The Lamentation of Christ

The Lamentation of Christ

Titles

The Lamentation of Christ

[CDA 2010]

The Schleißheim Crucifixion

-

The Crucifixion of Christ

[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 137, No. 1416]

Painting on fir (Abies sp.)

Medium

Painting on fir (Abies sp.)

[Klein, Report 2013]
[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 137, No. 1416]
[Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, revised 2010]
[Klein, Report 2006]

The Crucifixion is depicted with the composition rotated: Christ's cross is on the right, and the thieves are on the left, the Virgin and St John are in the centre. The Virgin looks up at Christ. On the right beneath Christ's cross there is a broad view of a landscape

The Crucifixion is depicted with the composition rotated: Christ's cross is on the right, and the thieves are on the left, the Virgin and St John are in the centre. The Virgin looks up at Christ. On the right beneath Christ's cross there is a broad view of a landscape with mountains and a lake with a moated castle. The sky is filled with dark clouds.

[Martin Schawe, Alte Pinakothek Munich, 26.03.2010]

Attributions
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Wolf Huber

Attributions

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, revised 2010][Burmester 1998, 167][Rieffel 1895, 425]

Wolf Huber

[Schmidt 1892]

Matthias Grünewald

[Bayersdorfer 1855]

Production date
1503

Production date

1503

[dated]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 137.8-138 x 98.3-99.3 x 0.8-1.5 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 137.8-138 x 98.3-99.3 x 0.8-1.5 cm

  • (The panel has been trimmed slightly along the left edge; the original dimensions of the painted surface have been retained)

  • Dimensions of painted surface: 136-135.6 x 97 x 97.3 cm

  • [Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, revised 2010]

Signature / Dating
Dated '1503' in black paint on a piece of white paper painted as a tromp l'oeil at the bottom edge of the painting (original trimmed)

Signature / Dating

  • Dated '1503' in black paint on a piece of white paper painted as a tromp l'oeil at the bottom edge of the painting (original trimmed)

  • [Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, revised 2010]

Inscriptions and Labels
Inventory Label 1855: 1416 Inventory Label 1905: 1181 Label with the No. '212' (Zweibrück Inventory 2123) Reverse of the panel: - bottom left: four labels: …

Inscriptions and Labels

Stamps, Seals, Labels:

  • Inventory Label 1855: 1416
  • Inventory Label 1905: 1181
  • Label with the No. '212[...]' (Zweibrück Inventory 2123)
  • [Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, revised 2010]
  • Reverse of the panel: - bottom left:
  • four labels: 'Cranach Ausstellung Berlin 1937'; 'Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen 1416'; 'Neues Inventar 1906 1181'; 'R [...]'
  • [Heydenreich 1995]
Owner
Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
Repository
Alte Pinakothek, Munich
Location
Munich
CDA ID
DE_BStGS_1416
FR (1978) Nr.
FR005
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_BStGS_1416/

Provenance

  • 1804 removed from a cloister in southern Germany after it was secularized
    [Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, revised 2010]
    [Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 137, No. 1416]

