The Crucifixion

The Crucifixion

Title

The Crucifixion

[Statens Museum for Kunst, revised 2013]

Painting on wood

Medium

Painting on wood

[Statens Museum for Kunst, revised 2013]

The crucifixion of Jesus at the mountain Golgatha. In the right and left side of the painting two other men are pictured crucified and below the cross stands a crowd of people. The background of the painting consists of mountains and a sky with black clouds.

[Statens Museum for Kunst, revised

The crucifixion of Jesus at the mountain Golgatha. In the right and left side of the painting two other men are pictured crucified and below the cross stands a crowd of people. The background of the painting consists of mountains and a sky with black clouds.

[Statens Museum for Kunst, revised 2013]

Attributions
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lucas Cranach the Elder and workshop

Attributions

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Statens Museum for Kunst, revised 2013]

Lucas Cranach the Elder and workshop

[Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003, 172, No. 29]

Production dates
about 1505 - 1520
about 1514

Production dates

about 1505 - 1520

[Statens Museum for Kunst, revised 2013]

about 1514

[Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003, 172, No. 29]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 67.0 x 46.5 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 67.0 x 46.5 cm

  • Dimensions including frame: 78.5 x 57.5 cm

  • [Statens Museum for Kunst, revised 2013]

Inscriptions and Labels
  • On the buttons of the horses harness:
    an 'A' and a 'W' are painted, which according to Karl Madsen …

Inscriptions and Labels

Inscriptions, Badges:

    • On the buttons of the horses harness:
  • an 'A' and a 'W' are painted, which according to Karl Madsen (1904), led Spengler to attribute the painting to Dürer and Michael Wohlgemuth.

  • [Statens Museum for Kunst, revised 2013]

Owner
Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen
Repository
Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen
Location
Copenhagen
CDA ID
DK_SMK_KMSsp712
FR (1978) Nr.
FR038B
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DK_SMK_KMSsp712/

Provenance

  • 1666: in Gottorps inventory (see Harry Schmidt, 435)
  • 1814: from Gottorp (as Wohlgemuth and Dürer)
  • in the Royal Art Chamber in Copenhagen
    [Statens Museum for Kunst, revised 2013]

Exhibitions

Nivaagaards Malerisamling, 1996-10-26 - 1997-03-09
Sølvgade, SMK, Copenhagen 2002-04-26 - 2002-09-08
Hamburg 2003, No. 29

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure / Plate
Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003 43, 172 029 Pl. 29
EditorBucerius Kunst Forum, Werner Schade
TitleLucas Cranach. Glaube, Mythologie und Moderne [Bucerius Kunst Forum, Hamburg]
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Exhib. Cat. Copenhagen 2002 69 No. 30 Fig. p. 47
AuthorHanne Kolind Poulsen
TitleCranach [Statens Museum for Kunst , Copenhagen]
Place of PublicationCopenhagen
Year of Publication2002
Exhib. Cat. Nivaagaard 1996
Authorn. a.
TitleRenæssancen i 1500-tallet
Place of Publication[Nivaagaard]
Year of Publication1996
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 No. 38B
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 483-484 under No. 332 Fig. 262
AuthorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Rosenberg 1960 No. 8
AuthorJakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Zeichnungen Lucas Cranachs d.Ä.
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1960
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 under No. 37
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Schmidt 1913
AuthorHarry Schmidt
TitleAngaben über Gemälde in Gottorpischen Schloßinventaren
JournalZeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte
IssueBd. 43
Year of Publication1913
Pages434-439
Vollmer 1909 553
AuthorHans Vollmer
TitleDie alte Gemäldegalerie in Kopenhagen
JournalMonatshefte für Kunstwissenschaft
Issue2, 1909
Year of Publication1909
Pages549-560

Research History / Discussion

  • A frequently used motif by Cranach the Elder.

  • Original drawing at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (Rosenberg 1960, cat. 8). Koepplin (1972, 345) writes that this "künstlerisch hervorragende" drawing by Cranach the Elder has been used by an apprentice in the workshop as a model for the painting.

[Mette Kokkenborg, Statens Museum for Kunst, 2013]

  • The Crucifixion, about 1505 - 1520

Images

Compare images
  • overall
  • overall
  • reverse
  • reverse
  • irr
  • irr
  • irr
  • x_radiograph
  • uv_light
  • uv_light

Technical studies

29.03.2009Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

- the panel is made of linden (Tilia spec.)

  • analysed by Peter Klein

02.11.2008 - 12.03.2009Scientific analysis

  • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
  • Instrumental material analysis

Cross-section examination in incident light; UV-light; FTIR

22.08.2008Scientific analysis

  • Instrumental material analysis
  • Micro-sampling / cross-sections

- SEM analysis

22.08.2008Technical examination / Scientific analysis

- see pdf

28.08.2002Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr
  • irr
  • irr

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Materials:

- fluid black drawing medium; brush

Type/Ductus:

- freehand underdrawing

- thin lines

- occasional hatching-strokes

Function:

- relatively binding for the final painted version; the lines define the contours of the figures and indicate facial features and details; representation of volume with occasional hatching-strokes

Deviations:

- numerous adjustments were made during the painting process; changes (e. g. the legs of the the horse at the back; the boy at the bottom right).

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach der Ältere (?)

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich cda 2014]

  • photographed by Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen

20.05.2002Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • X-radiography

04_X-radiograph/DK_SMK_KMSsp712_FR038B_X-radiograph.tif

  • created by Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen

1977Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • UV-light photography
  • uv_light
  • uv_light
  • photographed by Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen

Condition Reports

Date2013

The joints in the support cannot be identified.

There are several vertical cracks in the panel.

The panel has been thinned to a thickness of only approx.3 mm and glued onto a panel of mahogany approx. 10 mm thick. The panel is fitted with a cradling on the back.

There are no tears or holes in the support.

The surface is very uneven because of the many cracks, caused by strong tensions in the original panel, besides due to pressing during the gluing of the new support panel.

The painting is painted with oil paint.

There are patterns of natural ageing cracks all over. Besides much cracking along the cracks in the support.

The paint layer is not flaking nor has any paint losses.

There are smaller abrasions in some parts of the painting.

The painting has many retouches, especially at the corners and along the cracks in the panel.

The varnish is rather glossy and without scratches and surface dirt.

Unknown whether the frame is the original.

[Mette Kokkenborg, Statens Museum for Kunst, 2013]

Date25.03.2003

see pdf

  • examined by Henrik Bjerre

Date01. 1966

see pdf

  • examined by Ole Alkærsig

see pdf

  • examined by Henrik Bjerre

Conservation History

Date03. 2002

see pdf

  • conservation treatment by Henrik Bjerre

Date1977

see pdf

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'The Crucifixion', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DK_SMK_KMSsp712/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'The Crucifixion', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DK_SMK_KMSsp712/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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