The Ten Commandments

The Ten Commandments

Title

The Ten Commandments

[Lutherhaus Wittenberg, revised 2012]

Painting on fir wood (Abies alba)

Medium

Painting on fir wood (Abies alba)

[Peter Klein, letter from 28.9.1998]

Wood

[Lutherhaus Wittenberg, revised 2012]

The panel consists of ten square fields arranged in two rows, which are separated by broad black lines. These contain an accompanying text in gold under each depicted commandment. The electoral coats-of-arms are represented in the bottom corners and are linked by a transparent rainbow, which at times extends over

The panel consists of ten square fields arranged in two rows, which are separated by broad black lines. These contain an accompanying text in gold under each depicted commandment. The electoral coats-of-arms are represented in the bottom corners and are linked by a transparent rainbow, which at times extends over individual scenes.

[Görres, cda 2012]

Attributions
Workshop Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lucas Cranach der Ältere (and Workshop)

Attributions

Workshop Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Lutherhaus Wittenberg, revised 2012]
[Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974, 499]

Lucas Cranach der Ältere (and Workshop)

'exaggerated Cranach style'
'The composition however, are original and ingenious and were evidently conceived by Cranach'
[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, No. 77, 85]

Production date
1516

Production date

1516

Dated [Lutherhaus Wittenberg, revised 2012]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 160 x 340 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 160 x 340 cm

  • [Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, No. 77, 85]

Signature / Dating
Central field, centre: the figure of the 'Lier' in the foreground on the right holds a document in his hands containing an illegible text ending with the date '1516'.

Signature / Dating

  • Central field, centre: the figure of the 'Lier' in the foreground on the right holds a document in his hands containing an illegible text ending with the date '1516'.

  • [Görres, CDA 2012]

Inscriptions and Labels
- from the top left to the bottom right (each beneath a painted scene): 'Du solt kei frembde gott an betten' 'Du …

Inscriptions and Labels

Inscriptions, Badges:

  • - from the top left to the bottom right (each beneath a painted scene): 'Du solt kei frembde gott an betten'
  • 'Du solt gots name nit unnutz in dein munt nemen'
  • 'Du solt den feihr tag hailigen'
  • 'Du solt vatter und mutter eren'
  • 'Du solt niemant do(e)tten'
  • 'Du solt nit stehlen'
  • 'Du solt nit unkeusch sein'
  • 'Du solt kein falsch gezeugnus geben'
  • 'Du solt keins andern gemahel begeren'
  • 'Du solt kains andern gutt begeren'
  • [Görres, CDA 2012]
Owner
Stiftung Luthergedenkstätten in Sachsen-Anhalt
Repository
Lutherhaus Wittenberg
Location
Wittenberg
CDA ID
DE_LHW_G25
FR (1978) Nr.
FR077
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_LHW_G25/

Provenance

  • originally on loan from the City of Wittenburg, then transferred to the Lutherhaus Collection
    [Lutherhaus Wittenberg, revised 2012]

