The Holy Trinity above a landscape and within a gloriole of angels

The Holy Trinity above a landscape and within a gloriole of angels

Title

The Holy Trinity above a landscape and within a gloriole of angels

[Exhib. Cat. Bremen 2009, No. 30] [Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, No. 98]

Painting on hardwood, probably limewood

Medium

Painting on hardwood, probably limewood

[Kunsthalle Bremen revised 2012]

In a section of the panel, which has a semi-circular top God the Father is depicted sitting on the globe and the Holy Ghost, who is represented as a dove has alighted on his left hand. Opposite this the crucifixion is shown. The Holy Trinity is surrounded by an aureole,

In a section of the panel, which has a semi-circular top God the Father is depicted sitting on the globe and the Holy Ghost, who is represented as a dove has alighted on his left hand. Opposite this the crucifixion is shown. The Holy Trinity is surrounded by an aureole, which is framed by a band of clouds with heads of angels and floats above an expansive landscape.

[Görres, cda 2012]

Attribution
Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attribution

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Exhib. Cat. Bremen 2009, No. 22]

Production date
about 1515 - 1518

Production date

about 1515 - 1518

[Exhib. Cat. Bremen 2009, No. 30]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 42.2 x 28.5 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 42.2 x 28.5 cm

  • [Exhib. Cat. Bremen 2009, No. 30]

  • Dimensions including frame: 61.8 cm x 49.2 cm x 5.6 cm

  • [Julia Tholen, Paintings conservator, Kunsthalle Bremen, June 2012]

Signature / Dating
None
Inscriptions and Labels
On the reverse of the panel there was apparently a piece of paper with the comment that the painting came …

Inscriptions and Labels

Stamps, Seals, Labels:

  • On the reverse of the panel there was apparently a piece of paper with the comment that the painting came from the altar in the church in Feldadfing
  • [Exhib. Cat. Bremen 2009, No. 30]
  • The panel was thinned and cradled, therefore it is possible that earlier inscriptions etc. were not preserved. There is only a label on the cradle in typescript: 'Lucas Cranach d.Ä. Die heilige Dreifaltigkeit'. There is a similar label on the frame.
  • [Kunsthalle Bremen, revised 2012]
Owner
Kunsthalle Bremen - Der Kunstverein in Bremen
Repository
Kunsthalle Bremen - Der Kunstverein in Bremen
Location
Bremen
CDA ID
DE_KHB_278-1904-22
FR (1978) Nr.
FR098
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_KHB_278-1904-22/

Provenance

  • acquired in Meran by Robert Lehmkuhl, Bremen
  • 1904 acquired by the Kunsthalle Bremen
  • 1945 lost during the war after evacuation
  • 1961 returned
    [Exhib. Cat. Bremen 2009, No. 30]