Exhibitions

Dresden 1899
Berlin 1937
Bern 1949/50
Munich 2011, No. 18

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure/Plate
Bonnet, Görres 2015 22-23 5 p. 23
AuthorAnne-Marie Bonnet, Daniel Görres
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. - Maler der Deutschen Renaissance
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2015
Exhib. Cat. Weimar 2015 10
EditorWolfgang Holler, Karin Kolb
TitleCranach in Weimar, [Weimar, Schiller-Museum, 3 April - 14 June 2015]
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication2015
Poulsen 2015 A 63 Fig. 1
AuthorHanne Kolind Poulsen
TitleCranachs Bildsprache und der neue lutherische Glaube
Publicationin Julia Carrasco, Justus Lange, Benjamin D. Spira, Timo Trümper, Stiftung Schloss Friedenstein Gotha and Museumslandschaft Hessen Kassel, eds., Bild und Botschaft. Cranach im Dienst von Hof und Reformation, [Exhib. Cat. Gotha, Kassel]
Place of PublicationHeidelberg
Year of Publication2015
Pages63-71
Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2014 85 28
EditorStefan Roller, Jochen Sander
TitleFantastische Welten. Albrecht Altdorfer und das Expressive in der Kunst um 1500, [Frankfurt, Städel Museum, 5 Nov 2014 - 8 Feb 2015; Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, 17 Mar 2015 - 14 Jun 2015]
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2014
Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011 94-99, 137 Nos. 18, 1416 Figs. p. 95, 97-99
AuthorMartin Schawe
EditorBayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
TitleCranach in Bayern
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2011
Aikema 2010 Fig. 1, p. 14
AuthorBernard Aikema
TitleCranach. A different Renaissance
Publicationin Anna Coliva, Bernhard Aikema, eds., Cranach l'altro rinascimento, a different Renaissance, Exhib.Cat. Rome
Place of PublicationRome
Year of Publication2010
Pages13 - 33
Bonnet, Kopp-Schmidt, Görres 2010 138-139 5
AuthorAnne-Marie Bonnet, Gabriele Kopp-Schmidt, Daniel Görres
TitleDie Malerei der deutschen Renaissance
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2010
Brinkmann 2007 21 3
AuthorBodo Brinkmann
TitleDas Lächeln der Madonna. Lucas Cranach und die Folgen
Publicationin Bodo Brinkmann, ed., Cranach der Ältere, Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Pages17-27
Heydenreich 2007 A 52-56, 97, 102, 107, 213f.
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleLucas Cranach the Elder
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
Year of Publication2007
Link https://lucascranach.org/application/files/6116/2097/3099/Heydenreich_2007_Lucas_Cranach_the_Elder.pdf
Cat. Munich 2006 48, 112 f.
AuthorMartin Schawe
EditorBayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
TitleAltdeutsche und altniederländische Malerei
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2006
Koepplin 2003 C 160, 161, 165, Fn. 92 Fig. 98
AuthorDieter Koepplin
TitleEin Cranach-Prinzip
Publicationin Heinz Spielmann, Werner Schade, eds., Lucas Cranach. Glaube, Mythologie und Moderne, Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Pages144-165
Kolind Poulsen 2003 134 Fig. 8
AuthorHanne Kolind Poulsen
TitleFläche, Blick und Erinnerung. Cranachs Venus und Cupido als Honigdieb im Licht der Bildtheologie Luthers
Publicationin Heinz Spielmann, Werner Schade, eds., Lucas Cranach. Glaube, Mythologie und Moderne, Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Pages130-143
Heiser 2002 95-112
AuthorSabine Heiser
TitleDas Frühwerk Lucas Cranachs des Älteren. Wien um 1500 - Dresden um 1900
SeriesNeue Forschungen zur Deutschen Kunst
Volume6
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication2002
Burmester 1998 167-168
AuthorAndreas Burmester
TitleDas Tafelgemälde 'Kreuzigung Christi' Lucas Cranachs des Älteren von 1503. Zur Aufnahmetechnik der digitalen Infrarotreflektografie.
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, ed., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen , Exhib. Cat. Eisenach 1998
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages167-168
Exhib. Cat. Eisenach 1998 107
EditorWartburg-Stiftung, Eisenach, Fachhochschule , Ingo Sandner
TitleUnsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen. Ausstellungskatalog und Tagungsband Katalogteil 1; 2: Werkstatt und Schüler Cranachs; 3: Süddeutsche Meister; 4: Albrecht Dürer und sein Kreis; 5: Rheinische Meister
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages229-240
Grimm 1998 68
AuthorClaus Grimm
TitleDie Anteile von Meister und Werkstatt. Zum Fall Lucas Cranach d.Ä.
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages67-82
