St Jerome in a rocky landscape

St Jerome in a rocky landscape

Title

St Jerome in a rocky landscape

[CDA 2010]

Painting on limewood (Tilia sp.)

Medium

Painting on limewood (Tilia sp.)

[Klein, Report 2013]
[Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]

St Jerome is depicted as a hermit at the edge of a forest against a rocky backdrop. He sits writing at a table constructed of logs, his cardinal's hat lies next to him on a stone. A cloister on the banks of a river and St Jerome's self-chastisement before the

St Jerome is depicted as a hermit at the edge of a forest against a rocky backdrop. He sits writing at a table constructed of logs, his cardinal's hat lies next to him on a stone. A cloister on the banks of a river and St Jerome's self-chastisement before the cross are visible in the mountainous landscape of the background. A lion lies behind a tree on the left side of the image.

[Gemäldegalerie Berlin, Unsinn 2010]

Attributions
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Matthias Grünewald

Attributions

Lucas Cranach the Elder

Since 1878 attributed to Lucas Cranach the Elder
[Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]
[Cat. Berlin 1931, 111, No. 565]

Matthias Grünewald

[Cat. Berlin 1847, 177, No. 565]

Albrecht Altdorfer

[Waagen, Cat. Berlin 1830, 157, No. 118]

Production date
about 1515

Production date

about 1515

[Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 51.2 x 37.6 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 51.2 x 37.6 cm

  • Dimensions including frame: 60.9 x 48.4 cm

  • Dimensions of painted surface: 49.5 x 36 cm

  • [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]

  • Dimensions of support: 51.3 - 50.9 x 37.5 - 37.4 x 0.6 cm

  • Original dimensions of support: c. 51.5 x 38 cm

  • Dimensions of the painted surface: 36.4 - 35.9 x 49.4 - 49.2 cm

  • [Undine Köhler, Gemäldegalerie Berlin, August 2010]

Signature / Dating
None
Inscriptions and Labels
Reverse of the panel: Museum seal 1878 Reverse of the panel: - centre: in white chalk: '565' - below on the left: Paper label …

Inscriptions and Labels

Stamps, Seals, Labels:

  • Reverse of the panel: Museum seal 1878
  • [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]
  • Reverse of the panel:
  • - centre:
  • in white chalk: '565'
  • - below on the left:
  • Paper label written in black: 'Kiste 7'
  • - beside this on the right:
  • Paper label printed in black with type script: 'Staatliche Museen Berlin-Gemäldegalerie (/) Katalog.Nr. 565 (/) Lucas Cranach d.Ä. (/) Hl. Hieronymus.'
  • - on the right:
  • in black: 'I. 624'
  • - beneath:
  • Paper label written in black and red: 'D. 54 Nib (/) Pie: Zoll (/) A/. 7 (/) L./. 2'
  • - centre on the right side:
  • red wax seal: 'Königliche Museen Berlin (with an eagle in the centre)'
  • Reverse of the frame:
  • - top left:
  • Brand mark: 'Gemäldegalerie Berlin'
  • - above:
  • in blue pen : 'F897509'
  • - right:
  • Paper label printed in black: 'Kunstmuseum Basel. Ausstellung (/) Cranach-Ausstellung 1974 (/)
  • Künstler: Lucas Cranach d. Ae (/) Titel: Hieronymus schreibend i.d. (/) Landschaft(/)
  • Leihgeber: Stattl. Museen. Berlin'
  • - centre, left:
  • Remains of a label
  • - below:
  • The same paper label printed in black: 'Gemäldegalerie (/) Berlin (/) Rahmen Inv. Nr. 93.254'
  • - centre, right:
  • Remains of a label
  • [Undine Köhler, Gemäldegalerie Berlin, August 2010]
Owner
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
Repository
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
Location
Berlin
CDA ID
DE_smbGG_565
FR (1978) Nr.
FR107
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_smbGG_565/

Provenance

  • 1821 acquired with the Solly Collection
    [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]

Exhibitions

Berlin 1932, 20, no. 29
Berlin 1937, no. 29
Basel 1974, no. 408
Düsseldorf 2017, no. 160
Stockholm 1988
Frankfurt 2008, 226

