Portrait of a Man with a Rosary

Portrait of a Man with a Rosary

Title

Portrait of a Man with a Rosary

[Cat. New York 2013, 45, No. 8]

Painting on oak wood

Medium

Painting on oak wood

[Cat. New York 2013, 45, No. 8]
[Klein, Report 2006]

This sensitive portrait shows a well-dressed young man seemingly transfixed by a devotional image - perhaps of the Virgin and Child - to which he offers a silent prayer as he pauses on a bead of the rosary held in his right hand. With his left hand, he clutches the

This sensitive portrait shows a well-dressed young man seemingly transfixed by a devotional image - perhaps of the Virgin and Child - to which he offers a silent prayer as he pauses on a bead of the rosary held in his right hand. With his left hand, he clutches the fur border of his overcoat. On the reverse, a trompe-l'oeil image of a statue of a bald, bearded, and barefoot saint perhaps represents Saint Peter, but the work is too damaged for a definitive identification.

[Cat. New York 2013, 45, No. 8]

Attribution
Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attribution

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Cat. New York 2013, 45, No. 8]

Production dates
about 1508
about 1510 - 1512

Production dates

about 1508

[Cat. New York 2013, 45, No. 8]

about 1510 - 1512

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, No. 56]

about 1511

[Kuhn 1936, 37, no. 89]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 47.4 × 35.6 × .95 cm (18 11/16 × 14 × 3/8 in.)

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 47.4 × 35.6 × .95 cm (18 11/16 × 14 × 3/8 in.)

  • Dimensions of the painted surface: 46.7 × 34.9 cm (18 3/8 × 13 3/4 in.) [recto],

  • 46.5 × 34 cm (18 5/16 × 13 9/16 in.) [verso]

  • [Cat. New York 2013, 45, No. 8]

Signature / Dating
None
Inscriptions and Labels
Heraldry / emblems: - on signet ring: coat-of-arms of the Dutch family Six van Hillegom or Six van Oterleek (six-pointed star …

Inscriptions and Labels

Inscriptions, Badges:

  • Heraldry / emblems:
  • - on signet ring: coat-of-arms of the Dutch family Six van Hillegom or Six van Oterleek (six-pointed star and two crescents on light blue)
  • [Cat. New York 2013, 45, No. 8]
Owner
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Repository
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Location
New York
CDA ID
US_MMANY_29-100-24
FR (1978) Nr.
FR056
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/US_MMANY_29-100-24/

Provenance

  • private collection, England
  • [Cottier, New York, until 1914; sold to Havemeyer]
  • Mrs. H. O. (Louisine W.) Havemeyer, New York (1914 - d. 1929)
  • H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929 29.100.24

[Cat. New York 2013, 45, No. 8]

Exhibitions

New York 1930, no. 41
Palm Beach 1951, no. 15
New York 1993, pp. 54 - 55, pl. 56
Frankfurt and London 2007 - 8, pp. 138 - 39, no. 12, ill.
Brussels 2010 - 11, no. 60, ill. pp. 138, 172

