The Massacre of the Innocents

The Massacre of the Innocents

Title

The Massacre of the Innocents

[CDA 2011]

Painting on limewood

Medium

Painting on limewood

[Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 282]

A scene of the massacre of the innocents with many figures is depicted in front of an elaborate renaissance architectural backdrop. The group consisting of soldiers and lamenting mothers is arranged circularly. The bodies of the murdered children lie in the centre. More children are torn from their mothers' arms

A scene of the massacre of the innocents with many figures is depicted in front of an elaborate renaissance architectural backdrop. The group consisting of soldiers and lamenting mothers is arranged circularly. The bodies of the murdered children lie in the centre. More children are torn from their mothers' arms by foot-soldiers and killed. King Herod and the court household watch the event from balconies. In the top left corner, beyond the architectural setting, the fleeing figures of the Virgin and Joseph with Jesus are visible. [Görres, cda 2016]

Attribution
Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attribution

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, revised 2011]
[Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 282]

Production date
about 1515

Production date

about 1515

[Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 282]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 122.5 x 86.5 x 0.5 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 122.5 x 86.5 x 0.5 cm

  • [Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 282]

Signature / Dating
None
Inscriptions and Labels
Reverse of the panel: ; Sammlungsnachweis Pillnitz: 'Inv. 2 3'; ; in blue chalk: '1906 C-17'; in white chalk: '1931' …

Inscriptions and Labels

Stamps, Seals, Labels:

  • Reverse of the panel:
  • [Gal.-No., repeatedly]; Sammlungsnachweis Pillnitz: 'Inv. 2 [?]3'; [Sammlungsnachweis Dresden, repeatedly]; in blue chalk: '1906 C-17'; in white chalk: '1931' [two white circles around the site of puncture holes where a device to measure relative humidity was inserted]; in white chalk: '94[..], 1056'
  • Reverse of the frame: [label from exhibition in Weimar]; in red chalk on a label: '74'
  • [Schlegel 2003, 12][1]
  • [1][Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 282]
Owner
Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden
Repository
Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden
Location
Dresden
CDA ID
DE_SKD_GG1906C
FR (1978) Nr.
FR070
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_SKD_GG1906C/

Provenance

The earliest reference to Cranach's depiction of the Massacre of the Innocents in Dresden is found in a travel journal from 1629 belonging to the diplomate Philipp Hainhofer
[Doering 1901, 220][1]

  • 1687 entered the Kunstkammer
    [Sächs, HStADD, Cap. X a, No. 10][1]

[1][Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 284]

Exhibitions

Dresden 1899, 17
Weimar, Wittenberg 1953, No. 11
Dresden 1971, No. 108
Weimar 1972, No. 10
Basel 1974, No. 397
Chemnitz 2005, No. 14

