Portrait of Christian II., King of Denmark

Portrait of Christian II., King of Denmark

Title

Portrait of Christian II., King of Denmark

[CDA 2011]

Painting on limewood

Medium

Painting on limewood

[Klein, Report 2013]

Wood

[Guratzsch, Cat. Leipzig 1995, 34]

A half-length portrait of the danish King Christian II., facing right against a blue backdrop. He is wearing a fur-trimmed gown and a black beret and holds a white handkerchief in his hands. A pendant with the emblem of the Order of the Golden Fleece hangs on a band around

A half-length portrait of the danish King Christian II., facing right against a blue backdrop. He is wearing a fur-trimmed gown and a black beret and holds a white handkerchief in his hands. A pendant with the emblem of the Order of the Golden Fleece hangs on a band around his neck and he has a gold ring on his left thumb.

[Herrschaft, cda 2015]

Attribution
Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attribution

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Guratzsch, Cat. Leipzig 1995, 34]

Production date
about 1523 - 1530

Production date

about 1523 - 1530

[CDA, 2011]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 54.6 x 41.5 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 54.6 x 41.5 cm

  • [Guratzsch, Cat. Leipzig 1995, 34]

  • 54.6/54.7 x 41.7/41.9 x 0.5/0.6 cm

  • Dimensions including frame: 73.5 x 61.1 x 4.6 (including additional battens: 5.6) cm

  • [Rüdiger Beck, Museum der bildenden Künste, revised 11.06.2014]

Signature / Dating
Artist's insignia on the left above the shoulder: winged serpent facing right; in black paint

Signature / Dating

  • Artist's insignia on the left above the shoulder: winged serpent facing right; in black paint

Owner
Museum der bildenden Künste, Leipzig
Repository
Museum der bildenden Künste, Leipzig
Location
Leipzig
CDA ID
DE_MdbKL_44
FR (1978) Nr.
FR150A
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_MdbKL_44/

Provenance

  • 1848 transferred from the Municipal library (Stadtbibliothek), Leipzig
    [Guratzsch, Cat. Leipzig 1995, 34]

Exhibitions

Weimar, Wittenberg 1953, No. 42

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure / Plate
Heydenreich 2007 A 50
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleLucas Cranach the Elder
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
Year of Publication2007
Link https://lucascranach.org/application/files/6116/2097/3099/Heydenreich_2007_Lucas_Cranach_the_Elder.pdf
Heydenreich 1998 B 107
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleArtistic exchange and experimental variation: studies in the workshop practice of Lucas Cranach the Elder
Publicationin Ashok Roy and Perry Smith, eds., Painting techniques, history, materials and studio practice, Contributions to the Dublin IIC Congress, 7-11 September 1998
Place of PublicationLondon
Year of Publication1998
Pages106-111
Exhib. Cat. Bonn 1994 34
EditorHerwig Guratzsch, Museum der bildenden Künste, Leipzig
TitleVon Lucas Cranach bis Caspar David Friedrich [Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Bonn]
Place of PublicationStuttgart
Year of Publication1994
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 103 No. 150A
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Weber 1977
AuthorE. Weber
TitleFrom Luther to 1580
Place of PublicationMissouri
Year of Publication1977
Exhib. Cat. Weimar, Wittenberg 1953 No. 42
AuthorWalther Scheidig
EditorDeutsche Lucas Cranach Komitee
TitleLucas Cranach Ausstellung. Weimar und Wittenberg
Place of PublicationWeimar, Wittenberg
Year of Publication1953
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 under No. 127
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Gurlitt 1895 352
AuthorCornelius Gurlitt
TitleBeschreibende Darstellung der Kunstdenkmäler des Königreichs Sachsen. Stadt Leipzig
Volume1
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1895
Schuchardt 1871 172
AuthorChristian Schuchardt
TitleLucas Cranach des Aeltern Leben und Werke. Dritter Theil
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1871
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schuchardt1871bd3
Schuchardt 1851 C 86 335
AuthorChristian Schuchardt
TitleLucas Cranach des Aeltern Leben und Werke. Zweiter Theil
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1851
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schuchardt1851bd2
  • Portrait of Christian II., King of Denmark, about 1523 - 1530

Images

Compare images
  • overall
  • overall
  • overall
  • reverse
  • irr
  • x_radiograph
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  • x_radiograph
  • uv_light
  • detail
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Technical studies

11.06.2014Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
  • Stereomicroscopy
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail
  • detail
  • reverse

Support

- limewood (Tilia sp.), identification of wood species, 26.10.2013, document in the painting file in the MdbK, carried out by Prof.Dr. Peter Klein

- four horizontally aligned boards with butt joints

- board widths: I: 10.8 (l.)/10.9 (r.); II: 12.6 (l.)/ 12.7 (r.); III: 10.6; IV: 20.7 (l.)/ 20.8 (r.)