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure/Plate
Cat. New York 2013 44-46 No. 8
AuthorMaryan W. Ainsworth, Joshua P. Waterman
TitleGerman Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1350 - 1600
Place of PublicationNew York
Year of Publication2013
Borchert 2010 27
AuthorTill-Holger Borchert
TitleCranach der Ältere in den Niederlanden
Publicationin Guido Messling, ed., Die Welt des Lucas Cranach. Ein Künstler im Zeitalter von Dürer, Tizian und Metsys, Exhib. Cat. Brussels
Place of PublicationBrussels
Year of Publication2010
Pages26-29
Exhib. Cat. Brussels 2010 138 60 pp. 138, 162
EditorBozarbooks & Lannoo, Guido Messling
TitleDie Welt des Lucas Cranach. Ein Künstler im Zeitalter von Dürer, Tizian und Metsys [anlässlich der Ausstellung "Die Welt des Lucas Cranach", Palast der Schönen Künste, Brüssel, 20. Oktober 2010 - 23. Januar 2011]
Place of PublicationBrussels
Year of Publication2010
Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007 138-139 12 p. 139
EditorBodo Brinkmann
TitleCranach der Ältere, [Frankfurt, Städel Museum, 23 Nov 2007 - 17 Feb 2008]
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Heydenreich 2007 A 48, 332, Fn. 49 Fig. 23
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleLucas Cranach the Elder
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
Year of Publication2007
Link https://lucascranach.org/application/files/6116/2097/3099/Heydenreich_2007_Lucas_Cranach_the_Elder.pdf
Schade 2007 94
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleCranachs Berührung durch die Niederlande. Antinomien einer Reisebetrachtung
Publicationin Bodo Brinkmann, ed., Cranach der Ältere, Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Pages91-97
Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003 166
EditorBucerius Kunst Forum, Werner Schade
TitleLucas Cranach. Glaube, Mythologie und Moderne [Bucerius Kunst Forum, Hamburg]
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Heydenreich 2002 35, Fn. 46, p. 152 (Vol. 1)
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleCanvas painting in the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder
Publicationin ICOM-CC, ed., Preprints to the ICOM-CC 13th Triennial Meeting in Rio de Janeiro, 22-27 September 2002, London (2002) Vol. 1, 432-438.
Volume1
Place of PublicationLondon
Year of Publication2002
Pages432-438
Anzelewsky 1999 136, 144, Fn. 36
AuthorFedja Anzelewsky
TitleStudien zur Frühzeit Lukas Cranachs d.Ä.
JournalStädel-Jahrbuch
Issue17
Year of Publication1999
Pages125-144
Cat. New York 1995 219 Fig.
AuthorKatharine Baetjer
TitleEuropean Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art by Artists Born before 1865. A Summary Catalogue
Place of PublicationNew York
Year of Publication1995
Havemeyer 1993 20, 310, Fn. 38
AuthorLouisine Havemeyer
EditorSusan Alyson Stein
TitleSixteen to Sixty. Memoirs of a Collector
Place of PublicationNew York
Year of Publication1993
Stein 1993 264
AuthorSusan Alyson Stein
TitleChronology
Publicationin Louisine Havemeyer, Sixteen to Sixty. Memoirs of a Collector
Place of PublicationNew York
Year of Publication1993
Pages201-287
Tinterow 1993 10
AuthorGary Tinterow
TitleThe Havemeyer Pictures
Publicationin Louisine Havemeyer, Sixteen to Sixty. Memoirs of a Collector
Place of PublicationNew York
Year of Publication1993
Pages3-53
Wold 1993 321 No. A168
AuthorGretchen Wold
TitleAppendix
Publicationin Louisine Havemeyer, Sixteen to Sixty. Memoirs of a Collector
Place of PublicationNew York
Year of Publication1993
Pages291-384
Dülberg 1990 85, 261 241 Figs. 328, 331
AuthorAngelica Dülberg
TitlePrivatporträts. Geschichte und Ikonologie einer Gattung im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1990
Weitzenhoffer 1986 255
AuthorFrances Weizenhoffer
TitleThe Havemeyers. Impressionism Comes to America
Place of PublicationNew York
Year of Publication1986
Weitzenhoffer 1982 166, Fn. 7
AuthorFrances Weizenhoffer
TitleThe Creation of the Havemeyer Collection PhD diss. City University of New York
Place of PublicationNew York
Year of Publication1982
Cat. New York 1980 36 (Vol. 1) Fig. p. 295 (Vol. 2)
AuthorKatharine Baetjer
EditorThe Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
TitleEuropean paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Volume1-3
Place of PublicationNew York
Year of Publication1980
Schade 1980 54, 384, Fn. 383, 384, p. 459 Pl. 61
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleCranach. A Family of Master Painters. Translated by Helen Sebba
Place of PublicationNew York
Year of Publication1980
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 No. 56
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 680-683 595 (u.) Plates 333, 335
AuthorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Schade 1974 54, 384, Fn. 383, 384, p. 460 Plate 61
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleDie Malerfamilie Cranach
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1974
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schade1974
Koepplin 1972 A 347
AuthorDieter Koepplin
TitleZu Cranach als Zeichner: Addenda zu Rosenbergs Katalog
JournalKunstchronik
Issue25, no. 10 (October 1972)
Year of Publication1972
Pages345-348
Havemeyer 1961 20
AuthorLouisine Havemeyer
TitleSixteen to Sixty. Memoirs of a Collector
Place of PublicationNew York
Year of Publication1961
Auct. Cat. Lucerne 1958 140 under no. 2767
EditorGalerie Fischer, Lucerne
TitleGrosse Kunstauktion in Luzern, Sale cat. Galerie Fischer, Lucerne, June 17-21
Place of PublicationLucerne
Year of Publication1958
Cat. New York 1958 33 No. 183
Authorn. a.
TitleThe H. O. Havemeyer Collection
Place of PublicationNew York
Year of Publication1958
Rouchés 1951 Plate 20
AuthorGabriel Rouches
TitleCranach l'ancien 1472-1553
Place of PublicationParis
Year of Publication1951
Cat. New York 1947 199-200 Fig.
AuthorMargaretta Salinger, Harry B. Wehle
EditorThe Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
TitleThe Metropolitan Museum of Art. A Catalogue of Early Flemish, Dutch and German Paintings
Place of PublicationNew York
Year of Publication1947
Tietze 1939 323 Plate 204
AuthorHans Tietze
TitleMasterpieces of European Painting in America
Place of PublicationNew York
Year of Publication1939
Exhib. Cat. Cambridge, Mass. 1936 37 089
AuthorCharles L. Kuhn
EditorGermanic Museum, Cambridge, Mass.
TitleCatalogue of the Germanic Museum exhibition of German paintings of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Lent from American collections
Place of PublicationCambridge Mass.
Year of Publication1936
Kuhn 1936 37 089
AuthorCharles L. Kuhn
TitleA Catalogue of German Paintings of the Middle Ages and Renaissance in American Collections
Place of PublicationCambridge, Mass.
Year of Publication1936
Tietze 1935 339 Plate 204
AuthorHans Tietze
TitleMeisterwerk europäischer Malerei in Amerika mit über 300 Kupfertiefdrucktafeln herausgegeben
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1935
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 39 049 Fig.
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Cat. New York 1931 75
AuthorBryson Burroughs
TitleCatalogue of Paintings. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Place of PublicationNew York
Year of Publication1931
Cat. Portland 1931 14 Fig.
Authorn. a.
TitleHavemeyer Collection. Catalogue of Paintings, Prints, sculpture and Objects of Art
Place of PublicationPortland, Maine
Year of Publication1931
Havemeyer Collection 1930 35
Authorn. a.
TitleHavemeyer Collection at Metropolitan Museum. Havemeyers Paid Small Sums for Masterpieces
JournalArt News
Issue28, No. 24 (March 15, 1930)
Year of Publication1930
Pages33-41
Sammlung Havemeyer 1930 Fig. p. 216
Authorn. a.
TitleDie Sammlung Havemeyer im Metropolitan Museum
JournalPantheon
Issue5 (January-June 1930)
Year of Publication1930
Pages210-217
Friedländer 1919 84 Fig. p. 82
AuthorMax J. Friedländer
TitleGemälde Cranachs in der Zeit um 1509
JournalZeitschrift für bildende Kunst
IssueN.F. 30=54.1919
Year of Publication1919
Pages81-86
Friedländer 1916 col. 132
AuthorMax J. Friedländer
TitleEin neu erworbenes Portrait Cranachs
JournalAmtliche Berichte aus den Preuszischen Kunstsammlungen
Issue37
Year of Publication1916
Pagescol. 129-135