Heiden 1998 140-145
AuthorRüdiger an der Heiden
TitleDie Alte Pinakothek. Sammlungsgeschichte, Bau und Bilder
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication1998
Heydenreich 1998 A 198
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleHerstellung, Grundierung und Rahmung der Holzbildträger in den Werkstätten Lucas Cranachs d.Ä.
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages181-200
Sandner 1998 B 84, 85, 90
AuthorIngo Sandner
TitleCranach als Zeichner auf dem Malgrund
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages83-95
Schawe 1998 160-166 Figs. 18.1, 18.2, 18.3a-b, 18.4a-b
AuthorMartin Schawe
TitleDas Tafelgemälde "Kreuzigung Christi" Lucas Cranachs des Älteren von 1503
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages160-166
Schawe 1996 10-22
AuthorMartin Schawe
TitleDie Kreuzigung Christi von Lucas Cranach d. Ä. aus dem Jahre 1503
JournalJahresbericht / Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
Place of PublicationMunich
Issue1995
Year of Publication1995
Pages10-22
Grimm 1994 36 Fig. A20
AuthorClaus Grimm
TitleLucas Cranach 1994
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhoff, eds., Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Regensburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages18-43
Cat. Munich 1983 146-148
EditorBayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
TitleAlte Pinakothek München. Erläuterungen zu den ausgestellten Gemälden
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication1983
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 66 No. 5 Fig. 5
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 116-121, 142, 152, 211, 488, 523, 761 Fig. 52
AuthorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Schade 1974 19 f.
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleDie Malerfamilie Cranach
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1974
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schade1974
Kühn 1972 12, 30
AuthorR. Kühn
TitleCranachs Christus am Kreuz (von 1503) als Marienklage
JournalAlte und moderne Kunst
Issue17 Heft 123
Year of Publication1972
Cat. Munich 1963 57 f.
AuthorC. Altgraf zu Salm, Gisela Goldberg
EditorBayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
TitleKatalog II. Altdeutsche Malerei
Volume2
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication1963
Cat. Prague 1962 under No. 54
AuthorJaroslav Pešina
TitleAlt-deutsche Meister: Von Hans von Tübingen bis Dürer und Cranach
Place of PublicationPrague
Year of Publication1962
Marette 1961 282 f. 973
AuthorJ. Marette
TitleConnaissance des Primitifs par l'étude du bois du XIIe au XVIe siècle
Place of PublicationParis
Year of Publication1961
Radocsay 1956 42
AuthorD. Radocsay
TitleLa 'Crucifixion' de Sväty Ondrej nad Váhom
JournalBulletin du Musée Hongrois des Beaux-Arts
Place of PublicationBudapest
Issue9
Year of Publication1956
Jahn 1953 A 25 ff.
AuthorJohannes Jahn
TitleDer Weg des Künstlers
Publicationin Heinz Lüdecke, ed., Lucas Cranach d. Ä. im Spiegel seiner Zeit. Aus Urkunden, Chroniken, Briefen, Reden und Gedichten
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1953
Pages17-81
Halm 1951 127 ff.
AuthorPeter Halm
TitleEine Gruppe von Architekturzeichnungen aus dem Umkreis Albrecht Altdorfers
JournalMünchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst
Issue3. F., II
Year of Publication1951
Exhib. Cat. Bern 1949/1950 26 23
EditorBerner Kunstmuseum
TitleKunstwerke der Mündner Museen
Year of Publication1949
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1937 14 005 Pl. 9
EditorStaatliche Museen, Berlin
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. und Lucas Cranach d. J. Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Graphik
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1937
Burke 1936 25 ff.
AuthorW. L. M. Burke
TitleLucas Cranach the Elder
JournalThe Art Bulletin
Issue18/1
Year of Publication1936
Pages25-53
Weinberger 1933 10 ff.
AuthorMartin Weinberger
TitleZu Cranachs Jugendentwicklung
JournalZeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte
IssueN. F.2
Year of Publication1933
Pages10-16
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 28 5
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Halm 1930 70, Fn. 57
AuthorPeter Halm
TitleDie Landschaftszeichnungen des Wolfgang Huber
JournalMünchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst
IssueN.F. Bd. 7, H. 1
Year of Publication1930
Weinberger 1930 15, 40f.
AuthorMartin Weinberger
TitleWolfgang Huber
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1930
