Cranach - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian
Portrait of Anna Cuspinian
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur
23.11.2017 - 00:57
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Painting:
CDA ID / Inventory NumberCH_SORW_1925-1a
Persistent Linkhttp://lucascranach.org/CH_SORW_1925-1a
FR (1978) No.FR007
Title:
Portrait of Anna Cuspinian
The Wedding Portrait of Dr. Johannes Cuspinian and Anna Cuspinian-Putsch[Koepplin, Cat. Winterthur 2003]
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Attribution:
Lucas Cranach the Elder [Sandner 1998 B, 122][Heydenreich 1998 A, 182]
Dating:
1502[Koepplin 2003, 127]
1502-1503[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1978, 66] [Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994, 298] [Sandner 1998 B, 122][Heydenreich 1998 A, 182]
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Owner / Repository / Location:
OwnerSammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur
RepositorySammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur
LocationWinterthur
Dimensions:
Dimensions of support: 60.2-60.1 x 45.5-45 x 0.45-0.55 cm (almost original size)
Support:
Painting on spruce (Picea sp.)
Signature / Date:
None
Inscriptions, Marks, Labels, Seals:
- on the top right: two paper labels: the first is printed 'Dr. Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur Nr. Cranach, Lucas d. Ae. Bildnis der Frau Joh. Cuspinians 45 x 59', with the SIK number, Zurich. The writing on the second label is difficult to read, but appears to be a number, which ends with the figures 32. The reverse of the panel is branded with the insignia 'CR' (Carlus Rex) on the bottom right, above which there is a crown (it is identical to the markings on the reverse of the Portrait of Johannes Cuspinian)
Description:
Half-length Portrait of the wife of the historiographer Dr. Johannes Cuspinian (actually called Spiessheimer) Part of a diptych (Pendant piece to the portrait of Johannes Cuspian)
Provenance:
- King Charles I of England
- Locker-Lampson Family, England
- Baron of Sandys, England
- art market A. -G., Luzern, Julius Böhler gall.
- acquired by Reinhart in 1925
Exhibitions:
Bern 1939-1940, No. 62-63, Plate III
Zurich 1940-1941, No. 39-40, Plates XI-XII
Winterthur 1955, No. 42-43, Plate V.
Kronach 1994, No. 118
Sources / Publications:
Reference on PageCatalogue NumberFigure/Plate
Bonnet, Görres 201517-193p. 19
Exhib. Cat. Vienna 2011113Fig. 1b
Borchert 201027
Martin 201050
Borggrefe 201069, 70Fig. 3, p. 69
Heydenreich 2007 B42, 4328, 29
Evans 200750, 512
Brinkmann 200718
Heydenreich 2007 A39, 47, 52, 55, 56, 86, 87, 97, 102, 115, 140, 149, 178, 185, 193, 196, 200, 221, 227, 309
Cat. Winterthur 2003127-133
Heiser 2002
Warnke 1999157, 382
Sandner 1998 B83, 122, 123Fig. 14.4
Exhib. Cat. Eisenach 1998122-12314.4Fig. 14.4
Heydenreich 1998 A186, 197Fig. 21.1
Heydenreich 19979
Cat. Nuremberg 1997124
Marx 199718
Rebel 1994131, 133Fig. A73
Frehner 199318-20
Hinz 19939-11
Wood 199347, 73ff.
Schneider 199282-87
Silver 1983
Friedländer, Rosenberg 197967No. 7Fig. 7
Silver, Koepplin 1976
Cat. Winterthur 197537, 329, 330
Schade 197415, 17-18
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974121, 130, 142, 160-168
Koepplin 1973 A
Koepplin 1973 B70-71
Rosenberg 196933f.
Benesch 196664-67
Grote 1965166
Stange 196458
Ruhmer 196386
Ankwicz Kleehoven 195930-34
Buchner 1953165-167Nos. 189, 190
Lüdecke 1953 B28-30, 83
Pinder 1939/1940
Friedländer, Rosenberg 19326, 7
Ankwicz Kleehoven 1927
Friedländer 1926
Interpretation / History / Discussion:
This panel and its pendant piece (Johannes Cuspinian) can be considered together as a single work, which was probably commissioned as a wedding portrait. The sitter is Anna Cuspinian (formerly Putsch) the daughter of the royal treasurer Ulrich Putsch. The continuous landscape into which the sitters have been placed is only divided by the frame and thus supports the theory that both portraits were conceived as a unit. The original frame was probably hinged so that it could be closed or propped upright and did not necessarily hang on the wall. Various elements subtly convey both Christian and humanistic symbolic meaning, some alluding to love and wedlock.'In den Worten von Ernst Buchner'Der frühlingshafte Zauber eines neuen Weltzeitalters liegt über den Tafeln.' Koepplin 2003, 133. (In the words of Ernst Buchner 'A spring magic of a new age envelopes these panels.')

