lumps - lead white, one red pigment particle, possibly yellow? little fluorescence, one inclusion slightly paler, undermodelling
            2. white layer - white, slightly glassy, yellow fluorescence - imprimitura
            1. black layer - very fine black pigment - no fluorescence - underdawing
            0. white layer - yellow fluorescence - ground
            Commentary: There are three layers of green modelling in green pigmented paint above the underdrawing and white imprimatura, over this there may be glazes or an old varnish
            [see Heydenreich 2007 A, 149]

            The following pigments were identified on the panel in Torgau:
            - lead white
            - lead tin yellow
            - vermillion
            - carbon black (lamp black?)
            - red lake (Al, with orange fluorescence in UV)
            - red lake (Ca, without orange fluorescence in UV)
            - copper green
            - green glaze on the basis of copper green
            - red iron oxide
            - red lead
            - brown glaze
            - azurite
            - chalk

            [Heydenreich 1995, unpublished examination report]
            • examined by: Hans-Peter Schramm
            • written by: Gunnar Heydenreich
            • examined by: Christalle
            • examined by: Gunnar Heydenreich
            • examined by: Wolfgang Wagner
            • examined by: Christian Neelmeijer
            • Date: 1995
            • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
            • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
            • Instrumental material analysis
            • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Ev. Kirchgemeinde St. Marien, Torgau - The Fourteen Helpers in Need (recto), Man of Sorrows between two angels (verso) - Analysis
            • Analysis of cross-sections; Incident light microscopy; UV fluorescence; Staining tests; SEM/EDX:

              Probenliste Heydenreich [50]
              Object No.: FR 016
              Coss-section No. EP 081
              Brief description of paint: green robe of St Blase
              Sample location: front, green robe of St Blase, edge of loss along the join
              Sample No.: 143
              Incident light microscopy: yes
              Incident light microscopy, photograph: yes
              UV fluorescence: yes
              UV fluorescence, photograph: yes
              Observations:
              8. brown transparent layer - yellowish fluorescence - glaze, varnish
              7. brown pigmented layer - no fluorescence - glaze?, retouching?
              6. brown transparent layer - yellow fluorescence - glaze?, varnish?
              5. green layer - little fluorescence - modelling, three green layers increasing in intensity towards the top
              4. green layer - little fluorescence - modelling
              3. green layer - green transparent lumps with unclear contours, whitish lumps - lead white, one red pigment particle, possibly yellow? little fluorescence, one inclusion slightly paler, undermodelling
              2. white layer - white, slightly glassy, yellow fluorescence - imprimitura
              1. black layer - very fine black pigment - no fluorescence - underdawing
              0. white layer - yellow fluorescence - ground
              Commentary: There are three layers of green modelling in green pigmented paint above the underdrawing and white imprimatura, over this there may be glazes or an old varnish
              [see Heydenreich 2007 A, 149]

              The following pigments were identified on the panel in Torgau:
              - lead white
              - lead tin yellow
              - vermillion
              - carbon black (lamp black?)
              - red lake (Al, with orange fluorescence in UV)
              - red lake (Ca, without orange fluorescence in UV)
              - copper green
              - green glaze on the basis of copper green
              - red iron oxide
              - red lead
              - brown glaze
              - azurite
              - chalk

              [Heydenreich 1995, unpublished examination report]
              • examined by: Hans-Peter Schramm
              • written by: Gunnar Heydenreich
              • examined by: Christalle
              • examined by: Gunnar Heydenreich
              • examined by: Wolfgang Wagner
              • examined by: Christian Neelmeijer
              • Date: 1995
              • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
              • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
              • Instrumental material analysis
              • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Ev. Kirchgemeinde St. Marien, Torgau - The Fourteen Helpers in Need (recto), Man of Sorrows between two angels (verso) - Analysis
              • Analysis of cross-sections; Incident light microscopy; UV fluorescence; Staining tests; SEM/EDX:

                Probenliste Heydenreich [60]
                Object No.: FR 016
                Cross-section No.: EP 087
                Brief description of paint: green robe of Eustachius
                Sample location: front, Eustachius, green robe, left edge of he painting, at the height of the stag's eye
                Sample No.: 153
                Methods of analysis: partial vapour phase deposition
                SEM/EDX: yes (Rossendorf)
                SEM/EDX photograph: yes