Benesch 1928 A 63 ff., 99
AuthorOtto Benesch
TitleZur Altösterreichischen Tafelmalerei. I. Der Meister der Linzer Kreuzigung, II. Die Anfänge Lukas Cranachs
JournalJahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien
IssueSonderheft N. S. 13
Year of Publication1928
Pages63-118
Glaser 1923 24 ff.
AuthorCurt Glaser
TitleLukas Cranach
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1923
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/glaser1923
Worringer 1908 86
AuthorWilhelm Worringer
TitleLukas Cranach
SeriesKlassische Illustratoren
Volume3
Place of PublicationLeipzig, Munich
Year of Publication1908
Dörnhöffer 1904 Sp. 175 ff.
AuthorFriedrich Dornhöffer
TitleEin Jugendwerk Lukas Cranachs
JournalJahrbuch der k.k. Zentralkommission für Kunstdenkmale Wien
IssueN. F., II, 2
Year of Publication1904
Pages175-198
Michaelson 1902 32f.
AuthorHedwig Michaelson
TitleLukas Cranach der Ältere. Untersuchung über die stilistische Entwicklung seiner Kunst
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1902
Flechsig 1900 A 71 ff., 284
AuthorEduard Flechsig
TitleCranachstudien
Volume1
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1900
Link page/n5/mode/2up
Flechsig 1900 B 9 No. 2
AuthorEduard Flechsig
TitleTafelbilder Lucas Cranachs d. Ä. und seiner Werkstatt
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1900
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/flechsig1900tafeln
Woermann 1900 27
AuthorKarl Woermann
TitleDie Dresdner Cranach-Ausstellung
JournalZeitschrift für bildende Kunst
IssueN.F. 11
Year of Publication1900
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1899 92 147
EditorKarl Woermann
TitleDeutsche Kunstausstellung Dresden 1899. Abteilung Cranach-Ausstellung. Wissenschaftliches Verzeichnis der ausgestellten Werke
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1899
Link http://resolver.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/SBB00002A2400000000
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1899 92 147
EditorKarl Woermann
TitleDeutsche Kunstausstellung Dresden 1899. Abteilung Cranach-Ausstellung. Wissenschaftliches Verzeichnis der ausgestellten Werke
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1899
Link http://resolver.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/SBB00002A2400000000
Rieffel 1897 Sp. 170
AuthorFranz Rieffel
TitleGrünewald-Studien
JournalZeitschrift für christliche Kunst
Issue10
Year of Publication1897
Pages163-172
Schmidt 1896 287
AuthorWilhelm Schmidt
TitleNotizen zu deutschen Malern
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
IssueXIX
Year of Publication1896
Link http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/artdok/volltexte/2014/2654
Pages285-287
Rieffel 1895 425
AuthorFranz Rieffel
TitleKleine kunstwissenschaftliche Controversfragen
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
Issue18
Year of Publication1895
Link http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/artdok/volltexte/2014/2651
Pages424-428
Friedländer 1894 A
AuthorMax J. Friedländer
TitleBesprechung von H. A. Schmid (Mathias Grünewald)
Publicationin Festbuch zur Eröffnung des Historischen Museums
Place of PublicationBasel
Year of Publication1894
Friedländer 1894 B 474
AuthorMax J. Friedländer
TitleBesprechung von H. A. Schmid (Mathias Grünewald)
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
IssueXVII
Year of Publication1894
Pages474
Schmid 1894 82
AuthorHeinrich Alfred Schmid
TitleMathias Grünewald
Publicationin Festbuch zur Eröffnung des Historischen Museums
Place of PublicationBasel
Year of Publication1894
Pages49-97
Schmidt 1892 118
AuthorWilhelm Schmidt
TitleWolf Huber und M. Grünewald
JournalZeitschrift für bildende Kunst. Kunstchronik
IssueN.F. 3=27.1892
Year of Publication1892
Pages116-118
Schmidt 1889 39 f.
AuthorWilhelm Schmidt
TitleVaria
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
IssueXII
Year of Publication1889
Pages39f.
Bayersdorfer 1885 184
AuthorAdolf Bayersdorfer
TitleVerzeichniss der in der königlichen Galerie zu Schleissheim aufgestellten Gemälde
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication1885
Cat. Schleissheim 1885 No. 184
AuthorAdolf Bayersdorfer
TitleVerzeichnis der in Königlichen Galerie zu Schleißheim ausgestellten Gemälde
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication1885
Niedermayer 1884 251
AuthorFriedrich Niedermayer
TitleMathias Grünewald
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
Issue7
Year of Publication1884
Link http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/artdok/volltexte/2014/2650
Pages245-266