Description/ Interpretation/ Comments

Initially expressing some hesitation, Max J. Friedländer was the first to link this panel to the authorship of Lucas Cranach the Elder.[1] He pointed out that the large curves and heavy shadows of the head are similar to those found in the portraits in the Torgau (Holy Kinship) Altarpiece of 1509 (Städel Museum, Frankfurt) and supposed that the panel could have been painted during Cranach’s trip to the Netherlands in 1508.[2] By the time of Friedländer’s 1932 Cranach monograph with Jakob Rosenberg, there was no further doubt about the attribution, which has been accepted ever since.[3]

In 1966 Dieter Koepplin first proposed this portrait as the pendant of the Portrait of a Woman in Prayer, a work that also represents on its reverse a niche containing a grisaille statue of a saint, Catherine of Alexandria (CH_KHZ-KMB_Dep24).[4] Except for the fact that the female portrait is cut at the bottom by about 5 centimeters, the two panels match closely in size; they also share a similar green background, even though these colors have shifted in differing ways.[5] There was most likely a central panel, twice the width of the two donor panels that, when closed, would have revealed the grisaille images.[6]

The saints, probably also by Cranach’s own hand,[7] are likely the patron saints of the man and woman, who therefore might be a Peter(?) and a Catherine.[8] Other clues to the identity of the sitters appear in the costume of the woman, who wears a Dutch hood, and in the man’s ring, which bears the coat of arms of the Dutch family Six van Hillegom or Six van Oterleek.[9] Also of note is the fact that the panel is made of Baltic oak, the customary support for paintings produced in the Netherlands and one that was used only rarely by Cranach and his workshop.[10] These factors, as well as the probable original format as the wings of a typical Netherlandish triptych, suggest that the sitters were from the Low Countries and that the male portrait and its pendant may have been painted there. But when and where might this have happened? Cranach visited the Netherlands in 1508, perhaps for political and commercial business on behalf of the Elector of Saxony, Friedrich the Wise; according to Walther Scheidig, he may even have traveled there earlier, in 1506.[11] Two payments in 1508 to the artist and an assistant, “maistre Christoffele,” for unspecified work in Malines for Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands, indicate Cranach’s connections at the highest court levels.[12] Werner Schade and Koepplin both recognized the strong influence of Netherlandish paintings on Cranach’s works after 1509,[13] and Bodo Brinkmann rightly observed that an “increased empathy” for the sitters comes directly from Cranach’s exposure to the works of the great Netherlandish masters, from Jan van Eyck to Quentin Metsys.[14] The few painted portraits by Cranach from 1509 provide insufficient material for stylistic comparisons,[15] but, as Friedländer pointed out early on, there are close comparisons with the Torgau Altarpiece.[16] It is above all on the basis of the telltale signs of Cranach’s typical technique and execution (see technical notes above) that the attribution to him may be secured. All in all, the extant evidence strongly suggests that Cranach painted this portrait and its pendant while on a trip to the Netherlands in 1508.

