Allegory of Law and Mercy

Allegory of Law and Mercy

Title

Allegory of Law and Mercy

[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 136]

Painting on beech wood (Fagus sylvatica)

Medium

Painting on beech wood (Fagus sylvatica)

[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 136]

The right side of the panel: DE_BStGS-GNMN_Gm220.

St John the Baptist leads the believers to Christ, who died for them on the cross and whose blood, accompanied by the Holy Spirit as a dove, falls on the chest of the sinners. The lamb symbolises Christ's sacrifice and the flag

The right side of the panel: DE_BStGS-GNMN_Gm220.

St John the Baptist leads the believers to Christ, who died for them on the cross and whose blood, accompanied by the Holy Spirit as a dove, falls on the chest of the sinners. The lamb symbolises Christ's sacrifice and the flag on the cross is a sign of victory. On the right the ressurrected Christ appears in front of the empty tomb as vanquisher over Death and the Devil. The serpent in the background is an old testament prefiguration of the crucifixion. Three scenes in the upper part of the painting illustrate the road to salvation: the child with the cross symbolizing Christ's future sacrifice; angels announcing the birth of Christ to the shepherds; the ascension of the ressurrected Christ. The tree on this side of the panel bares leaves. There is a biblical text along the bottom edge.

[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 137]

Attributions
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Workshop Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attributions

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 136]

Workshop Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Schuchardt 1851 A, 104][1]

[1][Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 136]

Lucas Cranach the Younger

[Cat. Nuremberg 1882][1]
[Grundbuch der Sammlung Oettingen-Wallerstein][1]

[1][Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 136]

Production date
after 1529

Production date

after 1529

[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 136]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 72 x 59.7 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 72 x 59.7 cm

  • [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 136]

Signature / Dating
Artist's insignia on the wing of the vanquished dragon: winged serpent, facing left

Signature / Dating

  • Artist's insignia on the wing of the vanquished dragon: winged serpent, facing left

  • [CDA 2011]

Inscriptions and Labels
- printed text on paper attached along the bottom edge of the painting: 'Sie sind alle zumal sunder: vnd/ mangeln …

Inscriptions and Labels

Inscriptions, Badges:

  • - printed text on paper attached along the bottom edge of the painting:
  • 'Sie sind alle zumal sunder: vnd/ mangeln das sie sich Gottes nicht/ rhümen mügen. Roma iij [Römerbrief 3, 23]`. ¿Die sunde ist des todes spies: aber/ das gesetz ist der sunden krafft./ 1.Cor.15 [1. Korintherbrief, 15,56]` Das Gesetz richtet nur/ zorn an. Roma iiij [Römerbrief 4, 15] Durchs Gesetz kompt erkentnis / der sünde. Ro.iij. [Römerbrief 3, 20]`. Das gesetz vnd / alle Propheten: gehen bis auff / Johannis zeit. Matthei xi` [Matthäus 11,11]` Der gerecht lebt seines glaubens / Ro.i. Wir halten das der mensch/ gerecht werde durch den glauben: / on des gesetzs werck. Ro.iij. [Römerbrief 3, 28]`. Sihe: das ist Gottes lamb: welchs / der welt sünde tregt. Jo. i. [Johannes 1, 29]`. In der / heiligung des geistes: zum gehor=/sam vnd besprengung des blutes / Ihesu Christi. 1. Petri.i [Brief Petri, 1, 2].` Der tod ist verschlungen ym sieg / Tod: wo ist dein spies: Helle: wo ist dein sieg. Gott aber sey danck der vns den sieg gibt: dvrch Ihe=/ sum Christu(m)s vnsern Herrn. 1. Cor. 1 [1. Korintherbrief 1,55 und 57].'
  • [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 138]

Stamps, Seals, Labels:

  • Reverse of the panel: in black paint 'H4(?)146'; in pencil '242'
  • paper label: 'Slg. König Ludwigs I. von Bayern 1828, Nr. 383; WAF H.G. 173 (1936) Inv. S. No. 382'
  • - beneath on the left:
  • Nr. 221
  • - right:
  • R 143; new label: '22/5'
  • [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 137]
Owner
Wittelsbacher Ausgleichsfond/Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
Repository
Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
Location
Nuremberg
CDA ID
DE_BStGS-GNMN_Gm221
FR (1978) Nr.
FR-none
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_BStGS-GNMN_Gm221/

Provenance

Loan from the Wittelsbacher Ausgleichsfonds
BStG Inv. No. WAF 173

  • the collection of Count Rechberg
  • 1815 acquired for the collection of the Prince of Oettingen-Wallerstein, register of deeds 1817-18, § CCXIV
  • 1828 acquired for the collection of King Ludwig I. of Bavaria, I.W. 383
  • from 1829 displayed in Nuremberg, in the Moritz Chapel
  • 1882 GNM

[Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 136]

Exhibitions

Cappenberg 1951, 362-363
Nuremberg 1959, No. 138, Fig. 12, 13
Nuremberg 1979, No. 138
Nuremberg 1983, No. 474, 87