Description/ Interpretation/ Comments

This crucifixion is not only one of the earliest known works by Lucas Cranach the Elder, but is also his first altarpiece.

[Exhib. Cat. Munich 2011, 137, No. 1416]

  • The Lamentation of Christ, 1503

Images

Compare images
  • overall
  • overall
  • overall
  • overall
  • overall
  • overall
  • reverse
  • x_radiograph
  • x_radiograph
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail

Technical studies

24.11.2013Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

- the panel is constructed from 7 planks (planks 3 and 7 are from the same tree; likewise with planks 4 and 6)

- the earliest felling date is 1500; requiring at least two years seasoning the panel could not have been painted before 1502

- examined on the 29.11.2009

[Martin Schawe, Alte Pinakothek München, 26.03.2010]

  • analysed by Peter Klein

2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • Stereomicroscopy
  • reverse

Support

- the support consists of 7 vertical fir wood planks (15.6-14.6, 13.3-13.9, 15.7-16.3, 13.8-12.6, 14.0-14.6, 12.5-11.1, 14.8-15.8; 138 x 99.3 cm; a ratio of c. 4:3)

- the rebate has been preserved along the top, bottom and right edges

- the edge of the panel has been bevelled slightly on the reverse along all four sides

- the left side of the panel has been trimmed

Ground and Imprimatura

- the painting has a white ground

- a barbe created by the ground is present along the top, bottom and right edges

- lead white and red lead imprimatura

Underdrawing

- distinctive underdrawing, toned with washes

- corrections were made: in the Virgin's face, the direction of her gaze was changed; the contours of Christ's head, the position was altered in relation to the Virgin's gaze; and finally to the contours of the bushes and foliage

Paint Layers and Gilding

- the painted area of the panel measures 136-135.6 x 97-97.5

- there appear to be fingerprints in the trunk of the birch tree above the thief's hand

- alterations made during the painting process to the position of St. John's head and his hand gestures (first praying and then linking his right arm with the Virgin) are visible in the x-radiograph

  • written by Martin Schawe
  • written by Poll-Frommel
  • photographed by Florian Bayerer

2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • X-radiography
  • x_radiograph
  • x_radiograph

All the figures have a similar appearance in the x-radiograph. The execution of the thieves, the Virgin and St John correspond to a greater extent with the final painted version, whereas the paint application modulating the figure of Christ is more impetuous. The highlights are softer and blurred, so that no brushstrokes are visible. St John’s head appears undefined due to the fact that its position was changed.

  • written by Martin Schawe

30.03.2006Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

Identification of wood species: Fir (Abies sp.)

Examination carried out in 1996

[Martin Schawe, Alte Pinakothek Munich, 26.03.2010]

  • analysed by Peter Klein

19.07.1995Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • X-radiography
  • Stereomicroscopy
  • reverse

Support

Examination under the stereomicroscope; including evaluation of x-radiograph and infrared reflectograms:

- the support (138 x 99.3 cm) consists of seven vertical planks (15.6-14.6, 13.3-13.9, 15.7-16.3, 13.8-12.6, 14.0-14.6, 12.5-11.1, 14.8-15.8)

- the reverse of the panel is preserved in its original condition and is without a coating

- all four sides have a broad bevel on the reverse

- the ratio of height to width is c. 4:3.