                Observations:
                6. dark brownish layer with red inclusions, relatively clear UV-fluorescence, indicating a natural resin, varnish? in SEM lighter [Si!!, Al!, Ca!, Pb, Cu, O, C, Fe] likr the brown glaze of the flesh paint, indicating that it may be an original glaze, possibly a correction carried out by Cranach?
                5. glassy brown layer, without visible pigments, varnish? Very dark in SEM, stronger fluorescence thn in other layers,
                [C!!, O!!, Ca!, Al, Pb, Cl?, Si], the layer may contain resin, either oiginal varnish or an organic green glaze on Ca, Al, little copper ions
                4. bright green layer, no fluorescence, darker than layer 3 in SEM, dark: [Cu!!, Pb, C, O,
                Ca, Al]; light: [Cu!!, C, O, Al], lead siccative like the green glaze on St Christopher's neck; green glaze based on copper green?
                3. green layer, containing lake particles with an orange fluorescence and one without, otherwise the same as layer 2
                2. green layer, thick, yellow green layer with coarsely ground pigments and white inclusions, belongs with layer 3, darker than layer 3 in SEM, green pigment particle [Cu!, Pb!, O, C] copper green, in part with a striking structure (verdigris?); glassy particles [Pb!!, Sn!, Cu!, Al] lead tin yellow; bluish white particle [Cu!!, Pb!!] lead white, yellow particle [Pb, Sn] lead tin yellow, brown particle [Ca!!, C!, S, O] red lake on Ca? - green undermodelling is an admixture of copper green, lead white, lead tin yellow and a reddish brown glaze
                1. white imprimitura
                0. white layer - ground

                Commentary: green layer structure in numerous layers, further examination would be useful

                The following pigments were identified on the panel in Torgau:
                - lead white
                - lead tin yellow
                - vermillion
                - carbon black (lamp black?)
                - red lake (Al, with orange fluorescence in UV)
                - red lake (Ca, without orange fluorescence in UV)
                - copper green
                - green glaze on the basis of copper green
                - red iron oxide
                - red lead
                - brown glaze
                - azurite
                - chalk

                [Heydenreich 1995, unpublished examination report]
                • examined by: Hans-Peter Schramm
                • written by: Gunnar Heydenreich
                • examined by: Christalle
                • examined by: Gunnar Heydenreich
                • examined by: Wolfgang Wagner
                • examined by: Christian Neelmeijer
                • Date: 1995
                • Technical Examination
                • Framing
                • - new frame - made and fitted during the conservation treatment of 1969-1971
                  [Ritschel 1995, 53]
                    • Date: 1995
                    • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                    • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
                    • Instrumental material analysis
                    • Analysis of cross-sections; Incident light microscopy; UV fluorescence; Staining tests; SEM/EDX:

                      Probenliste Heydenreich [38]
                      Object No.: FR 016
                      Cross-section No.: EP 001
                      Brief description of paint: flesh paint, Christ's arm
                      Sample location: Reverse, flesh paint of Christ, right arm, bottom edge of the large loss, centre
                      Sample No.: 001
                      Incident light microscopy: yes
                      Incident light microscopy, photograph: 2 slides
                      UV fluorescence:
                      UV fluorescence photograph:
                      Staining test for protein:
                      Staining test for protein, photograph:
                      Staining test for oil:
                      Staining test for oil, photograph:
                      SEM/EDX: yes
                      SEM/EDX photograph:
                      Observations:
                      2. brownish transparent layer [Ca!! O - Pb - C - Al - Mg -] not easy to differentiate, the thickness of the layer is unclear
                      1. the flesh paint is almost white [Pb!! Ca C - O- Al-] with glassy transparent and glassy yellowish inclusions; pigment particles [Si!! Ca! C! Pb O] there may be a red and blue pigment particle in the centre
                      0. the ground is missing
                      Commentary: The flesh paint appears homogenous and as a single layer it is very pale, containing only a small addition of coloured pigment (blue, red). A proportion of the glassy, partially more yellowish-brown inclusions contains more silicon, calcium and noticeably more carbon (indicating that they are particles of grit) than in other areas. These inclusions only contain small amounts of calcium, therefore it is unlikely that they can be identified with the brownish discoloured lake pigments, which are found elsewhere, as these contain greater quantities of chalk (substrate). Silicon is also the principal component of the brown glaze over the flesh paint on the Princes' Altar.
                      Examination carried out by: EDX Frau Chistalle, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Heydenreich