Exhibitions

Erfurt 1903, No. 24a
Bremen 1904, No. 135
Bremen 2009, No. 22

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure / Plate
Cat. Coburg 2018 86, fn. 8 under no. 14
AuthorKlaus Weschenfelder
TitleCranach in Coburg. Gemälde von Lucas Cranach d.Ä., Lucas Cranach d.J., der Werkstatt und des Umkreises in den Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2018
Schaab 2012 p. 311
AuthorGloria L. Schaab
TitleTrinity in Relation. Creation, Incarnation, and Grace in an Evolving Cosmos
Place of PublicationWinona
Year of Publication2012
Exhib. Cat. Bremen 2009 30
EditorRainer Stamm
TitleLucas Cranach der Schnellste
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication2009
Herzogenrath, Lähnemann 2009 68 pp. 70, 227
EditorWulf Herzogenrath, Ingmar Lähnemann
TitleNoble Gäste. Meisterwerke der Kunsthalle Bremen in 22 deutschen Museen
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication2009
Merlin, Quade 2009 113
AuthorAndreas Merlin, Andreas Quade
TitleDer Fisch auf dem Dach. Religiöse Spuren im Bremer Stadtbild
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication2009
Besserman 2006 233 fig. 7
AuthorLawrence Besserman
TitleImitatio Christi in the Later Middle Ages and in Contemporary Film
JournalFlorilegium
Issue23.1
Year of Publication2006
Pages223-49
Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz 2005 370 027 (under) Fig. 170
EditorHarald Marx, Karin Kolb, Ingrid Mössinger
TitleCranach Anlässlich der Ausstellung Cranach vom 13. November 2005 bis 12. März 2006 in den Kunstsammlungen Chemnitz. Eine Ausstellung in Kooperation mit der Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication2005
Cat. Bremen 1994 240
AuthorAndreas Kreul
TitleKunsthalle Bremen - Gemälde-Verzeichnis
Place of PublicationWiesbaden
Year of Publication1994
Erichsen 1994 A 159, 161-163 Fig. 108c
AuthorJohannes Erichsen
TitleAltäre Lucas Cranachs und seiner Werkstatt vor der Reformation
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhof, eds., Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmen aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26/94
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Regensburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages150-165
Cat. Bremen 1990 104-105 pl. 104
AuthorCorinna Höper
TitleKatalog der Gemälde des 14. bis 18. Jahrhunderts in der Kunsthalle Bremen
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1990
Busch 1984 23, 26, 608
AuthorGünter Busch
TitleDie Kunsthalle Bremen in vier Jahrzehnten. Eine hanseatische Bürgerinitiative 1945-1984
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1984
Schweers 1981-1982 180
AuthorHans F. Schweers
TitleGemälde in deutschen Museen
Volume1
Place of PublicationMunich, New York, London
Year of Publication1981
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 98
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Apelt 1958 18
AuthorHermann Apelt
TitleErinnerungen aus 57 Jahren Kunstverein, Bremen 1958
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1958
Bénézit 1955 717
AuthorEmmanuel Bénézit
TitleDictionnaire critique et documentaire des Peintres, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs et Graveurs
Volume2
Place of PublicationParis
Year of Publication1955
Busch, Keller 1954 20
AuthorGünter Busch, Horst Keller
TitleHandbuch der Kunsthalle Bremen
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1954
Busch 1952 31-32
AuthorGünter Busch
TitleAus der Aufbauarbeit der Bremer Kunsthalle
JournalKunstchronik
Issue5 (1952)
Year of Publication1952
Busch, Keller 1948 50, 53 8
AuthorGünter Busch, Horst Keller
TitleMuseum heute. Ein Querschnitt zum 125. Bestehen der Kunsthalle Bremen
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1948
Cat. Bremen 1939 37 278
AuthorEmil Waldmann
TitleGemälde und Bildhauerwerke der Kunsthalle zu Bremen
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1939
Cat. Bremen 1935 25 278
AuthorEmil Waldmann
TitleGemälde und Bildhauerwerke in der Kunsthalle zu Bremen
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1935
Waldmann 1933 69-70
AuthorEmil Waldmann
TitleDie Bremer Kunsthalle. Ein Führer zur Vorbereitung und zur Erinnerung
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1933
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 87
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Waldmann 1932 34
AuthorEmil Waldmann
TitleDie Bremer Kunsthalle. Mit Erläuterungen ihrer bedeutendsten Gemälde
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1932
Cat. Bremen 1925 13 278
AuthorEmil Waldmann
TitleKatalog der Gemälde und Bildhauerwerke in der Kunsthalle zu Bremen
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1925
Waldmann 1923 6-7 fig. 5
AuthorEmil Waldmann
TitleDürer und seine Zeit
SeriesAmtliche Ausgabe der Kunsthalle Bremen
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1923
Waldmann 1919 92
AuthorEmil Waldmann
TitleDie Bremer Kunsthalle. Ein Führer zur Vorbereitung und zur Erinnerung
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1919
Cat. Bremen 1913 11 278
AuthorGustav Pauli
TitleKatalog der Gemälde und Bildhauerwerke in der Kunsthalle zu Bremen
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1913
Stoermer 1913 796
AuthorCurt Stoermer
TitleDie Neuerwerbungen der Bremer Kunsthalle
JournalCicerone
Issue5 (1913)
Year of Publication1913
Waldmann 1909 A 34-38 pl. 6
AuthorEmil Waldmann
TitleZwei Bilder von L. Cranach in der Bremer Kunsthalle
JournalJahrbuch der bremischen Sammlungen
Issue2
Year of Publication1909
Pages34-40
Cat. Bremen 1907 13-14 278
AuthorGustav Pauli
TitleKatalog der Gemälde und Bildhauerwerke in der Kunsthalle zu Bremen
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1907
Vogel 1907 224
AuthorJulius Vogel
TitleZur Cranachforschung
JournalZeitschrift für bildende Kunst
IssueN.F. 18=42.1907
Year of Publication1907
Link http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/artdok/2658/1/Vogel_Zur_Cranachforschung_1907.pdf
Pages219-226
Pauli 1906 B 141 p. 174
AuthorGustav Pauli
TitleEin Bild des Lucas Cranach
Publicationin, Gedenkbuch zu Wilhelm Steinhausens sechzigstem Geburtstag am 2. Februar 1906
Place of PublicationConstance
Year of Publication1906
Pauli 1905 16, 58
AuthorGustav Pauli
TitleGemälde alter Meister aus bremischem Privatbesitz
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1905
Exhib. Cat. Bremen 1904 135
Authorn. a.
TitleAusstellung historischer Gemälde aus Privatbesitz in der Kunsthalle Bremen
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1904
Jahrebericht 1904/05 8
Authorn. a.
TitleJahresbericht des Vorstandes des Kunstvereins in Bremen. Jahresbericht 1904/05
Place of PublicationBremen
Year of Publication1904
Exhib. Cat. Erfurt 1903 024a
EditorOskar Doering
TitleKatalog der kunstgeschichtlichen Ausstellung zu Erfurt, September 1903
Place of PublicationMagdeburg
Year of Publication1903
Link https://archive.org/details/katalogderkunstg00ange/page/n1/mode/2up

Research History / Discussion

„A receipt by Cranach, dated 1517, for twelve florins ‚für ein teffelein daran dye heylig dreyfaltigkeit stehet‘ (for a small panel with the Holy Trinity) may refer to this work (cf. Schuchardt 1851-71, vol I, 67).