- seven planks from the top left to the top right: 15.6/13.3/15.7/13.8/14.0/12.5/14.8; from the bottom left to the bottom right: 14.6/13.9/16.3/12.6/14.6/11.1/15.8

- the vertical planks are butt joined and glued

- there is no treatment of damage visible; several knots have been left in the wood

- the joins have not been reinforced; there is no fibrous material on the front of the panel

- the reverse has been roughly smoothed with a plane in the direction of the grain, the width of the plane was c. 2.5 cm, there are remains of a fibrous material, which was attached to the entire surface on the reverse

- open woodworm channels suggest that this application was once thicker

- an original 6-8 cm beveled edge runs around all four sides of the reverse, it was executed with a plane and the panel thickness was reduced from 1.5 cm to between 0.6 and 0.8 cm

Ground and Imprimatura

- white ground

- in the x-radiograph single light dots are visible. These are probably air bubbles in the ground that have been sanded down and subsequently filled with the imprimatur, which contains lead based pigments and is therefore visible in the x-radiograph.

- the barbe created by the ground is intact along the top, bottom and right side of the panel, c. 0.8-1.3 cm from the edge; on the bottom half of the panel the ground extends to the edge on the left side – probably because it was planed down slightly

- no incised lines are visible along the edge of the painted surface

- light pink imprimatura

- infrared reflectography revealed broad stripes in the sky, which suggest that the imprimatura was applied with a brush. Due to the slightly rough surface the paint containing carbon employed in the grey clouds has collected in the recesses. The same structure is visible in the x-radiography particularly in the upper two thirds of the painted image where it tapers diagonally from left to right.

- visible light lines suggest that the imprimatura contains a pigment with a lead component. Examination of the surface under the stereomicroscope showed an admixture of white and orange red pigments. It is presumably a mixture of lead white and red lead (minium).

Underdrawing

- infrared reflectography revealed an underdrawing executed with a brush in a fluid black drawing material.

- the contours of the figures are carried out with longer brushstrokes and have been repeatedly gone over in places to fix them. Smaller individual shapes have been outlined with short, bold or wavy lines. Generally the inner forms are only briefly indicated with lines, but in some areas they are specified with parallel hatching. The modulation of the shadow is carried out with an ink wash (compare with ‘The fourteen Good Samaritans’, Torgau). The transition between the hatching and the wash appears blurred.

- in the infrared reflectogram the underdrawing of the central figures of Christ, the Virgin and St John are more distinct than that of the two thieves. It is possible that that the artist employed ink with different amounts of diluents.

Paint Layers and Gilding

THE VIRGIN

Flesh Paint

The flesh paint contains lead white, red pigments (appears to be Vermilion), blue pigments (appears to be azurite), black pigments as well as brown pigments.

The x-radiograph reveals that the highlights in the face have a greater proportion of lead white. The shadows are modeled with brown glazes (with a visible amount of black).

Blue pigments have been added to the cooler highlights. The pupil is blue and the eyeball also contains blue pigment. On comparison with the underdrawing the right upper eyelid has been lowered slightly in the painted version.

Headscarf

The headscarf was painted essentially with a mixture of lead white and a reddish brown lake like pigment (single red lake pigments). The underdrawing appears to have been incorporated to create the modeling of the shadows. The brownish amber coloured ‚Pigment‘ appears to be semi-transparent and not solid. The cause of the numerous crater-like recesses in the paint surface requires more investigation.

Blue Draperies

The Virgin’s blue robe was painted wet-in-wet and modulated with varying proportions of lead white. The image is not clear in the x-radiograph. The paint has been applied more thickly than in other areas of the painting.

Red undergarment

The undergarment was essentially modeled in red lake glazes and in this respect is quite different from St John’s robe.

