Neustadt Retabel [right fixed wing]: St Simon the Apostel and St Jude Thaddeus the Apostel

Neustadt Retabel [right fixed wing]: St Simon the Apostel and St Jude Thaddeus the Apostel

Title

Neustadt Retabel [right fixed wing]: St Simon the Apostel and St Jude Thaddeus the Apostel

[cda 2013]

Painting on softwood

Medium

Painting on softwood

[Heydenreich 2007A, 68]

The apostles Simon (left) and Jude Thaddeus (right) are depicted as full-length figures against a woodland backdrop. They face each other, however Jude Thaddeus looks at the viewer. He has a wooden club as a symbol of his martyrdom and supports himself on it with both hands. Simon who with

The apostles Simon (left) and Jude Thaddeus (right) are depicted as full-length figures against a woodland backdrop. They face each other, however Jude Thaddeus looks at the viewer. He has a wooden club as a symbol of his martyrdom and supports himself on it with both hands. Simon who with his long grey beard is characterised as considerably older is identified by a long saw. In the background on the left a forest rises upwards, culminating with disproportionally large bare trees. A spandrel in the right corner serves as the top border.

[Görres, cda 2013]

Attributions
Lucas Cranach the Elder and workshop
Workshop Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attributions

Lucas Cranach the Elder and workshop

[Exhib. Cat. Eisenach 1998, No. 23.7][Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, No. 47A] [Hoffmann 1954, 32-35]

Workshop Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974, 37]
[Schade 1974, 65]
[Lehfeldt 1897B, 82]

Production dates
1513
1520 - 1525

Production dates

1513

[Müller 2011, 66]
[Heydenreich 2007A, 413, No. 53]
[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, No. 47A]
[Hintzenstern 1986, 7]
[Gillsch 1881]

1512

[Schade 1974, 406, No. 93] [Hoffmann 1954, 10, 122]

1520 - 1525

[Lehfeldt 1897B, 86]

Dimensions
Dimensions of painted surface: 268.5 x 100 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of painted surface: 268.5 x 100 cm

  • Dimensions including frame: 282 x 112.5 x 4.5 cm

  • [Heydenreich, cda 2010]

Signature / Dating
None
Inscriptions and Labels
- on the reverse of the predella, the reverse of the shrine and the fixed wings numerous dates and monograms …

Inscriptions and Labels

Stamps, Seals, Labels:

  • - on the reverse of the predella, the reverse of the shrine and the fixed wings numerous dates and monograms are either carved into the wood or written with different types of paint, among others: '1525', 1578', '1602', '1618', '1619', '1622', '1630', '1636', '1686'
  • - on the right fixed wing at the height of the heads of the sculptures in the shrine: '1712', '1772', '1860', '1884', '1905'
  • - the authenticity of the the inscriptions '1525' and '1578' is doubtful, as numerous inscriptions were carried out in what appears to be the same brown material over a longer period of time.
  • [Heydenreich, cda 2012]
Owner
Evangelische Kirchgemeinde Neustadt/Orla
Repository
Evangelische Stadtkirche St. Johannis zu Neustadt/Orla
Location
Neustadt
CDA ID
DE_JKN_NONE-JKN001e
FR (1978) Nr.
FR047A
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_JKN_NONE-JKN001e/

Provenance

  • 01 August 1511: Cranach was commissioned by the City Council of Neustadt/Orla
  • 14 June 1513: the panels arrive in Neustadt/Orla
  • 24 June 1513 [1]: installation in the present location in the Johanniskirche, Neustadt/Orla

[Heydenreich 2007 A, 411-413]

[1] the date is recorded in the church invoice as 'am abend Johannis Baptiste (on the evening of St John the Baptist' (quoted from [Heydenreich 2007 A, 411]). [Hintzenstern 1986, 7] agrees with this interpretation of the source. Different dates are given by [Hofmann 1954, 10, 122]: '23 June 1512' and [Schade 1974, 406]: '24 June 1512'.