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1978, No. 98]

  • The Holy Trinity above a landscape and within a gloriole of angels, about 1515 - 1518

Images

Compare images
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Technical studies

06. 2012Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • Stereomicroscopy
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail

Support

- hardwood, probably limewood

- tangential cut

- no knots

- the panel constists of two vertical planks (16 cm and 12.4 cm in width)

- traces of a partial application of tow are visible along the edge. These are located in the area of the join and at the right edge 2 cm from the bottom (photograph)

- a 5-8mm border of bare wood runs around the edge

- the format was not altered

- the panel was thinned with a plane to a thickness of 3mm during a previous intervention

Ground and Imprimatura

- white ground, probably a glue/chalk mixture

- the ground layer is c. 0.8 mm thick

- there is a barbe

- on the left and right edges some ground material containing bubbles is located above the bare wood. This probably penetrated through the gap between the panel and the rebate of the frame when the ground was applied (photograph)

- an incised line runs around the panel parallel to the edge of the painting. The incised line is particularly visible along the right edge. The lines run almost along the edge of the painted surface.

- an imprimitura is not visible

Underdrawing

- an underdrawing is not readily visible

Paint Layers and Gilding

- a brush application of paint, executed to a large extent in glazes. the paint also consists partially of admixtures and has been applied in an opaque layer. (the crown and brocade, the town and the leaves)

- the application is very thin. An impasto application was employed for the highlights (crown, coat, leaves).

- the details (e.g. hair, coat, faces of the angels, town) were applied with a very fine brush

- in both top corners there are spandrels painted with a uniform black layer

- the paint does not extend beyond the edge of the ground

Framing

- the frame is not original

- dimensions: 61.8 cm X 49.2 cm X 5.6 cm

- simple, slightly champfered wooden frame with a brown glazed oak verneer. There are half-rounded battens on the inner and outer edges.

- inserted battens, gilded

- the mitred joins have been reinforced with fabric from the reverse

[Julia Tholen, Paintings Conservator, Kunsthalle Bremen, June 2012]

10. 2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Materials:

- fluid, black medium and brush

Type/Ductus:

- freehand underdrawing

- thin lines

Function:

- relatively binding for the final painted version; lines delineate contours and describe the essential details; no representation of volume

Deviations:

- minor alterations made during the painting process to clearly define form; changes (e.g. the clouds in the sky were not carried out in the painted version)

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder?

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]

  • photographed by Ingo Sandner
  • photographed by Gunnar Heydenreich

Condition Reports

Date21.01.2013 -

  • when the panel was thinned a few open woodworm channels were revealed. There is no activity.

  • The panel has a slightly corrugated appearance caused by the cradle. In addition there are two vertical splits, fostered in all probability by the ridgid cradle

  • there are small losses above all along the splits and the join as well as on the edges of the craquelée; these have for the most part been filled and retouched

  • there is a fine network of craquelée over the entire picture plane

  • the paint layers are partially abraded

  • the retouches and overpaint are to a greater extent discoloured and extend beyond the the areas of loss over the original paint

[Julia Tholen, Paintings Conservator, Kunsthalle Bremen, June 2012]

  • Bearbeiter/in Daniel Görres

Conservation History

Date21.01.2013 -

  • during an intervention in 1951 the cradle, which was considered inadequate, was removed from the panel and replaced with a new one. To attach this cradle to the panel the reverse was first sanded down (open woodworm channels). The joins could not be exactly aligned when they were reglued.

Losses were filled, retouching in watercolour, mastix varnish and a wax coating

  • 1990 the panel was again removed from its frame to be photographed. On this occasion the wax coating was removed with oil of terpentine, the rebate of the frame was cushioned with felt, the painting was refitted and a corrugated cardboard backing was attached to the reverse. (source: Bettina Landgrebe 2006).

  • 2008 a micro-climate box was constructed for the painting to protect the delicate panel against fluctuating environmental conditions.

  • consolidation of the paint layers with a 5% solution of sturgeon's glue was also carried out in 2008

[Julia Tholen, Paintings Conservator, Kunsthalle Bremen, June 2012]

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'The Holy Trinity above a landscape and within a gloriole of angels', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_KHB_278-1904-22/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'The Holy Trinity above a landscape and within a gloriole of angels', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_KHB_278-1904-22/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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