[1] Friedländer 1916, col. 132.

[2] Friedländer 1919, p. 84.

[3] Friedländer and J. Rosenberg 1932, p. 39. For the most recent affirmation of the attribution to Cranach, see Bodo Brinkmann in Frankfurt and London 2007 – 8, p. 138, nos. 12, 13; Guido Messling in Brussels and Paris 2010 – 11, p. 138, no. 60.

[4] Koepplin, unpublished opinion, August 12, 1966 (curatorial files, Department of European Paintings, MMA). Koepplin published this observation in 1972, p. 347, and was later supported by Angelica Dülberg (1990, pp. 85, 261). As early as 1919, Friedländer had proposed (p. 85) that the Zürich portrait was linked to one of a man as part of a diptych or the wings of a triptych, but he had not yet identified the exact pendant. The 1978 edition of Friedländer and Rosenberg unfortunately did not take into account Koepplin’s discovery that the Zürich and New York panels are pendants; it dated the former as about 1508 – 10 and the latter as about 1510 – 12 (Friedländer and J. Rosenberg 1978, p. 74, no. 27).

[5] The background of the Metropolitan’s portrait is now a duller, darker green than that of the Zürich portrait, which is a cooler shade of the same color. This has likely resulted from differences in the preservation and conservation of the paintings after they were separated at an early date.

[6] Efforts to discover the central panel have not been successful. Koepplin (in Basel 1974, vol. 2, p. 682) suggested as a possible model the half-length holy figures of the Virgin, Christ, and Saint John in Rogier van der Weyden’s Braque Triptych (Musée du Louvre, Paris).

[7] Koepplin (in Basel 1974, vol. 2, pp. 682 – 83) related the grisaille images to figures in a woodcut from the 1509 Wittenberger Heiltumsbuch (see Basel 1974, vol. 1, p. 417, fig. 233) and to saints from the wings of the Martyrdom of Saint Catherine Altarpiece of 1506 (National Gallery, London; middle panel in Gemäldegalerie, Dresden).

[8] Maryan W. Ainsworth in New York 1993, p. 55.

[9] Wehle and Salinger 1947, p. 200.

[10] Heydenreich 2007b, p. 48. Heydenreich also pointed out that the wide beveling on the reverse corresponds to that found on many sixteenth-century "Dutch" panels (Heydenreich 2002, vol. 1, p. 35 and n. 46) and cited Wadum 1998, pp. 160 – 61.

[11] Scheidig’s assertions are based on evidence in the Weimar Staatsarchiv. See Scheidig 1972, p. 301. The Netherlands trip is known mainly because of Dr. Christoph Scheurl’s dedicatory epistle to Cranach in his oration of December 16, 1508, subsequently published in 1509 (for a German translation of the Latin original, see Lüdecke 1953, p. 51). Scheidig doubted, however, that Cranach produced any paintings on this trip (Scheidig 1972, p. 302). On the trip itself, see also Koepplin 2003b, sec. 4.2, “Warum reiste Cranach 1508 in die Niederlande?,” especially pp. 60 – 67; Schade 2007; Borchert 2010a.

[12] See Duverger 1970, p. 9; Schade 1974, pp. 28, 404, no. 52. The document is to be found in Lille, Départementales du Nord, Namelijk van de Rekeningen van Margareta van Oostenrijk, Gehouden door haar Tresorier Diego Flores, B 19167 Bl. 53.

[13] Schade saw this influence especially in prints after 1509 and in the grisaille wings of the Torgau Altarpiece, which was painted in Wittenberg in 1509 (Schade 1980, p. 28), and suspected that Cranach may have met Hieronymus Bosch and even more likely Quentin Metsys in Antwerp (Schade 1980, p. 30). Koepplin recognized the influence of Jan Joest’s Kalkar Altarpiece on Cranach’s 1509 woodcut The Betrayal of Christ (Koepplin in Basel 1974, vol. 2, pp. 472 – 73). Although he compared the Last Judgment triptychs of Bosch and Cranach, Dirk Bax did not specifically discuss Cranach’s trip to the Netherlands (see Bax 1983). Jozef Duverger doubted any diplomatic purpose for Cranach’s trip (see Duverger 1970, esp. pp. 8 – 13). According to Franz Matsche (1996, p. 38, n. 39), the idea that Cranach served as a diplomat for Friedrich the Wise came from Heinrich Lilienfein (1942, p. 21).

[14] Brinkmann in Frankfurt and London 2007 – 8, p. 138, nos. 12, 13.

[15] Examples include the diptych Johann the Constant and His Son Johann Friedrich (National Gallery, London), Christoph Scheurl (private collection, Nuremberg), and Georg Spalatin (Museum der Bildenden Künste Leipzig), the latter two damaged and heavily restored.

[16] Friedländer 1919, p. 84.

[Ainsworth, Cat. New York 2013, 45, 46, 284, No. 8]

  • Portrait of a Man with a Rosary, about 1508

Images

Compare images
  • overall
  • overall
  • overall
  • overall
  • reverse
  • irr
  • irr
  • x_radiograph
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail

Technical studies

2013Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
  • Infrared reflectography
  • Stereomicroscopy
  • irr
  • irr
  • x_radiograph

Support

The panel support is a single plank of Baltic oak, with the grain oriented vertically. Dendrochronological analysis indicated an earliest possible fabrication date of 1502.[1]

- Its dimensions are closest to those of Heydenreich Format C.[2] The verso displays a shallow bevel, wider on the untrimmed edges.

[1] Wood identification and dendrochronological analysis by Peter Klein, Universität Hamburg (report, April 27, 2006, curatorial files, Department of European Paintings, MMA). Klein’s dendrochronological analysis indicated an earliest felling

date of 1500, an earliest possible fabrication date of 1502, and a plausible fabrication date of 1508 or later.

[2] Heydenreich 2007b, p. 43.

Ground and Imprimatura

A barbe on both sides along the untrimmed edges indicates that an engaged frame was in place when a thin white ground was applied to both sides of the panel.

Underdrawing

Infrared reflectography revealed changes to the placement of the left eye and the contours of the left brow, tip of the nose, and chin.[1]

[1] IRR carried out with configuration A; see p. 276.

Paint Layers and Gilding

The signet ring on the man’s left index finger is painted in a systematic manner typical of Cranach, with applications of an orangey medium brown, dark brown, and opaque yellow. The hair, too, shows the artist’s typical approach, with individual dark brown and off-white strands painted over an initial brushy application of warm brown. A very finely ground blue pigment, visible with magnification, is used to color the gemstone and the whites of the eyes. The damask sleeve is painted with no attempt to adjust the pattern to the modeling. The green background is underpainted with a pinkish brown color.

Framing

Not original

[Cat. New York 2013, 45, 284, No. 8]

08. 2008Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr
  • irr

BESCHREIBUNG

- An underdrawing is not readily visible; brushstrokes in a fluid medium are visible on the hat (left) and the nose, and these may belong to the underdrawing

[Sandner, Smith-Contini, Heydenreich, cda 2017]

  • photographed by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

08. 2008Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • X-radiography
  • x_radiograph
  • created by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

27.04.2006Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

Wood identification and dendrochronological analysis by Peter Klein, Universität Hamburg (report, April 27, 2006, curatorial files, Department of European Paintings, MMA). Klein’s dendrochronological analysis indicated an earliest felling date of 1500, an earliest possible fabrication date of 1502, and a plausible fabrication date of 1508 or later.

[Cat. New York 2013, 284, Fn. 1, No. 8]

  • analysed by Peter Klein

Condition Reports

Date2013

The panel, which has developed a slight transverse convex warp, has been trimmed on the bottom and the right side.

On the verso, only fragments remain of a male saint standing in an arched niche painted in grisaille.

The portrait is in good condition. There are several scratches on the face, losses along the craquelure in the clothing, and two large losses in the right shoulder and sleeve. The more thickly applied red paint outlining the contour of the delicately modeled mouth appears more prominent than intended because of general abrasion and perhaps some fading in the lips. The background, which may originally have been a more vibrant green, now appears a mottled brownish green as a result of the characteristic degradation of paint layers containing copper-green pigments.

The increased transparency of the paint layers over time has caused the adjustment to the nose to be visible in normal light.

[Cat. New York 2013, 45, No. 8]

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

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Entry with no author
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