- no visible reinforcement of the joins and repair of damaged wood

- the original surface on the reverse was lost when the panel was thinned and laminated

- the edges of the panel are straight; it was later trimmed on all four sides

Ground and Imprimatura

- white, probably chalk/glue (not tested)

- relatively thick

- barbe only partially retained and visible on the right side. The ground and paint appear to have been applied while the panel was fixed in a working frame. On the right side the ground appears to have extended beneath the frame unevenly and contains some bubbles, see photo.

- along the right edge a straight line was incised into the wet ground. Two reasons may be assumed: 1. to define the pictorial plane, or 2. to prevent the ground from being torn off the panel when it was removed from the working frame.

- neither an imprimatura nor marks from a tool are present

Underdrawing

- thin lines executed with a pen or a stylus visible in areas of the flesh paint, the hands and the hat were executed with a pointed brush

- the underdrawing is visible in normal light beneath the areas of flesh paint, in the eyes, the nose and the mouth

- there is an incised vertical line along the right edge

- only the portrayed head exhibits outlines identical with the final painted version, small alterations were made in the hands and the hat is slightly smaller in the final painted version

- pouncing marks are visible in the face (particularly evident on the left eye) that were linked by thin lines drawn with a pen after the design had been transferred to the panel

Paint Layers and Gilding

Flesh paint on white ground:

- an initial, very economical grey wash was applied in the areas of shadow, wet-in-wet and blended. Above this a semi-opaque to opaque flesh tone was applied wet-in-wet and blended. The grey in the shadows shines through, but was also added on top and blended with the flesh tones. The contours were also in part blended (nose), hair. Finally the highlichts in the hair and flesh paint were added, as were the dark contours of the hair and beard (see fur-collar).

Robe:

- grey underpainting, over this a semi-transparent to opaque very dark grey; a lighter grey was employed for the highlights and was blended wet-in-wet. Later a pure black was applied to indicate folds. The fur-collar was initially executed with a streaky glaze (much thinner than in the coat), after the drying process it was modulated with semi-opaque brown paint, the hairs were then blended wet-in-wet

Background:

- the figure was held in reserve and the background was painted first. In raking light relief paint outlining the figure is visible. Once the grey paint had been applied the blue background was built up: light blue was applied with a brush, after this layer had dried dark blue paint was applied wet-in-wet and blended by dabbing.

- strokes, dabs (blue background) as well as glazes

- broad flat brush for the fur, probably a bristle brush for the background. The paint consistency is somewhat viscous in the background.

- along the right edgr the paint has to an extent run beneath th working frame

Framing

- not original, probably 19th century

- dimensions: 73.5 x 61.1 x 4.6 (including additional battens: 5.6) cm

- mortoise and tenon frame, overlapping on the reverse, mitre join at the front; profile attached to the flat surface; colour: profile black, flat surface: verneer (walnut), gilded rebate inlay with a small flute

[Museum der bildenden Künste, 11.06.2014

  • examined by Rüdiger Beck

26.10.2013Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

Identification of wood species: limewood (Tilia sp.)

  • analysed by Peter Klein

10. 2012Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • UV-light photography
  • uv_light
  • photographed by Museum der bildenden Künste, Leipzig

06. 2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Materials:

- dry medium (dark chalk: face); in combination with a fluid black pigmented medium and pointed brush

Type/Ductus:

- freehand underdrawing; traced lines in the face, delicate, fine and unbroken

Function:

- binding for the final painted version; lines delineate contours and describe the main facial features; searching lines to define clearly the contours of the hat; no representation of volume

Deviations:

- some alterations were made during the painting process to clearly define forms

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- not possible

Comments:

- possibly transferred from a pre-existing design and then reinforced with both a dry and a black fluid medium

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]

  • photographed by Gunnar Heydenreich
  • photographed by Ingo Sandner
  • X-radiography
  • x_radiograph
  • x_radiograph
  • x_radiograph
  • x_radiograph
  • created by Museum der bildenden Künste, Leipzig

Condition Reports

Date11.06.2014

Bildträger:

  • auf 0,5-0,6 cm gedünnt, vermutlich ist dabei die zweite und dritte Brettfuge gebrochen und neu verleimt worden. Umlaufend beschnitten. Die Bildtafel wurde im Anschluß auf eine 1 cm starke Kiefernholztafel übertragen und fest verleimt. Durch den zweiten Träger ist die Tafel insgesamt schwach konkav verwölbt. Diese Nadelholztafel besteht aus vier Teilen: zwei breite, vertikale Bretter, 20,9, 21,0 (mit Nut und Feder verbunden), sowie zwei schmalere Leisten am oberen und unteren Rand, horizontal verlaufend, mit eingearbeiteter Nut auf die Stirnseiten der vertikalen Bretter geleimt(auf den Stirnseiten oben und unten ist jeweils eine Ferder ausgearbeitet. s. Foto. Beschädigung der Holzsubstanz durch Anobienbefall, insbesondere im unteren Brett, welches auf ca. 10 cm Breite besonders stark zerstört ist. Infolge dessen sind dort die beiden Ecken und die Außenkanten der Bildtafel beschädigt, die Bildfläche eingebrochen und stark überarbeitet.. Vorderseitig zeichnen sich deutlich die Brettfigen durch Risse und leichte Unebenheiten ab. Im unteren Bereich sind im Streiflicht eingefallene Fraßgänge zu erahmen, die mit Kittmassen eingeebnet wurden. Kleine Holzergänzung am rechten Bildrand unten (ca. 4 cm lang).

Grundierung/Farbschicht:

  • gute Haftung der Schichten (Grundierung Farbschicht) schwach ausgeprägtes Craquelé). Ganz feiner Frühschwund (unter Mikroskop zu beobachten) im dunklen Braun(Haare,Bart, Pelz). Außer im Bereich der Bilträgerschäden ist die Originalsubstanz konservatorisch gut erhalten. Transparenzerhöhungen in den Inkarnaten, schwach auch im Hintergrund. Größere Fehlstellen sind im unteren Bildrand, auf ca. 10 cm Breite, durchgehend zu vermuten. Verluste auch im Umfeld der Brettfugen. Brettfugen gerissen, dort Kittungen und Retuschen. Das schwarze Gewand ist mehrfach stark retuschiert, stellenweise auch flächig übermalt. Übermalungen auch im Umfeld der Brettfugen und im Bereich derTrägerrisse. Hände zu 50% retuschiert. Die Retuschen sind nachgedunkelt, zum Teil auch andersfarbig, s. Hände, diese auch größflächig überarbeitet (Foto). Im unteren Bildbereich Risse in den Kittungen, dort zeigt sich die Bildoberfläche sehr bewegt und ungleichmäßig.

Firnis:

  • kein Originalfirnis, mehrere, jüngere Firnisüberzüge, letztmalig(lt. Akte) 1949. Oberfläche sehr unterschiedlich im Glanz, große, matte Bereiche(Übermalungen)partiell auch streifig

[Museum der bildenden Künste, 11.06.2014]

  • examined by Rüdiger Beck

Conservation History

Date06. 1955

Inventarbucheintragungen MdbK N° 44:

"Einige Stellen ausgekittet, gereinigt, gefirnist von Charlotte Kirchner, Juni 55." [some areas filled, cleaned and varnished by Charlotte Kirchner, June 55]

[Museum der bildenden Künste, 11.06.2014]

  • conservation treatment by Charlotte Kirchner

Date08. 1925

Akte IV 1924-1932, sheets 6.-29.

Treatment report by Walter Kühn, Leipzig [August 1925]. 403)

"Bildnis, Christian II. von Dänemark" von Cranach d. Ä. [Inv.-Nr. 44] gereinigt, mit Terpentin abgerieben, regeneriert [mit roter Tinte:] "F[irnis] enthält etwas Oel."

[Portrait, Christian II. of Denmark by cranach the Elder [Inv. -No. 44] cleaned, rubbed with oil of terpentine, regenerated [in red ink] varnish contains some oil.]

[Museum der bildenden Künste, 11.06.2014]

  • conservation treatment by Walter Kühn

Date05.03.1906 - 12. 1906

Archiv MdbK, Restaurierungsakte: III 1890 - 1923: sheets 93.-94.

List of the paintings in the städt. Museum der bildenden Künste, Leipzig requiring restoration treatment, by Philipp Ritter, Leipzig 17.11.1900.

[Cranach d. Ä., Christian II., Inv.-Nr. 44] Parquettiren u. von Grund auf zu restauriren

[Cranach the Elder, Christian II., Inv. No. 44; requires a cradle and complete restoration

Sheet 162. Treatment Report by Philipp Ritter, Leipzig 31.12.1906.

Report of the treatment carried out between the 05.03.1906 until the beginning of December 1906...

No. 44. Lucas Cranach d. Ält. (Bildniß Christians V. Dänemark) [Cranach d. Ä., Inv.-Nr. 44]. Das Bild war stark caput und mußte von Grund auf restauriert werden.

[No. 44. Lucas Cranach the Elder (Portrait of Christian V. of Denmark) [Cranach the Elder, Inv. -No. 44]. The painting was very damaged an required a comprehensive restoration

[Museum der bildenden Künste, 11.06.2014]

  • conservation treatment by Philipp Ritter

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

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Entry with no author
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