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure / Plate
Exhib. Cat. Innsbruck 2018 47, 251 004
EditorTiroler Landesmuseen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Dr. Wolfgang Meighörner
TitleCranach Natürlich. Hieronymus in der Wildnis
Place of PublicationInnsbruck
Year of Publication2018
Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017 261 No. 160
EditorGunnar Heydenreich, Daniel Görres, Beat Wismer
TitleLucas Cranach der Ältere. Meister - Marke - Moderne. [anlässlich der Ausstellung "Cranach. Meister - Marke - Moderne", Stiftung Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf, 08. April 2017 - 30. Juli 2017]
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2017
Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007 226 p. 226
EditorBodo Brinkmann
TitleCranach der Ältere, [Frankfurt, Städel Museum, 23 Nov 2007 - 17 Feb 2008]
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Heydenreich 2007 A 301, 396 Figs. 104, 246
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleLucas Cranach the Elder
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
Year of Publication2007
Link https://lucascranach.org/application/files/6116/2097/3099/Heydenreich_2007_Lucas_Cranach_the_Elder.pdf
Heydenreich 2007 B 29-30 2
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
Title"... dass Du mit wunderbarer Schnelligkeit malest". Virtuosität und Effizienz in der künstlerischen Praxis Lucas Cranachs d. Ä.
Publicationin Bodo Brinkmann, ed., Cranach der Ältere, Exhib. Cat. FrankfurtA
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Pages29-47
Cat. Berlin 1996 34 Fig. 61
AuthorRainald Grosshans, Henning Bock
EditorStaatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
TitleGemäldegalerie Berlin. Gesamtverzeichnis
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1996
Auct. Cat. London 1990 15 No. 46
EditorChristie's Fine Art Auction House, London
TitleChristie's, 6. Juli 1990
Place of PublicationLondon
Year of Publication1990
Exhib. Cat. Stockholm 1988
EditorNationalmuseum, Stockholm
TitleCranach och den tyska renässancen
Place of PublicationStockholm
Year of Publication1988
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 91,92 No. 107 Fig. 107
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Cat. Berlin 1975 A No. 565
EditorStaatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
TitleKatalog der ausgestellten Gemälde des 13. - 18. Jahrhunderts
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1975
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 154, 548, 549 No. 408 Fig. 290
AuthorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1973 No. 3
AuthorWilhelm H. Köhler, Frank Steigerwald
TitleLucas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Druckgraphik
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1973
Lilienfein 1942 Fig. 86
AuthorHeinrich Lilienfein
TitleLukas Cranach und seine Zeit
Place of PublicationBielefeld
Year of Publication1942
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1937 20 029 Pl. 31
EditorStaatliche Museen, Berlin
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. und Lucas Cranach d. J. Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Graphik
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1937
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 94
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Cat. Berlin 1931 111 No. 565
EditorKaiser-Friedrich-Museum, Berlin, Irene Kunze
TitleBeschreibendes Verzeichnis der Gemälde im Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum und Deutschen Museum
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1931
Flechsig 1900 A 94, 95
AuthorEduard Flechsig
TitleCranachstudien
Volume1
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1900
Link page/n5/mode/2up
Schuchardt 1851 C 151
AuthorChristian Schuchardt
TitleLucas Cranach des Aeltern Leben und Werke. Zweiter Theil
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1851
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schuchardt1851bd2
Cat. Berlin 1847 177 No. 565
EditorGustav Friedrich Waagen
TitleVerzeichnis der Gemäldesammlung der Königlichen Museen zu Berlin
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1847
Cat. Berlin 1830 157 No. 118
AuthorGustav Friedrich Waagen
EditorKönigliches Museum, Berlin
TitleVerzeichniß der Gemälde-Sammlung des Königlichen Museums zu Berlin
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1830
  • St Jerome in a rocky landscape, about 1515

Images

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  • x_radiograph
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  • conservation
  • other
  • analysis

Technical studies

08.04.2013Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

Identification of wood species: limewood

Examined on the 22.09.1989

[cda 2014]

  • analysed by Peter Klein

08. 2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
  • UV-light photography
  • X-radiography
  • Infrared reflectography
  • Stereomicroscopy
  • x_radiograph
  • irr
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail
  • overall

Support

Macroscopic and microscopic examination carried out by Dipl. Rest. Undine Köhler

(LEICA MS 5; f=100; magnification on the microscope: 0,6 - 4; magnification: 60 - 400x)

UV examination

Infrared reflectograph (Schmidt 2010)

X-radiograph (Schmidt 2010)

Dendrochronological report (Klein1989):

- wooden panel: (details of the construction)

- the panel consists of one tangentially cut limewood board without knots

- height: 51.3 cm on the right and 50.9 cm on the left side; width: 37.5 cm at the bottom and 37.4 cm at the top; 0.6 cm thick

- Klein counted 81 annual rings along the bottom edge – the grain runs in a horizontal direction

- there is a slight bevel on all four sides on the reverse. At its widest point it measures c. 2.5 cm

- the original surface on the reverse has not been retained

Ground and Imprimatura

Size:

- a size on the wooden support was neither visible with the naked eye nor under the stereomicroscope, but it may be presumed that one was applied.

Ground:

- there is a white porous layer on the wooden support, presumably a glue-chalk ground

- the presence of a barb indicates that it was applied while the panel was in a frame

Imprimatura:

- above the ground there is a thinner, white layer. It was applied as a glaze so there is no complete absorption visible in the x-radiograph

Underdrawing

- in the light areas of the painting (flesh paint, clothing) the lines of the underdrawing are not clearly visible either with the naked eye or in the infrared reflectograph. A black line is visible in the infrared reflectograph in the upper part of the head, along the shoulder and on the right instep. It was probably executed in black paint with a brush and could be undedrawing. In other areas the underdrawing appears to have been covered by the subsequent paint layers and is therefore no longer visible. The fact that single areas of paint rarely overlap and that there are no corrections in the execution suggest that there must have been an underdrawing, which was carried out in a medium that can no longer be detected.

Paint Layers and Gilding

see [.pdf]

Framing

- wooden frame with a stepped profile; the inner bar is decorated with beading (three small beads and one long one)

Dimensions of the frame: 61 x 48.3 x 4.8 cm

Inv.-No.: 93.254

  • written by Undine Köhler

08. 2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • X-radiography
  • x_radiograph
  • created by Fotowerkstatt, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin

01. 2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Materials:

- the design may have been executed with a dilute, fluid medium and a brush

Type/Ductus:

- freehand underdrawing

- thin lines

Function:

- relatively binding for the final painted version

Deviations:

- minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define form

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder?

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]

  • photographed by Gunnar Heydenreich
  • photographed by Ingo Sandner

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'St Jerome in a rocky landscape', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_smbGG_565/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'St Jerome in a rocky landscape', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_smbGG_565/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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