Description in
[Friedlander/Rosenberg 1978, 66-67]
[Koepplin 1973]
[Koepplin 2003, 133]
Material / Technique:
  • Date: 29.03.1998
  • Scientific analysis
  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
  • Support
  • Identification of wood species; Microscopy of cross-sections:
    Species: spruce (Picea spec.)
    Sample taken by Heydenreich 1995
    [Letter in the Archive, Oskar Reinhart Collection 'am Römerholz', Winterthur]
    Old catalogue entry by Frehner: Limewood
    • analysed by: Peter Klein
    • Date: 06.09.1995
    • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
    • X-radiography
    • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
    • Instrumental material analysis
    • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
    • Stereomicroscopy
    • Infrared reflectography
    • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - ReverseLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - ReverseLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - ReverseLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - Detail ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - Detail Images
    • Support
    • The support consists of one broad tangentially cut pinewood plank (60.3 x 45.4 cm; a ratio of c. 4:3) with the grain running vertically. It may be concluded from the rings visible in the x-radiograph that both panels of the diptych are from the same plank. The top edge of the panel depicting Anna Cuspinian can be matched with the bottom edge of the panel depicting Johannes. Numerous knots have been preserved in the wood. On the reverse beneath the branding mark is an original wooden insert (c. 8 x 1.5 cm). The reverse of the panel has been smoothed with a plane in the direction of the grain (the plane marks are up to 3 cms wide) and fibres (flax tow) have been applied locally. The wooden insert is also covered with fibres.
      The edge of the panel has been slightly bevelled/chamfered on the reverse along all sides (a width of c. 1 cm). As the burr of the ground runs directly along the left side of the panel and the bevel is not present it can be assumed that the panel has been cropped slightly at a later stage (c. 4 mm). There are indentations around the edge of the panel on all four sides, which are probably due to a previous framing system. On the reverse of the panel a black and subsequent light green coating can be identified. The black coating could be original. The green coating is clearly visible in the x-radiograph and may contain lead white.

      Comment:
      The species of wood and the woodwork are the same as the diptych depicting a portrait of the Viennese Lawyer and his wife (1503, FR 8, 9) and thus suggest that they were created during the same period and are of the same geographic origin. Koepplin's theory that both portrait pairs were originally of the same size cannot be confirmed.
    • Ground and Imprimatura
    • The painting has a white ground. It appears to be a glue/chalk ground (EDX analysis of a sample showed the presence of calcium). A burr created by the ground is present on all four sides of the panel about 0.1-0.7 cm from the edge (top 0.6-0.4; left 0.3-0.4; below 0.2 -0.7; right c. 0.1 cm). The area to which ground was applied measures 59-59.2 x 44.7-44.5 cm. There are intermittent incised lines visible along the upper and right edge of the panel in the ground (parallel to the burr). The burr is covered with a layer of black paint (c. 2 cm wide).
      A pigmented imprimatur cannot be identified.