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure / Plate
Exhib. Cat. Gotha, Kassel 2015 170 under No. 42
EditorJulia Carrasco, Justus Lange, Stiftung Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha, Benjamin D. Spira, Timo Trümper
TitleBild und Botschaft. Cranach im Dienst von Hof und Reformation, [Gotha, Herzogliches Museum; Kassel, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Schloss Wilhelmshöhe]
Place of PublicationHeidelberg
Year of Publication2015
Cat.Hess, Hirschfelder, Bär 2010 53, 119-121, 430 Fig. 88
AuthorFrank Bär
EditorDaniel Hess, Dagmar Hirschfelder, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
TitleRenaissance. Barock. Aufklärung. Kunst und Kultur vom 16. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert
SeriesDie Schausammlungen des Germanischen Nationalmuseums
Volume3
Place of PublicationNuremberg
Year of Publication2010
Exhib. Cat. Nuremberg 2004 103-104
AuthorBarbara Dienst
EditingManfred Knedlik
TitleFaszination Meisterwerk. Dürer, Rembrandt ,Riemenschneider
Place of PublicationNuremberg
Year of Publication2004
Cat. Nuremberg 1997 136-140
AuthorKurt Löcher
TitleDie Gemälde des 16. Jahrhunderts. Germanisches Nationalmuseum Nürnberg
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication1997
Schade, Schuttwolf 1994 21
AuthorWerner Schade, Allmuth Schuttwolf
TitleMalerei und Plastik
Publicationin Allmuth Schuttwolf, ed., Gotteswort und Menschenbild. Werke von Cranach und seinen Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Gotha
Place of PublicationGotha
Year of Publication1994
Pages15-94
Exhib. Cat. Nuremberg 1983 87 No. 474
EditorGerhard Bott
TitleMartin Luther und die Reformation in Deutschland. Ausstellung zum 500. Geburtstag Martin Luthers
Place of PublicationFrankfurt a. M.
Year of Publication1983
Exhib. Cat. Nuremberg 1979 No. 138
EditorGermanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
TitleReformation in Nürnberg. Umbruch und Bewahrung 1490-1580
SeriesSchriften des Kunstpädadogischen Zentrums im Germanischen Nationalmuseum
Volume9
Place of PublicationNuremberg
Year of Publication1979
Schiller 1966/1990 174-175 Figs. 533, 534
AuthorGertrud Schiller
TitleIkonographie der christlichen Kunst
Volume1 - 5
Place of PublicationGuterslöh
Year of Publication1966
Exhib. Cat. Nuremberg 1959 No. 138 Figs. 12, 13
AuthorHerwarth Röttgen
EditorGermanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
TitleAus der Frühzeit der evangelischen Kirche
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication1959
Thulin 1955 126-154 Figs. 172, 173
AuthorOskar Thulin
TitleCranach-Altäre der Reformation
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1955
Exhib. Cat. Cappenberg 1951 Nos. 362, 363
Authorn. a.
TitleDeutsche Kultur. Das Germanische Nationalmuseum zeigt Deutsche Kultur von der Spätgotik bis zum Rokoko [Museum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte der Stadt Dortmund, Schloß Cappenberg]
Place of PublicationDortmund
Year of Publication1951
Cat. Nuremberg 1936/1937 43
AuthorEberhard Lutze, Eberhard Wiegand
TitleKataloge des Germanischen Nationalmuseums zu Nürnberg. Die Gemälde des 13.-16. Jahrhunderts
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1937
Cat. Donaueschingen 1934 under No. 213
EditorHeinrich Feuerstein
TitleFürstlich Fürstenbergische Sammlungen zu Donaueschingen. Verzeichnis der Gemälde
Place of PublicationDonaueschingen
Issue4th edition
Year of Publication1934
Link https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/feurstein1934/0001/image,info
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 183
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Glaser 1923 230
AuthorCurt Glaser
TitleLukas Cranach
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1923
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/glaser1923
Cat. Nuremberg 1909 221
AuthorHeinz Braune
TitleKatalog der Gemälde-Sammlung des Germanischen Nationalmuseums in Nürnberg
Place of PublicationNuremberg
Year of Publication1909
Meier 1909 415-419
AuthorKarl Ernst Meier
TitleFortleben der religiös-dogmatischen Kompositionen Cranachs in der Kunst des Protestantismus
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
Issue32
Year of Publication1909
Pages419-435
Cat. Nuremberg 1893 Nos. 266, 267
AuthorAugust von Essenwein, Adolf Bayersdorfer, Franz von Reber
TitleKatalog der im germanischen Museum befindlichen Gemälde
Place of PublicationNuremberg
Year of Publication1893
Dittrich 1890 Sp. 325
AuthorFranz Dittrich
TitleEin neuentdecktes Bild von L. Cranach d. Ä.
JournalZeitschrift für christliche Kunst
Issue13
Year of Publication1890
PagesSp. 325-326
Janitschek 1890 498
AuthorHubert Janitschek
TitleGeschichte der deutschen Malerei
SeriesGeschichte der deutschen Kunst
Volume3
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1890
Link https://archive.org/details/geschichtederdeu03jani
Cat. Nuremberg 1885 Nos. 241, 242
AuthorAugust von Essenwein, Adolf Bayersdorfer, Franz von Reber
TitleKatalog der im germanischen Museum befindlichen Gemälde
Place of PublicationNuremberg
Year of Publication1885
Cat. Nuremberg 1882 Nos. 236, 237
AuthorAugust von Essenwein, Adolf Bayersdorfer, Franz von Reber
TitleKatalog der im germanischen Museum befindlichen Gemälde
Place of PublicationNuremberg
Year of Publication1882
Cat. Nuremberg 1878-1880 Nos. 133, 134
AuthorAugust von Reber
TitleKatalog der Königliche Gemälde. Galerie in der St Moritz Kapelle
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication1880
Schuchardt 1871 176
AuthorChristian Schuchardt
TitleLucas Cranach des Aeltern Leben und Werke. Dritter Theil
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1871
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schuchardt1871bd3
Parthey 1863-1864 687 (Bd. 1) Nos. 154, 155
AuthorGustav Parthey
TitleDeutscher Bildersaal. Verzeichnis der in Deutschland vorhandenen Oelbilder verstorbener Maler aller Schulen
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1864
Heller 1854 87
AuthorJoseph Heller
TitleLucas Cranach's Leben und Werke
Place of PublicationNuremberg
Year of Publication1854
Link http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015062799757
Schuchardt 1851 C 104-105 379
AuthorChristian Schuchardt
TitleLucas Cranach des Aeltern Leben und Werke. Zweiter Theil
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1851
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schuchardt1851bd2
Cat. Nuremberg 1828-1846 Nos. 112, 116
Authorn. a.
TitleDer Königliche Bildersaal aus der Alt- Ober- und Niederdeutschen Schule in der Moritzkapelle zu Nürnberg 1829-1846
Place of PublicationNuremberg
Year of Publication1846
Waagen 1843 194
AuthorGustav Friedrich Waagen
TitleKunstwerke und Künstler im Erzgebirge und in Franken
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1843
Kugler 1836 143
AuthorFranz Kugler
TitleAlbrecht Dürer, seine Vorgänger und Nachfolger
JournalMuseum. Blätter für bildende Kunst
Issue4 (1836)
Year of Publication1836
Pages58-144
Schorn 1829 419
AuthorLudwig Schorn
TitleDer königliche Bildersaal in der St. Moritzkapelle zu Nürnberg
JournalKunstblatt
IssueJg. 10
Year of Publication1829
Pages321-324, 401-404, 407-408, 417-4
Cat. Coll. Oettingen-Wallerstein 1826 Nos. 254, 255
Authorn. a.
TitleCatalogue de la Galerie de Wallerstein
Place of PublicationWallerstein
Year of Publication1826
Cat. Coll. Oettingen-Wallerstein 1819 131-133 Nos. 9, 10
Authorn. a.
TitleVerzeichniß der altdeutschen Gemaelde der Fürstlich Oettingen Wallersteinischen Bilder Gallerie in Wallerstein
Place of PublicationHarburg
Year of Publication1819
  • Allegory of Law and Mercy, after 1529