                      Probenliste Heydenreich [39]
                      Object No.: FR 016
                      Cross-section No.: EP 002
                      Brief description of paint: green robe of the angel, pale fold
                      Sample location: Reverse, robe of the angel on the right, at the bottom edge
                      Sample No.: 002
                      Incident light microscopy: yes
                      Incident light microscopy, photograph: yes
                      UV fluorescence:
                      UV fluorescence photograph:
                      Staining test protein:
                      Staining test protein, photograph:
                      Staining test oil:
                      Staining test oil, photograph:
                      SEM/EDX:
                      SEM/EDX photograph:
                      Observations:
                      4. dark brown transparent layer; varnish?
                      3. green layer with green, yellow white and brownish glassy pigments (an application of at least three layers, which are relatively similar in appearance); green paint from the robe; thickness c. 0.047 mm
                      2. thin white layer with one black pigment particle; imprimitura; thickness c. 0.008 mm
                      1. very thin, partially visible black layer; underdrawing
                      0. white layer; ground, which is increasingly transparent with a yellowish discolouring towards the top
                      Commentary: There may be an isolating layer over the ground, then a black underdrawing and a very thin white imprimatura. The green paint consists of at least three layers of admixtures of green, yellow, white and brownish glassy pigments.

                      Probenliste Heydenreich [40]
                      Object No.: FR 016
                      Cross-section No.: EP 003
                      Brief description of paint: green robe of the angel, dark fold
                      Sample location: Reverse, angel on the right, green robe, dark fold, at the bottom edge of the panel
                      Sample No.: 003
                      Incident light microscopy: yes
                      Incident light microscopy, photograph: yes, Schramm
                      UV fluorescence: yes
                      UV fluorescence photograph: yes, no slide
                      Staining test protein:
                      Staining test protein, photograph:
                      Staining test oil:
                      Staining test oil, photograph:
                      SEM/EDX: green is suitable for further analysis
                      SEM/EDX photograph:
                      Observations:
                      7. above black-brownish layer (slight fluorescence) can not be readily differentiated, varnish
                      6. a further intense green layer
                      5. very thin dark green-grey intermediate layer with a lot more black pigment, less green; shadow
                      4. grainy dark green layer (one or two ?) with green, white, single reddish brown and black pigments, no fluorescence, single green-blue pigments
                      3. green-white layer with bluish green and white pigments; light green undermodelling
                      2. very thin white layer, partially white-green without a clear separation from layer 3, minimal fluorescene, presumably imprimatura
                      1. very thin black layer, not continuous; underdrawing
                      0. white layer with a less glassy surface; ground; fluorescence increasing towards the top
                      Commentary: The underdrawing is only partially visible as a layer, above this is the imprimatura. The undermodelling of the robe is executed in light green although this is a sample from the shadow of the fold. The green paint was applied in a number of layers (at least 5) dark green with a proportion of green, black and white pigment. On the surface there is a thin fluorescing isolating layer and a thicker coating layer.

                      Probenliste Heydenreich [42]
                      Object No.: FR 016
                      Cross-section No.: EP 005
                      Brief description of paint: white handkerchief
                      Sample location: Reverse, angel on the left, white handkerchief, lighter side, bottom edge of the loss
                      Sample No.: 005
                      Incident light microscopy: yes (Schramm)
                      Incident light microscopy, photograph: yes (Schramm), slide
                      UV fluorescence: yes
                      UV fluorescence photograph: yes (Schramm)
                      Observations:
                      1. pale grey layer (white, black and blue pigments)
                      0. white ground
                      Commentary: no grey undermodelling, PIXE-analysis was carried out in this area [Pb!, Cu!, C!, Ca, K, Fe, Mn, Ti, Sr], Interpretation: 'lead white on (ivory)black [?] containing azurite" is doubtful


                      Probenliste Heydenreich [43]
                      Object No.: FR 016
                      Cross-section No.: EP 006
                      Brief description of paint: red robe of the angel
                      Sample location: Reverse, angel on the left, red robe, bottom edge of the large loss
                      Sample No.: 006
                      Incident light microscopy: yes
                      Incident light microscopy, photograph: yes
                      UV fluorescence: yes
                      UV fluorescence photograph: yes
                      Observations:
                      3. Varnish
                      2. light red layer, white and intensive red, lake-like pigments, the red particles appear red to orange-red in UV
                      1. white mprimitura
                      0. white ground
                      Commentary: The red lake should be analysed further