      [see 1995 CA10 (Dr Gunnar Heydenreich)]
    • Underdrawing
    • Black fluid drawing medium, probably applied with a brush. Visible with the naked eye in, amongst others, the area of the upper lip. Lines have partially separated into single islands of colour, possibly resulting from a water-based ink and the repellent action of an oily isolating layer.
      [Infrared reflectogram (Konrad, Berlin)]
    • Paint Layers and Gilding
    • Gilding:
      The rings, belt, corset, chains and parts of the bonnet are created employing metal leaf (appears to be gold leaf). The mordant for the matt gilding is pigmented grey/brown. The gilding on the bonnet and the corset was carried out after the first layer of flesh paint was applied, subsequently the contours were corrected with flesh paint.

      Paint Layers:
      The initial layer of the flesh paint is a pinkish dead colouring. It is a rather flat application predominantly in the vertical direction. The subsequent modelling of the facial features was carried out with light pink admixtures (cheeks, forehead and the bridge of the nose) and brown glazes in the areas of shadow. Contours are drawn in brown paint. Small amounts of blue pigment were identified in the half tones.
      In the x-radiograph the face appears to be executed with a degree of fluidity and exhibits a relatively weak absorption profile (reflects the lighting situation rather than the facial features). Obvious brushstrokes are only visible in the area of the forehead. The eyeballs are painted bluish white; the iris blue and the pupils are black without reflections. The contours of the pink eyelids, below the eyes and individual eyelashes are described with brown to blackish paint. A flat application of brown paint is employed to depict the eyebrows. The lips are modelled in vermilion mixed with white, the shadow on the upper lip appears to be achieved with red lake and a brown line separates the upper and lower lips.

      The sky was initially painted with a violet to grey admixture containing fluorite and lead white (EDX). This grey underpainting was lightened to white along the horizon. The blue paint was dabbed on with a brush while holding both the foliage and the bonnet in reserve. Microscopic examination suggests that the blue pigment is azurite.



      The sitter's red brocade robe was initially modelled employing light red (admixtures of a red pigment and lead white), while the depth of shadow in the folds was achieved with red lake. The pattern on the brocade although partially described in red lake is predominantly carried out with white admixtures over which followed a red lake glaze. The corset is created by employing various coloured glazes (green, red and brown)and lead white over gold coloured metal leaf. The white blouse is painted with varying ratios of lead white and blue pigment.

      The landscape in the background was carried out after the red robe. An initial flat application of dark green paint was applied to establish the basic form of the foliage. On top of this a lighter green tone was employed to define single groups of leaves, which were then modulated with a green glaze. This glaze now has a slight brownish appearance, particularly along the edge of the craquellee (similar discolouring is not visible in the green glaze of the corset).

      [see 1995 CA10 (Dr Gunnar Heydenreich)]
      • written by: Gunnar Heydenreich
      • Date: 1995
      • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
      • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
      • Instrumental material analysis
      • Microscopy of paint cross-sections in incident and ultraviolet light; EDX:
        Cross-section number: EP 097
        Brief description of paint: violet grey underpaint beneath the blue sky
        Location: Front, top edge, violet grey underpaint
        Incident Light microscopy: yes
        Incident light microscopy_photo: slide
        Ultraviolet light: yes
        Ultraviolet light microscopy_photo: slide
        EDX: no
        Observations:
        1.Violet grey underpaint containing white (lead white?) and crystalline violet (Fluorite?) pigment particles. Initial paint layer beneath the blue sky. Single azurite and black pigment particles are also present as well as glassy brown lake particles (protrusions). The layer has a uniform yellow florescence in ultra violet light.
        0.White ground (missing).


        Comment: The light violet underpaint is similar to that found on the painting FR4. It appears to consist of a mixture of predominantly fluorite and lead white.