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure/Plate
Joestel 2008 118-121
EditorVolkmar Joestel
TitleLuthers Schatzkammer. Kostbarkeiten im Lutherhaus Wittenberg
Place of PublicationDößel
Year of Publication2008
Wiemers 2008
AuthorMichael Wiemers
TitleCranach und das Recht im Bild: Anmerkungen zur Wittenberger Zehn-Gebote-Tafel
JournalSigna Ivris
Issue1
Year of Publication2008
Pages11-27
Kolb 2001
AuthorKarin Kolb
TitleKunst- und kulturhistorische Studien zur Zehn-Gebote-Tafel von Lucas Cranach d. Ä. und seiner Werkstatt
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication2001
Treu, Speler et al. 1999 52, 54, 56
AuthorMartin Treu, Ralf-Thorsten Speler, Alfred Schellenberger, Gunnar Berg
TitleLeucorea. Bilder zur Geschichte der Universität Wittenberg
Place of PublicationWittenberg
Year of Publication1999
Heydenreich 1998 A 198, 199 Fig. 20.21
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleHerstellung, Grundierung und Rahmung der Holzbildträger in den Werkstätten Lucas Cranachs d.Ä.
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages181-200
Kühne, Strehle 1993 52-53
AuthorHeinrich Kühne, Jutta Strehle
TitleLucas Cranach der Ältere in Wittenberg. Cranachwerke in Wittenberg
Place of PublicationWittenberg
Year of Publication1993
Exhib. Cat. Wittenberg 1992 11, 18 p. 11
AuthorVolkmar Joestel
TitleDer Reformator mit dem Hammer. Zur Wirkungsgeschichte von Luthers "Thesenanschlag" bis 1917
Place of PublicationWittenberg
Year of Publication1992
Treu, Pellmann 1991 21-26, 119 p. 119
AuthorMartin Treu, Hans Pellmann
TitleDie Lutherhalle Wittenberg
SeriesKleine Kunstführer
Volume1924
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1991
Kabus 1989
AuthorRonny Kabus
TitleLucas Cranachs Heimkehr nach Wittenberg - Rückführung zweier Gemälde in die Lutherhalle
SeriesSchriftenreihe der Staatlichen Lutherhalle Wittenberg
Place of PublicationWittenberg
Issue5
Year of Publication1989
Kabus 1986 4
AuthorRonny Kabus
Title"Es erstattet doch nimmer ein Sieg, was verloren wird durch den Krieg"
SeriesSchriftenreihe der Staatlichen Lutherhalle Wittenberg
Volume2
Place of PublicationWittenberg
Year of Publication1986
Starke 1986 15-17, 19 p. 16
AuthorElfriede Starke
TitleLukas Cranach d. Ä. - Künstler der Reformationszeit: Ständige Ausstellung in der Staatlichen Lutherhalle Wittenberg seit dem 16. April 1983
SeriesSchriftenreihe der Staatlichen Lutherhalle Wittenberg
Volume2
Year of Publication1986
Pages15-22
Kabus 1984 30-31
EditorRonny Kabus
TitleStaatliche Lutherhalle Wittenberg - 100 Jahre Reformationsgeschichtliches Museum
Place of PublicationWittenberg
Year of Publication1984
Starke 1982
AuthorElfriede Starke
TitleLukas Cranach d. Ä.. Die Zehn-Gebote-Tafel
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1982
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 85 77
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 499
AuthorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Thulin 1967 52, 53, 55 45
AuthorOskar Thulin
TitleBilder der Reformation. Aus den Sammlungen der Lutherhalle in Wittenberg
Place of PublicationBerlin
IssueThird edition
Year of Publication1967
Thulin 1956 54 p. 53
AuthorOskar Thulin
TitleBilder der Reformation. Aus den Sammlungen der Lutherhalle in Wittenberg
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1956
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 69-70
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Jordan 1924 28, 47, 60-61
AuthorJulius Jordan
TitleZur Geschichte der Sammlungen der Lutherhalle 1877-1922
Place of PublicationWittenberg
Year of Publication1924
Jordan 1920 5
AuthorJulius Jordan
TitleLutherhalle Wittenberg. Führer durch die Sammlungen des Lutherhauses
Place of PublicationWittenberg
IssueSecond edition
Year of Publication1920
Schuchardt 1851 C 149-150 451
AuthorChristian Schuchardt
TitleLucas Cranach des Aeltern Leben und Werke. Zweiter Theil
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1851
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schuchardt1851bd2
Schadow 1825 94 et seqq.
AuthorJohann Gottfried Schadow
TitleWittenbergs Denkmäler der Bildnerei, Baukunst und Malerei, mit historischen und artistischen Erläuterungen
Place of PublicationWittenberg
Year of Publication1825
Einsikat [n. d.]
AuthorPeter Einsikat
TitleDie Zehn Gebot und Lukas Cranach
Place of PublicationWittenberg
  • The Ten Commandments, 1516

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Technical studies

06. 2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
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Underdrawing

1.

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Material:

- fluid black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- relatively detailed and freehand underdrawing

- thin lines

- occasional hatching-strokes

Funktion:

- relatively binding fort he final painted version; lines delineate the contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; some representation of volume (hatching-strokes)

Deviations:

- alterations made during the painting process to clearly define forms; numerous small and larger changes

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

2.

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Material:

- fluid black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- relatively detailed and freehand underdrawing

- thin lines

Funktion:

- relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate the contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; minimum representation of volume

Deviations:

- alterations made during the painting process to clearly define forms; numerous small and larger changes, the chain of beads was not carried out in the painted version

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

3.

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Material:

- fluid black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- relatively detailed and freehand underdrawing

- thin lines

Funktion:

- relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate the contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; minimum representation of volume

Deviations:

- minor alterations and changes made during the painting process

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

4.

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Material:

- fluid black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- relatively detailed and freehand underdrawing

- thin lines

Funktion:

- relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate the contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; minimum representation of volume

Deviations:

- minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define forms

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

5.

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Material:

- fluid black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- relatively detailed and freehand underdrawing

- thin lines

- occasional hatching-stokes

Funktion:

- relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate the contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; some representation of volume (hatching-strokes)

Deviations:

- minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define forms

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

6.

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Material:

- fluid black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- relatively detailed and freehand underdrawing

- thin lines

Funktion:

- relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate the contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; no representation of volume

Deviations:

- minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define forms

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

7.

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Material:

- fluid black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- relatively detailed and freehand underdrawing

- thin lines

Funktion:

- roughly (in the background) to relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate the contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; no representation of volume

Deviations:

- minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define forms; small changes (e.g. in the faces)

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

8.

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Material:

- fluid black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- relatively detailed and freehand underdrawing

- thin lines

Funktion:

- relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate the contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; no representation of volume

Deviations:

- minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define forms; numerous changes, the round box on the table was omitted in the painted version

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

9.

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Material:

- fluid black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- relatively detailed and freehand underdrawing

- thin lines

Funktion:

- relatively binding for the final painted version, in areas only a rough indication of form (bedcovers); lines delineate the contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; no representation of volume

Deviations:

- alterations made during the painting process to clearly define forms; numerous changes, the tassels on the pillow were not carried out in the painted version

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

10.

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Material:

- fluid black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- relatively detailed and freehand underdrawing

- thin lines

Funktion:

- relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate the contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; no representation of volume

Deviations:

- alterations made during the painting process to clearly define forms; numerous changes, the coins on the table were only partially carried out in the painted version, the strut between the table legs was omitted

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]

  • photographed by Gunnar Heydenreich
  • photographed by Ingo Sandner

28.09.1998Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Identification of wood species:

- panel: fir wood (Abies alba)

- original frame: fir wood (Abies alba)

[Peter Klein, letter from 28.9.1998]

  • examined by Peter Klein

08.05.1998Technical Examination

Support

- 13 horizontally aligned planks, joins glued, ranging in width from 8.4-14.4 cm

Framing

Original frame:

- a groove of c. 1 cm depth runs around the entire frame

- there are two rings wrought out of iron bands attached to the upper member

- there are numerous splits in the frame caused by the movement of the panel and warping in the planks, these have been reinforced with nails, particularly in the left and bottom members.

[Holger Mantzke, 8.5.1998]

Condition Reports

Date08.05.1998

Vorzustandsdokumentation zur Konservierung und Restaurierung der Zehn-Gebote-Tafel von Lucas Cranach d.Ä.

[...]

  • convex warping of the 13 horizontal planks, particularly the outer third either side of the panel

  • the centre of the panel is reinforced with an original cross-member

  • due to the tendency of the panel to warp old splits and joins have opened and new splits have formed

  • six pine wood batten are glued to the reverse of the panel at intervals of 50-59 cm and fixed with hardwood blocks that have been nailed to the panel

  • during an extensive restoration campaign in 1972 the lighter areas of paint were cleaned more intensely than the mid-tones and dark areas where the discoloured varnish was left

[...]

  • written by Holger Manzke

Conservation History

Date1999

Katharina of Bora Exhibition 1999

  • a backboard was attached to the reverse to stabilise the panel

  • losses in the paint layer were retouched

[Lutherhaus Wittenberg, revised 2012]

  • conservation treatment by Merk

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'The Ten Commandments', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_LHW_G25/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'The Ten Commandments', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_LHW_G25/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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