                      Probenliste Heydenreich [47]
                      Object No.: FR 016
                      Cross-section No.: EP 010
                      Brief description of paint: flesh paint of Christ with traces of red blood
                      Sample location: Reverse, flesh paint of Christ, from the stomach with traces of blood, bottom edge missing
                      Sample No.: 010
                      Incident light microscopy: yes
                      Incident light microscopy, photograph: yes (Schramm), no slide, partially coated
                      UV fluorescence: yes
                      UV fluorescence, photograph: yes (Schramm)
                      SEM/EDX: yes, Rossendorf, Fr. Chistalle, DSM 962 (Zeiss)
                      Observations:
                      3. indifferent varnish layer
                      2. red layer [Al, S, Ca, Pb] in the red particles [Al!, Pb!?, (S)] - traces of blood
                      1. white layer - lead white [Pb!, Al, Ca] with glassy inclusions, thes appear to contain lighter elements in SEM [Pb (S also possible)!!, Al!, K!,] - Flesh paint, the glassy inclusions only differ in a slightly higher concentration of Al and as such are not the same as in EP 001
                      0. white ground [Ca!, (Pb), at the bottom only Ca!] - could indicate a drying oil?
                      Commentary:
                      - the glassy inclusions in the flesh paint are not yet understood, further examination would be useful
                      - the componenents of the red lake are not yet clear: the particles appear darker than less heavy elements in SEM whereas as the surrounding material is lighter, in other words a heavier material, which may result from a medium containing lead (siccative?). In one particle there appears to be a higher sulphur content? - Interaction with lead? otherwise lead , aluminium and calcium are represented in the particles (substrate?). In comparison there appears to be considerably more aluminium in the sample from St Chrisopher's robe.
                      - PIXE-analysis also detected Sn, so lead tin yellow was presumably also employed?

                      Probenliste Heydenreich [48]
                      Object No.: FR 016
                      Cross-section No.: EP 011
                      Brief description of paint: flesh paint of Christ, thigh
                      Sample location: Reverse , flesh paint of Christ, proper right thigh, centre, bottom edge of painting
                      Sample No.: 011
                      Incident light microscopy: yes
                      Incident light microscopy, photograph: yes
                      UV fluorescence: yes
                      UV fluorescence photograph: no
                      Observations:
                      1. pale flesh paint, white and very fine red pigment (vermillion?), single black pigments
                      2. white ground
                      Commentary: single layer of pale flesh paint without further differentiation


                      Probenliste Heydenreich [54]
                      Object No.: FR 016
                      Cross-section No.: EP 083
                      Brief description of paint: red robe of angel
                      Sample location: reverse, red robe of angel, bottom edge of the loss, to the right of the cloth
                      Sample No.: 147
                      Incident light photograph: yes
                      SEM/EDX: yes (Rossendorf)
                      Observations:
                      4. red layer [Ca!, C, Mg, Pb] here a different red lake was employed to that of below, warm in tone
                      3. red layer [Al!, Pb!, Ca] red lake (orange fluorescence) with lead white - modelling
                      2. pink layer [Pb!, Al!, Ca, Si] lead white with red lake pigment - undemodelling
                      1. black underdrawing
                      0. white ground
                      Commentary:
                      - further examination of the two red lake pigments would be useful

                      Probenliste Heydenreich [55]
                      Object No.: FR 016
                      Cross-section No.: EP 084
                      Brief description of paint: black background
                      Sample location: reverse, black backgound between Christ and the angel on the left, next to the letter 'K'
                      Sample No.: 148
                      Methods of analysis: partial vapour phase deposition
                      SEM/EDX: yes (Rossendorf)
                      SEM/EDX photograph: no
                      Observations:
                      4. varnish
                      3. black layer (only visble as a discrete layer, separate from layer 2 with the SEM) Spot [C!!, Ca!, S], suface [C!, Ca, Pb, Si, (Cu)]
                      2. black layer [C!!, Pb, Ca, Cu]
                      1. thin white layer -imprimatura
                      0. white ground
                      Commentary:
                      - Phosphorous was not detected, indicating that it is a bone black, the surface appeared vey homogenous in the SEM image, too homogenous for bone black, lumps of chalk were however not visble in the cross-section or the SEM image (see surface examination), where does the calcium come from? It may be a lamp black with the addition of lime or chalk and a lead siccative, a red lake on a Ca substrate is also possible? - the copper is probably from copper green rather than azurite

