Lucretia

Lucretia

Titles

Lucretia

[CDA 2010]

Lucretia

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, 118, No. 239]

Painting on wood

Medium

Painting on wood

[Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]

beech wood

[Klein, Report 1997]
[http://bpkgate.picturemaxx.com/; 17.05.2010]
[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, 118, No. 239]
[Posse 1942, 61, No. 84]

Lucretia stands on stony ground against a black background. She wears a golden bonnet and necklace and is otherwise unclothed except for a veil around her hips, which she holds with her left hand. She points a dagger at her breast with her right hand.

[Gemäldegalerie Berlin, Unsinn 2010]

Attributions
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Hans Cranach

Attributions

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]
[http://bpkgate.picturemaxx.com/; 17.05.2010]
[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, 118, No. 239]
[Posse 1942, 61, No. 84]

Hans Cranach

[Flechsig 1900 A, 274, No. 60]

Production date
1533

Production date

1533

[dated]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 37.3 x 23.9 x 0.5 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 37.3 x 23.9 x 0.5 cm

  • Dimensions of painted surface: 36 x 22.5 cm

  • Dimensions including frame: 46.3 x 33.3 cm

  • [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]

Signature / Dating
Artist's insignia bottom left: winged serpent with elevated wings and dated '1533'

Signature / Dating

  • Artist's insignia bottom left: winged serpent with elevated wings and dated '1533'

Owner
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
Repository
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
Location
Berlin
CDA ID
DE_smbGG_1832
FR (1978) Nr.
FR239
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_smbGG_1832/

Provenance

  • 1917 bequest from the heirs of the painter Ludwig Knaus
    [Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]

  • Kaiser Friedrich Museum, Berlin
    [Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932, 66, No. 197]

Location since 1945 until its return to Berlin:
Merkers/Kaiserode mine
Wiesbaden
Washington
Wiesbaden
Berlin-Dahlem

[Gemäldegalerie, revised 2010]

Exhibitions

Berlin 1898, 34
Dresden 1899, No. 60
Berlin 1937, 36, No. 96
Berlin 1973, No. 8
Chemnitz 2005/6, 79, Plate 30

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure/Plate
Heydenreich 2015 122 Fig. 4e
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleHans Cranach. Auf der Suche nach seinem verlorenen Oeuvre
Publicationin Elke E. Werner, Anne Eusterschulte, Gunnar Heydenreich, eds., Lucas Cranach der Jüngere und die Reformation der Bilder
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2015
Link https://lucascranach.org/application/files/5415/6232/3883/Heydenreich_2015_-_Hans_Cranach.pdf
Pages116 -127
Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007 354 p. 354
EditorBodo Brinkmann
TitleCranach der Ältere, [Frankfurt, Städel Museum, 23 Nov 2007 - 17 Feb 2008]
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Heydenreich 2007 A 399
AuthorGunnar Heydenreich
TitleLucas Cranach the Elder
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
Year of Publication2007
Link https://lucascranach.org/application/files/6116/2097/3099/Heydenreich_2007_Lucas_Cranach_the_Elder.pdf
Cat. Frankfurt 2005 Fig. 153
AuthorStephan Kemperdick, Bodo Brinkmann
EditorStädelsches Kunstinstitut
TitleDeutsche Gemälde im Städel 1500-1550
Place of PublicationMainz
Year of Publication2005
Widmaier-Picasso 2005 79 Pl. 30
AuthorDiana Widmaier-Picasso
TitlePicasso und Cranach der Ältere. Kunst als Lebenskraft
Publicationin Harald Marx, Ingrid Mössinger, Karin Kolb, ed., