Portrait of Gerhart Volk

Portrait of Gerhart Volk

Title

Portrait of Gerhart Volk

[cda 2011]

Painting on parchment on wood

Medium

Painting on parchment on wood

[Stuhr, Exhib. Cat. Leipzig, Bonn 1994, 61]

The sitter is depicted in three-quarters profile, facing right against a black background. He wears a dark brown overcoat with a wide black collar, a black doublet and a white shirt. On his head he wears a grey cap trimmed with brown fur.

[Stuhr, Exhib. Cat. Leipzig, Bonn 1994, 61]

Attribution
Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attribution

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Stuhr, Exhib. Cat. Leipzig, Bonn 1994, 61]

Production date
1518

Production date

1518

[Stuhr, Exhib. Cat. Leipzig,Bonn 1994, 61]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 40.6 x 28.1 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 40.6 x 28.1 cm

  • [Stuhr, Exhib. Cat. Leipzig, Bonn 1994, 61]

  • 40.1/40.2 x 28.2/28.4 x 0.8 cm

  • Dimensions including frame: 53.5 x 41 x 4 cm (including addition: 5 cm)

  • [Rüdiger Beck, Museum der bildenden Künste, revised 11.06.2014]

Signature / Dating
None
Inscriptions and Labels
Reverse of the panel: handwritten in oil paint: 'Anno domini XVcXVIII / Meister Lucas in Wittenberg syn selbst handt 1518'; in …

Inscriptions and Labels

Stamps, Seals, Labels:

  • Reverse of the panel: handwritten in oil paint: 'Anno domini XVcXVIII / Meister Lucas in Wittenberg syn selbst handt 1518'; in ink: 'Mein Großvatter Gerhart (Behrnt?) Bolk (Volk?) Contrafet kürtz hernach als er sein erstes Weib geeheliget ist abgemahlet anno 1518 vom alten Lucas Cranach.'
  • [Stuhr, Exhib. Cat. Leipzig, Bonn 1994, 61]
Owner
Museum der bildenden Künste, Leipzig
Repository
Museum der bildenden Künste, Leipzig
Location
Leipzig
CDA ID
DE_MdbKL_727
FR (1978) Nr.
FR126
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_MdbKL_727/

Provenance

  • Leipzig Municipal Library (Stadtbibliothek); where in 1882 it was rediscovered by Gustav Wustmann
  • 1896 Museum der bildenden Künste, Leipzig
    [Stuhr, Exhib. Cat. Leipzig, Bonn 1994, 61]

Exhibitions

Dresden 1899, No. 109
Weimar 1972, No. 17
Basel 1974, No. 604
Leipzig, Bonn, Stuttgart 1994, 61

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure / Plate
Heydenreich 2007 A 255, 257
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleLucas Cranach the Elder
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
Year of Publication2007
Link https://lucascranach.org/application/files/6116/2097/3099/Heydenreich_2007_Lucas_Cranach_the_Elder.pdf
Exhib. Cat. Bonn 1994 61
EditorHerwig Guratzsch, Museum der bildenden Künste, Leipzig
TitleVon Lucas Cranach bis Caspar David Friedrich [Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Bonn]
Place of PublicationStuttgart
Year of Publication1994
Schade, Schuttwolf 1994 19
AuthorWerner Schade, Allmuth Schuttwolf
TitleMalerei und Plastik
Publicationin Allmuth Schuttwolf, ed., Gotteswort und Menschenbild. Werke von Cranach und seinen Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Gotha
Place of PublicationGotha
Year of Publication1994
Pages15-94
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 95 No. 126 Fig. 126
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 687 No. 604
AuthorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Schade 1974 384, Fn. 386
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleDie Malerfamilie Cranach
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1974
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schade1974
Exhib. Cat. Weimar 1972 B No. 17
EditorSchlossmuseum Weimar
TitleLucas Cranach 1472-1553. Ein großer Maler in bewegter Zeit
Place of PublicationWeimar
Year of Publication1972
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 107
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Flechsig 1900 B 104, 255, 281
AuthorEduard Flechsig
TitleTafelbilder Lucas Cranachs d. Ä. und seiner Werkstatt
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1900
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/flechsig1900tafeln
Woermann 1900 57
AuthorKarl Woermann
TitleDie Dresdner Cranach-Ausstellung
JournalZeitschrift für bildende Kunst
IssueN.F. 11
Year of Publication1900
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1899 No. 109
EditorKarl Woermann
TitleDeutsche Kunstausstellung Dresden 1899. Abteilung Cranach-Ausstellung. Wissenschaftliches Verzeichnis der ausgestellten Werke
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1899
Link http://resolver.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/SBB00002A2400000000
Friedländer 1899 245 No. 109
AuthorMax J. Friedländer
TitleDie Cranach-Ausstellung in Dresden
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
Issue22
Year of Publication1899
Pages236-249
Gurlitt 1896 351
AuthorCornelius Gurlitt
TitleBeschreibende Darstellung der älteren Bau- und Kunstdenkmäler des Königreichs Sachsen. Stadt Leipzig
Volume2
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1896
Vogel 1896
AuthorJ. Vogel
TitleEin neuer Cranach [1. Beilage]
JournalLeipziger Zeitung
Issue20. Juli 1896, Nr. 166
Year of Publication1896
  • Portrait of Gerhart Volk, 1518

Images

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Technical studies

11.06.2014Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Stereomicroscopy
  • Infrared reflectography
  • reverse
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  • reverse
  • reverse
  • reverse
  • detail
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Support

- lime wood. Previous assertions that the support is parchmentt attached to a wooden panel could not be confirmed after examination under the stereomicroscope.

- a single plank, no knots, tangential cut

- width: 28.2/28.4 cm

- vertical split-marks, horizontal marks from a blockplane

- the joins were not reinforced

- the edges of the panel are straight and there is no sign of a rebate

- the bottom edge was trimmed at a later stage (not original)

Ground and Imprimatura

- white ground, probably chalk/glue (not tested)

- relatively thick

- the painting was probably fitted in a working frame when the ground was applied and during the painting process. Along three sides of the panel (except at the bottom) the ground exhibits irregular, garland-shaped shrinkage with bubbles, see photograph.

- along three sides, except at the bottom, straight lines are incised in the chalk ground, indicating the format of the painted image.

- fine, crisscross sanding marks are visible under the stereomicroscope (only beneath the lighter areas of paint like the flesh paint, the hat and the shirt)

- no imprimatura

Underdrawing

- no or very economical underdrawing, only a few lines in the area of the hands and one line at the right of the forehead (above the eye). Stylus or chalk

- visible under the stereomicroscope on the thumb at the edge of the cuff

- some deviation

Paint Layers and Gilding

- grey, semi-opaque underpaint beneath the garments (sleeve) semi-opaque brown tone for the fur and hair

- relatively simply layer structure, limited palette. face, hands, shirt and hat are outlined by the opaque paint of the background and the coat. Semi-opaque paint layers were applied over the the light ground and blended wet-in-wet to create light and shadow. The deep shadows were initially executed economically witha thin admixture of blackish-brown paint and softly blended to create the half-shadows. After drying the semi-opaque flesh tones were applied and in part scumbled over the shadows. Contours and highlights were applied wet-in-wet. The coat was underpainted in grey and brown and the folds were modelled wet-in-wet in a darker tone. The pomegranate motif was applied after the paint had dried.

- brushed, glazed, selectively highlighted

- small sized brushes

Framing

- not original, 19th century

- dimensions: 53.5 x 41 x 4 cm (including addition: 5 cm)

- coniferous wood, plaster, black shellac, gold

- mitred, chamfered engaged frame, black shellac with a gold inner edge and a matt gilded inlay

[Museum der bildenden Künste, 11.06.2014]

  • examined by Rüdiger Beck

09. 2012Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • UV-light photography
  • uv_light

06. 2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr

Underdrawing

- an underdrawing is not readily visible

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]

  • photographed by Gunnar Heydenreich
  • photographed by Ingo Sandner

2007Technical Examination

  • reverse
  • reverse

Support

"On the reverse of the panel with the portrait of Gerhard Volk on parchment there are inscriptions, possibly dating to the sixteenth century and indicating that it is the original support.[21] Technical examination of this picture could perhaps shed further light on whether the parchment was mounted on the auxiliary support before painting."

[Heydenreich 2007 A, 257]

1974Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • X-radiography
  • x_radiograph
  • x_radiograph

Condition Reports

Date11.06.2014

Support:

quite fragile along both vertical edges due to old woodworm channels. Here the support (presumably in 1922) was thinned with a plane to cover the splits with canvas strips in the direction of the grain. The bottom edge has been trimmed, the corners in particular the right corner are damaged and in part consolidated with a chalk ground. The panel exhibits woodworm damage and exit holes only on the reverse and along the outer edge. The reverse was coated with a layer of darken oil. The panel exhibits a convex warp. The top edge has a very early chamfer, c. 3 cm in width (smoothed for the inscription)

Ground/Paint layers:

good adhesion, faint cracking pattern; glazes and opaque paint layers abraded (this condition was probably the reason for the extensive overpaint). the background is extensively overpainted, the garments are in part overpainted (the pomegranate pattern, the fur collar, the folds in the brown coat.) The flesh paint is retouched. The retouchings and overpaint have darkened. The flesh paint has increased in transparency.

Varnish:

bad surface appearance, different degrees of gloss, large areas are patchy, streaky and matt; the overpaint in the background is slightly wrinkled, the varnish has yellowed, the retouches and overpaint are in part matt, there are fingerprints in the varnish.

[Museum der bildenden Künste, 11.06.2014]

  • examined by Rüdiger Beck

Date1978

The picture has suffered, the face and hands being overcleaned, but the expression is authentic

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1978, 95, No. 126]

Conservation History

Date08. 1925

MdbK Restaurierungsakten: Bd. IV. Passed by the city council of Leipzig, 1925.

Sheets 6.-29. Treatment report by Walter Kühn, Leipzig [August 1925].

Pos. 327) 'Portrait, Gerhart Volk' by Cranach the Elder [Inv.-No. 727] cleaned, rubbed with oil of terpentine, regenerated [in red ink:] 'Paint very abraded. - varnish remained matt. Wooden panel suffering from extensive woodworm damage.'

[Museum der bildenden Künste, 11.06.2014]

  • conservation treatment by Walter Kühn

Date05. 1922

Inventory MdbK: No. 727 , under conservation treatment:

'Restored by the paintings restorer Otto Schönfelder from Berlin. In May 1922 two splits on the right side were glued and the splits were reinforced with canvas strips on the reverse (by the storage keeper Barthel).'

[Museum der bildenden Künste, 11.06.2014]

  • conservation treatment by Otto Schönfelder

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'Portrait of Gerhart Volk', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_MdbKL_727/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'Portrait of Gerhart Volk', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_MdbKL_727/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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