Damnation and Redemption

Damnation and Redemption

Titles

Damnation and Redemption

[cda 2010]

Verdammnis und Erlösung

[Schneider 1868, Abt. V, No. 67][1], [Aldenhoven 1890, No. 333][1]
[1][Exhib. Cat. Gotha 1994, 20]

Ein Stück wie Johannes der Täuffer, Adam auf Christum weiset, und deßen Bluth auf ihn sprizet, nebst der Beschreibung des Alten Testaments

[Inventar 1721, fol. 169, No. 82][1] [1][Exhib. Cat. Gotha 1994, 20]

der glaube an den gecreutzigten Jesu mit beider seits Bildnüßen, wie auch der Todes, Teuffel und der Welt

[Nachlass-Inventar 1681, No. 4][1], 'In the picture chamber under the roof'[1] [1][Exhib. Cat. Gotha 1994, 20]

Die Creutzigung Christi

'Lux Mahler.. Die Creutzigung Christi' (?), [Inventar 1659, fol. 1, No. 2][1] [1][Exhib. Cat. Gotha 1994, 20]

Kreuzigung (?)

'Kreuzigung'(?), [Inventar 1656, fol. 1, No. 9][1] (this painting was later sold)[1] [1][Exhib. Cat. Gotha 1994, 20]

Gesetz vndt Evangelium

''Gesetz vndt Evangelium an Zweyen Taffelln' or the following work?
'Streitt des geistes wieder das fleisch Vndt des fleisches wieder den Geist'', [Inventar Weimar 1638, fol. 2][1] [1][Exhib. Cat. Gotha 1994, 20]

Painting on lime wood

Medium

Painting on lime wood

[Klein, Report 2013]
[Exhib. Cat. Gotha 1994, 20, 214]

For Luther the sins of man are inextricably linked to the human condition and the believer therefore requires Moses' commandments to be aware of his sinfulness. He must realize that an attempt to fulfill the commandments set down by the censorious Old Testament God is condemned to failure and will

For Luther the sins of man are inextricably linked to the human condition and the believer therefore requires Moses' commandments to be aware of his sinfulness. He must realize that an attempt to fulfill the commandments set down by the censorious Old Testament God is condemned to failure and will dispair over this. This despair is as it were the prerequisite for salvation through Christ and the Gospel. In accordance with the distinction between the Law and the Gospel as highlighted by Luther the painting in Gotha exhibits a dichotomic composition. The image is divided at the centre into two halves by a tree, which is dried out on the left and bears green foliage on the right.

The forlorn, sinful man is chased by Death and the Devil into the blazing flames of hell on the left. He looks to the right where Moses, standing among a group of Old Testament prophets, points at the tablets bearing the Ten Commandment. By depicting Original Sin and the Last Judgement in an expansive landscape both the source of and the punishment for mankind's transgression are indicated. Also represented is the scene where the brazen serpent is lifted up ¿ an episode from the Old Testament which played a significant role for Luther and typologically prefigures the crucifixion -, illustrating how the Israelites were saved from the poisonous snake bites by following God's instructions.

To the right of the tree trunk St John the Baptist is shown with the naked man from the left side. John as the last prophet before Christ represents Luther between the Law and the Gospel, which is why he is assigned the role of mediator here. The naked man stands calmly with his hands folded, while St John draws his attention to the crucifixion at the right edge of the painting. Blood spurts out of the wound in Christ's side and lands on the naked man's chest. The Holy Ghost represented as a dove appears in the blood. It is manifested here that only Christ, who died in place of mankind and whose good news is transmitted by the Holy Spirit, can revoke the damnation levied by the Law. Only through his faith, sola fide, can mankind be blessed with the divine forgiveness represented by the blood. Through the Resurrection of Christ, who ascends into the sky above the tombstone behind the cross, the Devil and Death, who had pursued the sinner on the left side are banished: both lie vanquished in front of the cross beneath the Lamb of God. Like the Risen Christ it also holds a victory banner. Here however the sinner from the side illustrating the Law is righteous, whereby the panel in Gotha elucidates the issue of simul iustus et peccator. In the background on the right side the annunciation to the shepherds is represented outside the gates of Bethlehem. Like the raising of the brazen serpent, which is shown next to it on the other side of the tree, this scene depicts mankind's recognition of God's word. For the viewer it is apparent that both the Law and the Gospel proclaim the same good news, which always leads to Christ. Quotations from the Old and New testaments on the lower part of the panel emphasize this statement, while at the same time serving as a biblical legitimization of the image.

[Görres, in Bonnet, Kopp-Schmitt, Görres 2010, 170]

Attribution
Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attribution

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Exhib. Cat. Gotha 2015, No. 42]
[Exhib. Cat. Gotha 1994, 20]
'Cranach, Lucas Sunders'
[Verzeichnis 1826, fol. 59, No. 70][1]
'Lux Mahler...' (?)
[Inventar 1659, fol. 1, No. 2][1](not this work, but the pendant)
[1][Exhib. Cat. Gotha 1994, 20]

Production date
1529

Production date

1529

[dated]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 82.2 x 118 cm [Exhib. Cat. Gotha 1994, 20]

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 82.2 x 118 cm [Exhib. Cat. Gotha 1994, 20]

  • Dimensions including frame: 100 x 136 cm [Stiftung Schloss Friedenstein Gotha, 2000]

Signature / Dating
Artist's insignia on the tree trunk in the centre of the picture: winged serpent with elevated wings, facing right and dated '1529'; in yellow paint

Signature / Dating

  • Artist's insignia on the tree trunk in the centre of the picture: winged serpent with elevated wings, facing right and dated '1529'; in yellow paint

Inscriptions and Labels
Text block with biblical quotations: - bottom edge of the painting from right to left: 'Vom Regenbogen und gericht. Ess …

Inscriptions and Labels

Inscriptions, Badges:

  • Text block with biblical quotations:
  • - bottom edge of the painting from right to left:
  • 'Vom Regenbogen und gericht. Ess wird Gottes zorn offenbart vom himmel vber aller menschen Gotloss leben vnd vnnrecht. Roman. 1./ wier seind allzümal sünder vnndt mangelnn des preises /das sie sich Gottes nicht rühmen mügen Roman. 1./ Vom Teüffel vnd Todt / Die Sünnde ist des Todes spieß aber das gesetz ist der sünden / krafft.1.corinth.15. Das gesetz Richtet zornn ahn. Roman.4./Vom Mose vnd den Propheten / Durch das gesetz kömet erkentnüs der sünden Roman.3. / Matthei.11./ Das gesetz vndt propheten gehen bis auff Johannes zeitt./ Vom Menschen / Der geRechte lebett seines glaübens Roman.1./ wier halten das ein mensch geRecht werde den glaüwen / on werch des gesetzs Roman.3. /Vom Teuffer / Sihe das ist gottes Lamb das der welt sunde tregt / sant Johannes Baptist Johannis.2. / In der heiligüng des geistes zum gehorssam vnd bespreg / üng des blütes Jesü Christi amen.1.petri.1./ Von Tode vnd Lamb / Der Tod ist verschlungen v(o)m sieg Tod wo ist dein spisß / helle wo ist dein sieg: danck hab Gott der vns den siegk gegeben / hat dürch Jesüm christüm vnsern herren.1.coerinth.15.'
  • - black paint over white underpaint
Owner
Stiftung Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha
Repository
Stiftung Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha
Location
Gotha
CDA ID
DE_SMG_SG676
FR (1978) Nr.
FR221
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_SMG_SG676/

Provenance

  • 1638 recorded in the 'Grünen Schloss' in Weimar, (Residence of the Elector Ernst of Saxony-Weimar, who later became the Elector of Gotha)
    'Gesetz vndt Evangelium an Zweyen Taffelln' or the work listed below ?
    'Streitt des geistes wieder das fleisch Vndt des fleisches wieder den Geist', [Inventar Weimar 1638, fol. 2][1]
  • 1644 in the 'Gotha Kaufhaus'
    [Inventar 1644, fol. 30][1]
  • recorded in Gotha Castle since 1656
    [Inventar 1656, fol. 1 No. 9][1] (not this work)
  • recorded in the Kunstkammer in Gotha Castle since 1721
    [Inventar 1721, fol. 169, No. 82][1]

[1][Exhib. Cat. Gotha 1994, 20]

Exhibitions

Dresden 1899, No. 44
Basel 1974, 505
Berlin 1983, No. E 52.1, 357-360, Colour Plate 328
Gotha 1994
Gotha 2001. No. 1.4
Gotha/Kassel 2015, No. 42

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure/Plate
Görres 2017 B 45, 46 Fig. 2
Author / EditorDaniel Görres
TitleDer Mönch und der Maler - Luther und Cranach als Vermittler eines neuen Glaubens
Publicationin Gunnar Heydenreich, Daniel Görres, Beat Wismer, eds., Lucas Cranach der Ältere. Meister - Marke - Moderne. [Exhib. Cat. Düsseldorf 2017]
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2017
Pages44-51
Price 2017 19-21, 26 Fig. 6
Author / EditorDavid H. Price
TitleLucas Cranach e la Riforma
Publicationin Francesca de Luca, Giovanni Maria Fara, eds., I volti della Riforma. Lutero e Cranach nelle collezioni medicee , Exhib. Cat. Florence, 2017
Place of PublicationFlorence, Milan
Year of Publication2017
Pages12-27
Exhib. Cat. Prague 2016 60, 65, 163, 167
Author / EditorOlga Kotková
TitleCranach. Ze všech stran. From all sides.
Place of PublicationPrague
Year of Publication2016
Pages16-180
Bonnet, Görres 2015 58-59 18 p. 59
Author / EditorAnne-Marie Bonnet, Daniel Görres
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. - Maler der Deutschen Renaissance
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2015
Exhib. Cat. Gotha, Kassel 2015 170, 171, 343 42 Pl. p. 171, Fig. p. 343 (T42)
Author / EditorJulia Carrasco, Justus Lange, Benjamin D. Spira, Timo Trümper, Stiftung Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha
TitleBild und Botschaft. Cranach im Dienst von Hof und Reformation, [Gotha, Herzogliches Museum; Kassel, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Schloss Wilhelmshöhe]
Place of PublicationHeidelberg
Year of Publication2015
Exhib. Cat. Weimar 2015 49
Author / EditorWolfgang Holler, Karin Kolb
TitleCranach in Weimar, [Weimar, Schiller-Museum, 3 April - 14 June 2015]
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication2015
Görres 2015 B 41 pl. 22
Author / EditorDaniel Görres
TitleCranach, Luther und die Ernestiner. Der Epitaphaltar der Stadtkirche St. Peter und Paul in Weimar
Publicationin, Franziska Bomski, Hellmut Th. Seemann, Thorsten Valk, eds., Bild und Bekenntnis. Die Cranach-Werkstatt in Weimar
Place of PublicationGöttingen
Year of Publication2015
Pages37-53
Poulsen 2015 A 68
Author / EditorHanne Kolind Poulsen
TitleCranachs Bildsprache und der neue lutherische Glaube
Publicationin Julia Carrasco, Justus Lange, Benjamin D. Spira, Timo Trümper, Stiftung Schloss Friedenstein Gotha and Museumslandschaft Hessen Kassel, eds., Bild und Botschaft. Cranach im Dienst von Hof und Reformation, [Exhib. Cat. Gotha, Kassel]
Place of PublicationHeidelberg
Year of Publication2015
Pages63-71
Spira 2015 57
Author / EditorBenjamin D. Spira
TitleLucas Cranach, der Maler Luthers. Der Hofmaler und der Reformator - Bindung, Bilder und Bedeutung
Publicationin Julia Carrasco, Justus Lange, Benjamin D. Spira, Timo Trümper, Stiftung Schloss Friedenstein Gotha and Museumslandschaft Hessen Kassel, eds., Bild und Botschaft. Cranach im Dienst von Hof und Reformation, [Exhib. Cat. Gotha, Kassel]
Place of PublicationHeidelberg
Year of Publication2015
Pages51-62
Bonnet, Kopp-Schmidt, Görres 2010 170-171 18
Author / EditorAnne-Marie Bonnet, Gabriele Kopp-Schmidt, Daniel Görres
TitleDie Malerei der deutschen Renaissance
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2010
Heydenreich 2010 A 75 67d
Author / EditorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleReisende Bilder im Wandel
Publicationin Guido Messling, ed., Die Welt des Lucas Cranach. Ein Künstler im Zeitalter von Dürer, Tizian und Metsys, Exhib. Cat. Brussels
Place of PublicationBrussels
Year of Publication2010
Pages66-79
Koepplin 2007 B 64, 67, 71, 76 7
Author / EditorDieter Koepplin
TitleCranachs Bilder der Caritas im theologischen und humanistischen Geiste Luthers und Melanchthons
Publicationin Bodo Brinkmann, ed., Cranach der Ältere, Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Pages63-79
Münch 2007 131-132 Fig. 12
Author / EditorBirgit Ulrike Münch
TitleEngelsglorie, Tricktrack-Teufel und Evas Kehrseite. Die Neuinszenierung der Auferstehung Christi im Mittelbild des Aschaffenburger Magdalenen-Altars.
Publicationin Gerhard Ermischer, Andreas Tacke, eds., Cranach im Exil, Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2007
Pages123-135
Exhib. Cat. Prague 2005 74, 76-78 (English version 32, 33) under no. 11 Pl. p. 77
Author / EditorObrazárna Pražského hradu, Kaliopi Chamonikola
TitlePod znamením okrídleného hada. Lucas Cranach a ceské zeme. Under the winged Serpent. Lucas Cranach and the Czech Land
Place of PublicationPrague
Year of Publication2005
Koepplin 2003 C 150, 151 Fig. 54
Author / EditorDieter Koepplin
TitleEin Cranach-Prinzip
Publicationin Heinz Spielmann, Werner Schade, eds., Lucas Cranach. Glaube, Mythologie und Moderne, Exhib. Cat. Hamburg 2003
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication2003
Pages144-165
Heydenreich 1998 A 184
Author / EditorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleHerstellung, Grundierung und Rahmung der Holzbildträger in den Werkstätten Lucas Cranachs d.Ä.
Publicationin Ingo Sandner, Wartburg-Stiftung Eisenach and Fachhochschule Köln, eds., Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund. Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Eisenach
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication1998
Pages181-200
Exhib. Cat. Gotha 1994 20
Author / EditorStiftung Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha
TitleGotteswort und Menschenbild. Werke von Cranach und seinen Zeitgenossen
Place of PublicationGotha
Year of Publication1994
Schade, Schuttwolf 1994 20, 21, 35 1.3 Fig. p. 20, Pl. p. 35
Author / EditorWerner Schade, Allmuth Schuttwolf
TitleMalerei und Plastik
Publicationin Allmuth Schuttwolf, ed., Gotteswort und Menschenbild. Werke von Cranach und seinen Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Gotha
Place of PublicationGotha
Year of Publication1994
Pages15-94
Schuttwolf 1994 7, 8 1.3
Author / EditorStiftung Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha, Allmuth Schuttwolf
TitleGeschichte der Gothaer Kunstsammlungen
Publicationin Allmuth Schuttwolf, ed., Gotteswort und Menschenbild. Werke von Cranach und seinen Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Gotha
Place of PublicationGotha
Year of Publication1994
Pages7-12
Liebmann 1987 28
Author / EditorMichael Liebmann
TitleAus Spätmittelalter und Renaissance. Kunsthistorische Betrachtungen
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1987
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1983 357-360 E52.1 Fig. p. 328
Author / EditorAltes Museum, Berlin
TitleKunst der Reformationzeit
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1983
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 114 No. 221 Fig. 221
Author / EditorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg, G. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 506-507
Author / EditorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Schade 1974 74
Author / EditorWerner Schade
TitleDie Malerfamilie Cranach
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1974
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schade1974
Kallensee 1967 44 Fig. 14
Author / EditorK. Kallensee
TitleZum Lobe Gottes. Die Botschaft der Freude im reformatorischen Bild
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1967
Thulin 1955 126 161
Author / EditorOskar Thulin
TitleCranach-Altäre der Reformation
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1955
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 63, 64 183
Author / EditorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Förster 1909 117
Author / EditorRichard Förster
TitleDie Bildnisse von Johann Hess und Cranachs 'Gesetz und Gnade'
JournalZeitschrift des Vereins für das Museum Schlesischer Altertümer
Issue5
Year of Publication1909
Link http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/artdok/2639/1/Foerster_Die_Bildnisse_von_Johann_Hess_und_Cranachs_Gesetz_und_Gnade_1909.pdf
Pages117-141, 205-206
Meier 1909 415
Author / EditorKarl Ernst Meier
TitleFortleben der religiös-dogmatischen Kompositionen Cranachs in der Kunst des Protestantismus
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
Issue32
Year of Publication1909
Pages419-435
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1899 No. 44
Author / EditorKarl Woermann
TitleDeutsche Kunstausstellung Dresden 1899. Abteilung Cranach-Ausstellung. Wissenschaftliches Verzeichnis der ausgestellten Werke
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1899
Link http://resolver.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/SBB00002A2400000000
Parthey 1863-1864 687 (Bd. 1) No. 157
Author / EditorGustav Parthey
TitleDeutscher Bildersaal. Verzeichnis der in Deutschland vorhandenen Oelbilder verstorbener Maler aller Schulen
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1864
Schuchardt 1851 C 63-64 307
Author / EditorChristian Schuchardt
TitleLucas Cranach des Aeltern Leben und Werke. Zweiter Theil
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1851
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schuchardt1851bd2

Description/ Interpretation/ Comments

'Cranach probably received advice from a theologian regarding the basic reformist idea illustrated in this didactic image. The inspiration presumably came from Melanchthon, as he writes in a letter to Stigel, that he tended to provide Cranach with biblical subject matter to illustrate...'

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932, 64]

Whereas the Cranach workshop subsequently only drew upon the pictorial type represented by the Prague version for graphic works, the pictorial formula employed for the panel in Gotha prevailed in painted versions. Examples are the panel from Königsberg (East Prussia) (1532), now lost, a version in Nuremberg (about 1535) [DE_BStGS-GNMN_Gm220; DE_BStGS-GNMN_Gm221], a work created in 1536 and auctioned in 2014 at Christies (New York), as well as a version in Weimar (1539) [DE_KSW_G12a] and Wittenberg(about 1550) (Cat. No. 47).

[Benjamin D. Spira, in Exhib. Cat. Gotha/Kassel 2015, 170]

  • Damnation and Redemption, 1529

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Technical studies

08.04.2013Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

Identification of wood species:

"lime wood - dating not possible"

[Exhib. Cat. Gotha 1994, 214]

  • analysed by Peter Klein

04. 2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Materials:

- dry drawing material and pointed brush (?)

Type/Ductus:

- freehand underdrawing

Function:

- binding for the final painted version; lines delineate contours and describe the essential features; no representation of volume

Deviations:

- minor alterations made during the painting process

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- not possible

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]

  • photographed by Gunnar Heydenreich
  • photographed by Ingo Sandner

Conservation History

Date1998 - 1999

  • conservation
  • conservation
  • conservation
  • conservation
  • conservation
  • conservation
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  • conservation

Summary of treatment report (see pdf for complete version in German):

  • areas of paint loss

  • large areas of overpaint and retouches

  • yellowed/patchy varnish

Summary of treatment report (see pdf for complete version in German):

  • varnish removal (with acetone)

  • removal of the overpaint and the old retouching (with acetone)

  • open splits filled

  • retouching (in water-colour)

  • application of the final varnish (Dammar)

  • conservation treatment by Angela Möller
  • photographed by D. Demme

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'Damnation and Redemption', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_SMG_SG676/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'Damnation and Redemption', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_SMG_SG676/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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