ST JOHN

Flesh Paint

The painterly execution of the head was relatively complete before the position of the head was altered. It is clear from the x-radiograph that the head, which was originally inclined towards the Virgin was straightened slightly and turned more towards the viewer.

The highlights on the light flesh tone were applied with a lighter paint made cooler by the addition of blue pigments. The shadow was achieved essentially with the application of brown glazes.

The initial paint layer of the lips was carried out in vermilion red with white highlights and modulated with a red lake glaze.

The outer contours of the left foot were painted with the same paint as the floor.

Red draperies

The underpainting of the robe is modulated with a mixture of red and lead white in varying quantities. Subsequently the shadows were applied in red lake and black (?). Slight corrections of the contours are visible in the area of the left shoulder and the hip.

CHRIST

A light coloured application of flesh paint was applied over the underdrawing of the body, which had been modulated with washes. The highlights were added with a smooth to dabbed application of paint containing a greater proportion of lead white.

The body of Christ appears more three dimensional in the x-radiography. Blue pigment was added to the light coloured flesh paint.

Loincloth

The yellowish brown (amber coloured) glazes contain small quantities of very finely ground red pigments and red lake. A micro-craquelée extends out from the semi-transparent brownish inclusions.

LANDSCAPE

The branches of the trees without foliage were partially executed before the paint of the dark clouds was quite dry. The glazes employed for the shadow on the trunk of the beech above the cross were spread with the finger or the fist.

The foliage has an initial dark application of paint. Single leaves were subsequently painted in a lighter green and differentiated with a semi-transparent glaze. The now brownish appearance of the glazes is probably to a greater extent the result of ageing.

The paint applications overlapalternately: while the initial layer of dark green paint was applied over that of the Virgin’s headscarf, the white highlights on the scarf were applied later. The greenish brown glazes on the other hand were applied over the headscarf.

The foliage was held in reserve when the blue sky paint, which contains varying proportions of blue pigments (appears to be azurite) and lead white, was dabbed on. The dark clouds additionally contain some black pigments.

- No gilding was detected on the painting.

Framing

- not original

  • written by Gunnar Heydenreich

Date1995

  • Infrared reflectography

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Materials:

- fluid, black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- freehand underdrawing

- thin lines combined with broader lines

- occasional hatching-strokes and washes

Function:

- binding for the final painted version; lines delineate contours and indicate the essential features; the broader lines are more sketchy; occasional representation of volume with hatching-strokes and washes

Deviations:

- almost no alterations made during the painting process

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder

Comments:

- the thieves may have been executed employing a more diluted medium as they appear lighter

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich revised 2014]

  • photographed by BStGS Doerner Institut

Condition Reports

Date2010

Support:

  • trimmed along the left edge; losses along the bottom edge and in both corners

  • woodworm channels partially open

  • remains of a protective coating

  • wooden blocks have been glued to the reverse to reinforce the splits in the panel

  • written by BStGS Doerner Institut

Date19.07.1995

Support:

  • the support is stable and in good condition

  • it has been planed down slightly along the left edge, below the centre

  • 12 wooden blocks were glued to the reverse of the panel to reinforce the splits

  • the panel has been weakened slightly by wood worm channels in the lower third and at the edge of some of the planks

Painted surface:

  • the paint layers are well preserved

  • there are a number of losses in the landscape in the background, particularly next to the trunk of the beech tree

-there is very little craquellée

  • there are prominent drying cracks in St John's red robe, in the Virgin's blue robe and to a lesser extent in the brown paint to the right of the cross

  • there are insignificant drying cracks in the flesh paint of St John and the areas of brown hair

  • written by Gunnar Heydenreich

Conservation History

Date1886

1886: Report 1886 No. 23 (Archiv ad Fach XIV, W, 3 D)

  • without details

[Martin Schawe, Alte Pinakothek Munich, 26.03.2010]

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'The Lamentation of Christ', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_BStGS_1416/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'The Lamentation of Christ', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_BStGS_1416/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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