                      Probenliste Heydenreich [58]
                      Object No.: FR 016
                      Cross-section No.: EP 085
                      Brief descriptioin of paint: gilding with red glaze
                      Sample location: reverse, top left spandrel, top edge, gilding with red glazed stripe
                      Sample No.: 151
                      Methods of analysis: partial vapour phase deposition
                      Incident light microscopy photograph: yes Ob 16
                      SEM/EDX: yes (Rossendorf)
                      Observations:
                      4. transparent reddish brown, relatively dark layer [Ca!, Pb, Si, Ca, Cu, Al], calcium in the coating, also detected in PIXE-analysis - challk in oil as a coating, or was this a warm red glaze?, Ca does not appear as particles
                      3. Goldleaf [Au, (Ag), (Cu)], thickness 500nm (measured under a magnification of 10000x)
                      2. yellowish layer with single red pigments (PIXE: vemillion), white and black, EDX: [Pb!!, Ca, Sn, Cu, Fe] - mordant with lead tin yellow, or lead white and other pigments, eg. vermillion
                      1. thin white layer - lead white imprimatura
                      0. white ground
                      Commentary:
                      - if the coating contained a warm red lake pigment witha a Ca substrate, then the tonal harmonies within the painting have been considerably altered

                      Probenliste Heydenreich [59]
                      Object No.: FR 016
                      Cross-section No.: EP 086
                      Brief description of paint: yellow-orange lining of the robe
                      Sample location: reverse, angel on the left, orange lining, top edge of the loss
                      Sample No.: 152
                      Methods of analysis: partial vapour phase deposition
                      SEM/EDX: yes (Rossendorf)
                      Observations:
                      2. red layer [Pb!, Ca, Sn, Fe, (Al)] - red iron oxide and ed lead?, lead tin yellow
                      1. white layer [Ca]
                      Commentary:
                      - comparative measurements with PIXE-analysis detected Fe und Sn (red iron oxide and lead tin yellow)


                      The following pigments were identified on the panel in Torgau:
                      - lead white
                      - lead tin yellow
                      - vermillion
                      - carbon black (lamp black?)
                      - red lake (Al, with orange fluorescence in UV)
                      - red lake (Ca, without orange fluorescence in UV)
                      - copper green
                      - green glaze on the basis of copper green
                      - red iron oxide
                      - red lead
                      - brown glaze
                      - azurite
                      - chalk

                      [Heydenreich 1995, unpublished examination report]
                      • examined by: Hans-Peter Schramm
                      • written by: Gunnar Heydenreich
                      • examined by: Christalle
                      • examined by: Gunnar Heydenreich
                      • examined by: Wolfgang Wagner
                      • examined by: Christian Neelmeijer
                      • Date: 1994
                      • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                      • X-radiography
                      • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Ev. Kirchgemeinde St. Marien, Torgau - The Fourteen Helpers in Need (recto), Man of Sorrows between two angels (verso) - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Ev. Kirchgemeinde St. Marien, Torgau - The Fourteen Helpers in Need (recto), Man of Sorrows between two angels (verso) - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Ev. Kirchgemeinde St. Marien, Torgau - The Fourteen Helpers in Need (recto), Man of Sorrows between two angels (verso) - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Ev. Kirchgemeinde St. Marien, Torgau - The Fourteen Helpers in Need (recto), Man of Sorrows between two angels (verso) - X-Radiographs
                        • photographed by: Asmus Steuerlein
                        • photographed by: Ingo Sandner
                        • Date: 1994
                        • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
                        • Infrared reflectography
                        • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Ev. Kirchgemeinde St. Marien, Torgau - The Fourteen Helpers in Need (recto), Man of Sorrows between two angels (verso) - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Ev. Kirchgemeinde St. Marien, Torgau - The Fourteen Helpers in Need (recto), Man of Sorrows between two angels (verso) - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Ev. Kirchgemeinde St. Marien, Torgau - The Fourteen Helpers in Need (recto), Man of Sorrows between two angels (verso) - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Ev. Kirchgemeinde St. Marien, Torgau - The Fourteen Helpers in Need (recto), Man of Sorrows between two angels (verso) - Infrared Images
                        • Underdrawing
                        • DESCRIPTION (recto)

                          Tools/Materials:
                          - fluid, black medium and brush

                          Type/Ductus:
                          - freehand underdrawing
                          - thin to relatively broader lines
                          - washes and occasional hatching-strokes

                          Function:
                          - relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; some representation of volume (washes and hatching-strokes)

                          Deviations:
                          - minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define form

                          INTERPRETATION

                          Attribution:
                          - Lucas Cranach the Elder and workshop?