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure / Plate
Sandner 2021 74
AuthorIngo Sandner
TitleDie Werkstattpraxis Lucas Cranach des Älteren
Publicationin Dagmar Täube, ed., Lucas Cranach der Ältere und Hans Kemmer. Meistermaler zwischen Renaissance und Reformation [Lübeck, St. Annen-Museum]
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2021
Pages71-81
Cat. Coburg 2018 51, 63, 73 under nos. 4, 5 Fig. 3
AuthorKlaus Weschenfelder
TitleCranach in Coburg. Gemälde von Lucas Cranach d.Ä., Lucas Cranach d.J., der Werkstatt und des Umkreises in den Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2018
Heydenreich 2017 A 74
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleCranach? Fragen der Zuschreibung im Lichte kunsttechnologischer Untersuchungen
Publicationin Gunnar Heydenreich, Daniel Görres, Beat Wismer, eds., Lucas Cranach der Ältere. Meister - Marke - Moderne. [Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017]
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2017
Link https://lucascranach.org/application/files/7316/7870/1704/Heydenreich_2017_Cranach_Fragen_der_Zuschreibung.pdf
Pages72-81
Greiling 2014
EditorWerner Greiling, Uwe Schirmer, Ronny Schwalbe
TitleDer Altar von Lucas Cranach d. Ä. in Neustadt an der Orla und die Kirchenverhältnisse im Zeitalter der Reformation
SeriesQuellen und Forschungen zu Thüringen im Zeitalter der Reformation
Volume3
Place of PublicationCologne, Weimar, Vienna
Year of Publication2014
Maier 2014
AuthorRüdiger Maier, Sabine Maier
TitleDer Cranach-Altar zu Neustadt an der Orla (1513). Unterzeichnung und malerische Ausführung
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2014
Maier, S. 2011
AuthorSabine Maier
TitleInfrarotreflektographie an einem frühen Cranach-Altar. Unterzeichnung auf der Predella des Altarwerks in Neustadt an der Orla
JournalZeitschrift für Thüringische Geschichte
Issue65
Year of Publication2011
Pages71-87
Müller 2011 65-74
AuthorRainer Müller
TitleDie Kirchen in Neustadt an der Orla und Umgebung. Eine Geschichte des Sakralbaus in der Orlasenke
Place of PublicationJena
Year of Publication2011
Heydenreich 2007 A 47, 65, 68, 75-81, 94-95, 98, 125, 156, 169, 187-188, 219-220, 223, 272, 277-278, 286, 289-290, 301, 331, 340, 358, 359, 395 2, 81, 221, 274; primary documents on pp. 411-413
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleLucas Cranach the Elder
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
Year of Publication2007
Link https://lucascranach.org/application/files/6116/2097/3099/Heydenreich_2007_Lucas_Cranach_the_Elder.pdf
Heydenreich 2007 B 44
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
Title"... dass Du mit wunderbarer Schnelligkeit malest". Virtuosität und Effizienz in der künstlerischen Praxis Lucas Cranachs d. Ä.
Publicationin Bodo Brinkmann, ed., Cranach der Ältere, Exhib. Cat. FrankfurtA
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Pages29-47
Heydenreich 2007 C 22
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleAdam and Eve in the Making
Publicationin Caroline Campbell, ed., Temptation in Eden. Lucas Cranach's Adam and Eve, London, The Courtauld Institute of Art
Place of PublicationLondon
Year of Publication2007
Pages18 - 33
Ritschel 2006 320-325
AuthorIris Ritschel
TitleFriedrich der Weise und seine Gefährtin. Überlegungen und Erkenntnisse zu fünf verdächtig(t)en Kunstwerken
Publicationin Andreas Tacke, ed., "... wir wollen der Liebe Raum geben". Konkubinate geistlicher und weltlicher Fürsten um 1500
Place of PublicationGöttingen
Year of Publication2006
Pages296-341
Exhib. Cat. Prague 2005 46 (English version 22) under no. 1
EditorObrazárna Pražského hradu, Kaliopi Chamonikola
TitlePod znamením okrídleného hada. Lucas Cranach a ceské zeme. Under the winged Serpent. Lucas Cranach and the Czech Land
Place of PublicationPrague
Year of Publication2005
Melzer 2005 57
AuthorReinhard Melzer
TitleCranach in Wörlitz. Das Gotische Haus als frühe Sammlungsstätte altdeutscher Malerei
Publicationin Harald Marx, Ingrid Mössinger, Karin Kolb, ed., Cranach. Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication2005
Pages44-58
Exhib. Cat. Eisenach 1998 240 No. 23.7
EditorWartburg-Stiftung, Eisenach, Fachhochschule , Ingo Sandner
TitleUnsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen. Ausstellungskatalog und Tagungsband Katalogteil 1; 2: Werkstatt und Schüler Cranachs; 3: Süddeutsche Meister; 4: Albrecht Dürer und sein Kreis; 5: Rheinische Meister
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages229-240
Heydenreich 1998 A 189-190
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleHerstellung, Grundierung und Rahmung der Holzbildträger in den Werkstätten Lucas Cranachs d.Ä.
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages181-200
Sandner 1998 B 93
AuthorIngo Sandner
TitleCranach als Zeichner auf dem Malgrund
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages83-95
Söffing 1997
AuthorHorst Söffing
TitleEvang. Stadtkirche St. Johannis, Neustadt/Orla
SeriesKleine Kunstführer
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1997
Salley 1995
AuthorVictoria Salley
TitleDer Cranach-Altar in der Johanniskirche zu Neustadt an der Orla [Thesis]
Place of PublicationMunich
IssueUnpublished Masters-Thesis
Year of Publication1995
Erichsen 1994 A 152-155, 158 Figs. A97, A98, A99
AuthorJohannes Erichsen
TitleAltäre Lucas Cranachs und seiner Werkstatt vor der Reformation
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhof, eds., Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmen aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26/94
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Regensburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages150-165
Erichsen 1994 B 181
AuthorJohannes Erichsen
TitleVorlagen und Werkstattmodelle bei Lucas Cranach
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhof, eds., Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26/94
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Coburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages180-185
Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994 381 212d
EditorClaus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhoff
TitleLucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken [Festung Rosenberg, Kronach 17.05 - 21.08.1994; Museum der Bildenden Künste, Leipzig 07.09 - 06.11.1994]
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Coburg
Year of Publication1994
Grimm 1994 29
AuthorClaus Grimm
TitleLucas Cranach 1994
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhoff, eds., Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Regensburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages18-43
Sparsbrod 1991
AuthorH. Sparsbrod
TitleDer Altar in der Stadtkirche
JournalNeustädter Kreisbote
Issue16
Year of Publication1991
Pages8-9
Hintzenstern, Dressler 1986
AuthorHerbert von Hintzenstern
TitleDer Cranach-Altar in Neustadt an der Orla
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1986
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 47A
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 21, 37, 442
AuthorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Schade 1974 37, 46, 49, 62, 63, 65, 382, 405, 406
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleDie Malerfamilie Cranach
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1974
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schade1974
Hoffmann 1955
EditorKarl Hoffmann
TitleDer Neustädter Altar von Lucas Cranach und seiner Werkstatt
SeriesKostbarkeiten aus Thüringer Kirchen
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1955
Link https://doi.org/10.11588/diglit.28261
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 under No. 42
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Lehfeldt 1897A 24-25
AuthorPaul Lehfeldt
TitleCranachs Altarwerk in Neustadt an der Orla
JournalSitzungsberichte der Kunstgeschichtlichen Gesellschaft Berlin
Year of Publication1897
Pages24-25
Lehfeldt 1897B 77-87
AuthorPaul Lehfeldt
TitleBau- und Kunstdenmäler Thüringens. Großherzogtum Sachsen - Weimar - Eisenach
SeriesVerwaltungsbezirk Neustadt
Volume5
Place of PublicationJena
Year of Publication1897
Gillsch 1881
AuthorVolkmar Gillsch
TitleDer Cranachaltar in Neustadt an der Orla
JournalWeimarische Zeitung
Issue3. April 1881
Year of Publication1881
Kaphahn 1827
AuthorF. J. A. Kaphahn
TitleDie St. Johannis- oder Stadtkirche zu Neustadt an der Orla mit den Denkmälern und den Veränderungen, die sie erlitten hat
Place of PublicationNeustadt/Orla
Year of Publication1827