Images

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Technical studies

2015Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • X-radiography
  • x_radiograph
  • x_radiograph
  • created by Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg

09. 2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Materials:

- fluid drawing medium, brush

Type/Ductus:

- freehand underdrawing, possibly in combination with a traced linear underdrawing?

- thin lines

Function:

- binding for the final painted version

Deviations:

- only minor alterations made during the painting process

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

Comments:

- may be with reference to a pre-existing study

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]

  • photographed by Gunnar Heydenreich
  • photographed by Ingo Sandner

1997Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
  • Infrared reflectography
  • Stereomicroscopy
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail

Support

- beech wood (Fagus sylvatica)

- originally one panel consisting of four planks, joined horizontally and glued. Separated into two parts before 1817/18

- the widths of the planks from left: top 16.8, 11.4, 23.1, 20.7 cm, bottom 16.6, 11.8, 22.7, 20.9 cm

- 1.5- 1.7 cm thick

- the joins are covered on both sides with an application of tow

- the panel has been trimmed slightly on all four sides

Reverse:

- scraped

- the sides of the panel are rebated

Underdrawing

- executed with a soft drawing instrument

- the contours and lines within the forms are indicated

Paint Layers and Gilding

- the thin rays extending from Christ's nimbus were probably carried out with a feather

- the contours of the stones were smudged with a soft brush while still wet creating a slightly blurred effect

- the black band around the edge is original

- there is a piece of paper c. 11.5 cm wide and 3 cm high on the right between the shaft of the cross and the clouds. There may be an inscription on it, but the text is no longer legible

- there is an inscription printed on paper attached to the bottom edge of the painting; the paper was already damaged before it was attached

- an imitation ballustade with marble panels was painted over the paper due to a change in plan

- the green glazes have become brown

[Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 137]

Condition Reports

Date1997

Support:

  • 1817/1818 cut vertically and separated into two parts

  • some of the joins are open

  • old wood worm damage

  • the panel has been trimmed slightly on all four sides, a considerable amount was removed along the top edge

Reverse:

  • the joins are covered with a coating containing lead white

  • the open joins have been reinforced with wooden blocks

  • a coating of brown schellac was applied at some stage to the reverse

Painted surface:

  • the paint layers exhibit a distinctive craquellée in the areas where there is an application of tow; in some areas there are also losses

  • paint losses along the edge, small retouches over the entire surface

  • patchy remains of a old varnish

[Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 137]

Conservation History

Date1959

as yet no information

[Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 137]

Date1912

'(BStGS, R.P. Nr. 5386) cleaned, small losses were filled, a very dirty coating was left'

[Bartl, Cat. Nuremberg 1997, 137]

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'Allegory of Law and Mercy', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_BStGS-GNMN_Gm221/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'Allegory of Law and Mercy', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_BStGS-GNMN_Gm221/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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