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure / Plate
Schuchardt 2015 A 10
AuthorGünter Schuchardt
TitleCranach und Luther-Aspekte einer Partnerschaft
Publicationin Günther Schuchardt, ed., Cranach, Luther und die Bildnisse, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach 2015
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2015
Pages10-23
Aikema 2010 22, 23
AuthorBernard Aikema
TitleCranach. A different Renaissance
Publicationin Anna Coliva, Bernhard Aikema, eds., Cranach l'altro rinascimento, a different Renaissance, Exhib.Cat. Rome
Place of PublicationRome
Year of Publication2010
Pages13-33
Exhib. Cat. Brussels 2010 118 78
EditorBozarbooks & Lannoo, Guido Messling
TitleDie Welt des Lucas Cranach. Ein Künstler im Zeitalter von Dürer, Tizian und Metsys [anlässlich der Ausstellung "Die Welt des Lucas Cranach", Palast der Schönen Künste, Brüssel, 20. Oktober 2010 - 23. Januar 2011]
Place of PublicationBrussels
Year of Publication2010
Hansmann 2010 46, 48, 49, 54 Fig. 2
AuthorRuth Hansmann
Title"Als haben wir angesehen unser dieners und lieben getreuen Lucas von Cranach Ehrbarkeit, Kunst und Redlichkeit" Lucas Cranach als neu bestallter Hofmaler in kursächsischen Diensten
Publicationin: Apelles am Fürstenhof. Facetten der Hofkunst um 1500 im Alten Reich Exhib. Cat. Coburg 2010
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication2010
Pages45-55
Maaz 2010 38, 39
AuthorBernhard Maaz
TitleCranach in der Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister Dresden
Place of PublicationBerlin, Munich
Year of Publication2010
Schade 2007 91, 95
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleCranachs Berührung durch die Niederlande. Antinomien einer Reisebetrachtung
Publicationin Bodo Brinkmann, ed., Cranach der Ältere, Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Pages91-97
Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005 282-289 14 Pl. p. 283; Figs. 126, 127, p. 289
EditorHarald Marx, Karin Kolb, Ingrid Mössinger
TitleCranach Anlässlich der Ausstellung Cranach vom 13. November 2005 bis 12. März 2006 in den Kunstsammlungen Chemnitz. Eine Ausstellung in Kooperation mit der Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication2005
Exhib. Cat. Prague 2005 52 (English version 24) under no. 4
EditorObrazárna Pražského hradu, Kaliopi Chamonikola
TitlePod znamením okrídleného hada. Lucas Cranach a ceské zeme. Under the winged Serpent. Lucas Cranach and the Czech Land
Place of PublicationPrague
Year of Publication2005
Kolb 2005 A 130, 170 Fn. 84 14
AuthorKarin Kolb
TitleCranach - Die Gemälde in Dresden und ihre Geschichte
Publicationin Harald Marx, Ingrid Mössinger, Karin Kolb, eds., Cranach. Gemälde aus Dresden, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication2005
Pages112-173
Kolb 2005 C 531, 542-546, 548, 549, 551, 552, 554-556 14
AuthorKarin Kolb
TitleDokumentation zum Dresdener Cranach-Bestand
Publicationin Harald Marx, Ingrid Mössinger, Karin Kolb, eds., Cranach. Gemälde aus Dresden, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication2005
Pages526-572
Schölzel 2005 188, 189 14 Figs. 94a, 94b
AuthorChristoph Schölzel
TitleZeichnungen unter der Farbschicht. Zu den Unterzeichnungen von Cranachs Gemälden in der Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister und in der Rüstkammer Dresden
Publicationin Harald Marx, Ingrid Mössinger, Karin Kolb, eds., Cranach. Gemälde aus Dresden, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication2005
Pages182-197
Schlegel 2003 12
AuthorArmgard Schlegel
TitleTechnologische Untersuchungen an Holzbildträgern von Gemälden der Cranachwerkstatt in den Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden
Place of PublicationDresden
IssueSeminararbeit der Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden
Year of Publication2003
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 84 No. 70 Fig. 70
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 No. 397
AuthorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Schade 1974 460 No. 65
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleDie Malerfamilie Cranach
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1974
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schade1974
Exhib. Cat. Weimar 1972 B No. 10
EditorSchlossmuseum Weimar
TitleLucas Cranach 1472-1553. Ein großer Maler in bewegter Zeit
Place of PublicationWeimar
Year of Publication1972
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1971 No. 108
EditorStaatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden
TitleDeutsche Kunst der Dürerzeit
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1971
Exhib. Cat. Weimar, Wittenberg 1953 No. 11
AuthorWalther Scheidig
EditorDeutsche Lucas Cranach Komitee
TitleLucas Cranach Ausstellung. Weimar und Wittenberg
Place of PublicationWeimar, Wittenberg
Year of Publication1953
Rudloff-Hille 1953 B No. 11
AuthorGertrude Rudloff-Hille
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. Eine Einführung in sein Leben und sein Werk.
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1953
Posse 1943 22, 55
AuthorHans Posse
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä.
Place of PublicationVienna
IssueSecond edition
Year of Publication1943
Lilienfein 1942 40
AuthorHeinrich Lilienfein
TitleLukas Cranach und seine Zeit
Place of PublicationBielefeld
Year of Publication1942
Posse 1942 22, 55
AuthorHans Posse
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä.
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1942
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1937 11
Authorn. a.
TitleLucas Cranach der Ältere und der Jüngere. Ausstellung von Werken aus dem Besitze der Staatlichen Gemäldegalerie und dem Staatlichen Kupferstichkabinet
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1937
Heyck 1927 87, 98
AuthorEduard Heyck
TitleLucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBielefeld
Year of Publication1927
Glaser 1923 104-106, 224
AuthorCurt Glaser
TitleLukas Cranach
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1923
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/glaser1923
Flechsig 1900 A 92, 96, 100, 126-128, 271, 281, 298
AuthorEduard Flechsig
TitleCranachstudien
Volume1
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1900
Link page/n5/mode/2up
Flechsig 1900 B No. 28
AuthorEduard Flechsig
TitleTafelbilder Lucas Cranachs d. Ä. und seiner Werkstatt
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1900
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/flechsig1900tafeln
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1899 No. 106
EditorKarl Woermann
TitleDeutsche Kunstausstellung Dresden 1899. Abteilung Cranach-Ausstellung. Wissenschaftliches Verzeichnis der ausgestellten Werke
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1899
Link http://resolver.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/SBB00002A2400000000
Seidlitz 1893 377
AuthorWoldemar von Seidlitz
TitleZu den echten Bildern des älteren Cranach
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
Issue16
Year of Publication1893
Pages377-378
Cat. Dresden 1892 No. 1931
AuthorKarl Woermann
TitleKatalog der Königlichen Gemäldegalerie zu Dresden. Grosse Ausgabe
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1892
Link https://digital.slub-dresden.de/werkansicht/dlf/89419/7
Schäfer 1860 910, 911
AuthorWilhelm Schäfer
TitleDie Königliche Gemälde-Gallerie im Neuen Museum zu Dresden. Beschreibung und Erläuterung sämmtlicher Gemälde nach der Ordnung der Räume begleitet von kunsgeschichtlichen und kritischen Erinnerungen
Volume1 - 3
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1860
Waagen 1858 No. 1656
AuthorGustav Friedrich Waagen
TitleEinige Bemerkungen über die neue Aufstellung, Beleuchtung und Catalogisierung der Königlichen Gemäldegallerie zu Dresden
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1858
Schuchardt 1851 C 44 234
AuthorChristian Schuchardt
TitleLucas Cranach des Aeltern Leben und Werke. Zweiter Theil
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1851
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schuchardt1851bd2
Cat. Dresden 1835 No. 156 (Bd. 1)
AuthorFriedrich Matthäi
TitleVerzeichniss der Königlich Sächsischen Gemälde-Galerie zu Dresden. Erste Hauptabteilung. Die Gemälde der äusseren Galerie; Zweite Hauptabteilung. Die Gemälde der inneren Galerie, der Abteilung H. der äusseren galerie, und des Pastellcabinets
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1835
  • The Massacre of the Innocents, about 1515