Research History / Discussion

The repeatedly expressed suspicion, that the wings and the predella of the altar were created at different times could be refuted. The use of the same wood species and the width of the planks as well as the canvas strips used to cover knots suggest the contrary.

[see Heydenreich 2007 A, 68-69]

  • Neustadt Retabel [right fixed wing]: St Simon the Apostel and St Jude Thaddeus the Apostel, 1513

Images

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Technical studies

2007Technical Examination

Support

- softwood

- planks with a width of between 26 and 32 cm and a thickness of between 2.3 and 2.8 cm

- the planks of the moveable wings are arranged horizontally and those of the fixed wings are arranged vertically

- knots were covered with strips of canvas, 4-5 cm in width, with the same thread-count (c. 14 x 14 per cm²). This applies to both the wings and the predella and thus precludes differing dates of creation.

[Heydenreich 2007 A, 65, 68-69]

Ground and Imprimatura

- white chalk ground

- there are incised lines along the edge of the frame, that were executed while the ground was still wet

[Heydenreich 2007A, 94, 134, 154]

Paint Layers and Gilding

- the painting on the reverse of the panel appears to have been executed in a water-based medium

[Heydenreich 2007A, 220]

Framing

- the frame is to a large extent original

[Heydenreich 2007A, 76, 94]

Conservation History

Date1948 - 1951

  • Hoffmann 1954, 13 presumes that the altar was dismantled during the Thirty Years War, but had already been reinstalled in the 17th century. In 1716 the altar is recorded in the files.

  • 1944: put into storage to protect it from air raids

  • 1948-1951: varnish removal and restoration in the Schlossmuseum Weimar

[Hintzenstern 1986, 10]

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'Neustadt Retabel [right fixed wing]: St Simon the Apostel and St Jude Thaddeus the Apostel', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_JKN_NONE-JKN001e/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'Neustadt Retabel [right fixed wing]: St Simon the Apostel and St Jude Thaddeus the Apostel', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_JKN_NONE-JKN001e/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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