                          DESCRIPTION (verso)

                          Tools/Materials:
                          - fluid, black medium and brushes of varying width

                          Type/Ductus:
                          - freehand underdrawing
                          - thin to relatively broader lines
                          - washes and occasional hatching-strokes

                          Function:
                          - relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate contours and describe the essential details; some representation of volume (washes and hatching-strokes)

                          Deviations:
                          - minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define form

                          INTERPRETATION

                          Attribution:
                          - Lucas Cranach the Elder and workshop?

                          [Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]
                        • Underdrawing
                        • In comparison with the underdrawing on preceding works like for example 'Rest on the Flight into Egypt' (about 1504, Berlin Gemäldegalerie) or 'The Crucifixion' from 1503 (Munich, Pinakothek) the loose design that lacks detail on this panel marks a turning point. The underdrawing serves as such its original function as a guide for the painted version. This linear drawing is similar to that on the St Catharine Altarpiece in Dresden (1506, Galerie Alte Meister Dresden) and can be placed within the context of an identified transitional phase. However, one specific feature, which has not been observed on other underdrawings by Cranach is the use of washes to create areas of light. It also seems that the initial design was reworked. Detailed inspection shows that this was particularly the case at the centre of the image in the head of St Christopher and the neighbouring heads. [...]
                          [Sandner 1998, 103]
                          • photographed by: Ingo Sandner
                          Condition Reports:
                          • Date: 20.07.1994
                          • Title: Torgau panel of the fourteen helpers in need Dimensions: 84.3 x 117.8 x 0.9 cm Location: Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Dresden The very thin lime wood support has in the past been considerably weakened by wood worm, which gave rise to numerous consolidation attempts. During the most recent treatment wooden battens, that had been glued to the reverse in a previous treatment were replaced by strips of plexiglas, losses in the wood were partially filled with a wooden fill material, smoothed with a glue/chalk mixture and retouched. The frame offers the panel sufficient stability. Despite this the panel is in danger of suffering new damage to the support and paint surface caused by dimensional changes as it responds to fluctuating temperature and relative humidity. This potential damage is already visible as a new loss in the robe of St Blase, on the left above his hand. For this reason the panel should not not be subjected to large fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity. Damage: Reverse, 'Man of Sorrows' - top and bottom c. 3-4 cm, centre c. 12 cm paint and ground layers scraped with a serrated plane - over the entire surface of the panel numerous letters and figures have been scratched into or written on the surface, there are more recent scratches in Christ's hair (top left to bottom right), in the flesh paint of Christ beneath the plexiglas, in the wings of the angel on the right (from the top left to the bottom right), there is a conspicuous loss in the top right gilded spandrel (c. 4 mm²) - plank 2 (from the left): extensive wood worm damage (old), losses in the wood and paint layers over the entire length of the panel, filled and retouched, stable - join 3/4: partially open, re-glued?, reinforced with plexiglas - join 4/5: top half partially open - plank 6 split: (reinforced with plexiglas) and recent paint loss in the centre, where remains of glue on the paint surface have caused flaking - join 7/8: bottom third is open (?), no new paint loss - plank 8: split in the lower half of the painting - plank 9: continuous split, reinforced with plexiglas, flaking and paint loss in the areas of green paint caused by a change in the dimensions of the support Recto, 'The Helpers in Need' - plank 8 (from the right): new split, recent paint loss in the robe of St Blase, above his hand - recent hairline cracks in the area of the join between planks1/2 (from the right) - in the area of the split , head of St Christopher old losses not retouched - there are numerous very small paint losses in the green robe of St Eustace, partially recent [Heydenreich, 20.07.1994, unpublished]
                          • written by: Gunnar Heydenreich
                          History of Restoration:
                          • Date: 2011
                          • Restoration 19th or early 20th century: - application of two horizontal cross-battens on the reverse - therefore paint layer partially removed [Heydenreich, CDA 2011]
                            • Date: 1971
                            • Restoration 1969-71 (Konrad Riemann, Institut für Denkmalpflege Halle): - cross battens replaced with acrylic plates, new frame [Ritschel 1995, 53] [Heydenreich, CDA 2011]
                            • conservation treatment by: Konrad Riemann