Images

Compare images
  • overall
  • overall
  • overall
  • reverse
  • reverse
  • irr
  • irr
  • irr
  • irr

Technical studies

26.11.2012Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr
  • irr
  • irr
  • irr

Underdrawing

Results

Drawing material:

- fluid (brush)

Technique:

- brush drawing rich in detail with few hatching-strokes, but extensive washes, masterly drawing technique with crescent shaped hooks, numerous modifications of the contours in the painted version, particularly of the heads and both horses heads on the left in the middle distance [1]

[1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 282]

[Böhme, Schölzel, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, 2012]

  • photographed by Alexandra Böhme
  • photographed by Christoph Schölzel

2005Technical examination / Scientific analysis

Framing

- new frame: gilded frame in the style of the Dresden Gallery frames from the 18th and 19th centuries

[Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 282]

2005Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography

Underdrawing

brush drawing rich in detail with few hatching-strokes, but extensive washes, masterly drawing technique with crescent shaped hooks, numerous modifications of the contours in the painted version, particularly of the heads and both horses heads on the left in the middle distance

[Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 282]

2003Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • reverse
  • reverse

Support

- limewood

- the boards are 0.5 cm thick (thinned)

- four vertical boards, rounded at the top

- the heartwood of the boards is on the reverse of the panel

- there is a rebate around the edge, which marks itself on the front of the panel

- marks from a serrated plane

[Schlegel 2003, 12][1]

[1][Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 282]

Condition Reports

Date2003

Support:

  • the fill on the left edge is visible on the front of the panel

  • the cradle consists of eight vertical battens and eight cross-battens; the corners were rounded before they were attached (pine wood)

  • six pieces of canvas cover knot-holes, which were filled after the knots were removed

  • woodworm damage

Painted surface:

  • splits along the top edge

  • isolated retouches (particularly in the ares of the arch on the left and areas where there are knots in the bottom half of the panel)

  • old, yellowed, patchy varnish

[Schlegel 2003, 12-14][1]

[1][Schlegel, Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 282]

Conservation History

Date2005

  • in preparation for loan (frame)

see pdf

Date1967

  • minor treatment (frame)

see pdf

Date1964

[GGAM, Abt. Restaurierung, Meldung][1]

[1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 282]

Date1928

[Sächs, HstADD, 13458 SKD, GG Nr. 8 Bd. 15, Bl. 65][1]

[1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 282]

Date1873

[Sächs, HStADD, 13458 SKD, GG Nr. 8 Bd. 4, Bl. 21][1]

[1][Schölzel, Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005, 282]

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'The Massacre of the Innocents', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_SKD_GG1906C/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'The Massacre of the Innocents', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_SKD_GG1906C/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

Help us to improve the Cranach Digital Archive.

Please contact us, if you have noticed a mistake.