        Sample list (91) 0
        Cross-section No. EP 098
        Brief description of paint: Blue sky with grey underpaint and black boarder
        Sample Location: top edge right, sky with grey underpaint and black boarder.
        Incident Light Microscopy: yes
        Incident Light Microscopy Photo: Slide
        Ultraviolet Light: yes
        Ultraviolet Light Photo: Slide
        EDX: yes

        Observations:
        2.Black Layer: Homogenous black consisting of very fine pigment particles. Black boader lies directly over the light blue layer. Black appearance in ultraviolet light.
        3.Light Blue Layer: azurite and white pigment particles. Also glassy yellowish-transparent protrusions, irregular in shape. In ultraviolet light appears the same as the underpaint.
        4.Light violet layer: white (lead white) and pale violet crystalline pigments (fluorite) single red pigment particles also present, weaker fluorescence in ultraviolet light but also yellowish.
        5.Whitish/yellowish layer (calcium carbonate) Ground. Appears uniformly yellow in ultraviolet light.

        [see 06.09.1995 CA10 (Dr Gunnar Heydenreich)]
        • written by: Gunnar Heydenreich
        • Date:
        • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
        • X-radiography
        • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - X-RadiographsLucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - X-Radiographs
            • Date:
            • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
            • Infrared reflectography
            • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Sammlung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur - Portrait of Anna Cuspinian - Infrared Images
            • Underdrawing
            • DESCRIPTION

              Tools/Materials:
              - fluid, black medium and brush

              Type/Ductus:
              - freehand underdrawing
              - thin to broader lines

              Function:
              - relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate contours and describe the essential details and the facial features; no representation of volume

              Deviations:
              - minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define form

              INTERPRETATION

              Attribution:
              - Lucas Cranach the Elder

              [Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2013]
                Condition Reports:
                • Date: 2003
                • "Das Bild befindet sich in einem guten Zustand. Die Holztafel ist etwas gewölbt. Inkarnat, Partien mit Gold und Himmel sind etwas stark gereinigt. Einige, zum Teil verfärbte Retouchen im Himmel" [Koepplin 2003, 127]
                  • Date: 1995
                  • The painting is in a stable condition. The panel exhibits a slight convex warp. Inactive wood worm is present along the bottom of the panel. A crack in the support '(Possibly a split) runs from the top to the bottom of the panel through the bonnet, the left shoulder and to the right of the carnation. In the upper half of the painting the retouching of this crack is c. 5mm wide. The flesh paint is slightly damaged in the area of the chest. Cracquellee is particularly prominent in the flesh paint, the sky and the brocade. There are some white fills along the edge of the panel. The green application/coating on the reverse of the panel has been reduced slightly by the application of tow (material fibres) in some areas.
                  • written by: Gunnar Heydenreich
                  History of Restoration:
                  • Date: 23.04.2010
                  • Treatment Report: ,Construction of two climatically controlled display cases, surface cleaning, local application of a dilute solution of dammar varnish to areas where the varnish had sunk.' [Archive, Oskar Reinhart Collection 'am Römerholz', Winterthur, revised 2011]
                  • conservation treatment by: Paul Pfister
                  • Date: 1969
                  • Treatment Report: 'A) Small blisters in the paint layer were treated in areas of the sky, the bonnet and the chest.. B) Consolidation of the complete paint layer C) Elimination of disturbing retouches, which had darken.' [Archive, Oskar Reinhart Collection 'am Römerholz', Winterthur, revised 2011]
                  • conservation treatment by: Paolo Cadorin
                  • Date: 1968
                  • Treatment Report: Frame: old coatings removed and replaced by new gilding [Archive, Oskar Reinhart Collection 'am Römerholz', Winterthur, revised 2011]
                  • conservation treatment by: W Geissmann
                  • Date: 1925
                  • 'According to the present owner the paintings were restored in Munich (by Kinkelin) shortly after their appearance on the art market. Some overpaint was removed during this intervention.' [Koepplin 1973, 66]
                  • conservation treatment by: Kinkelin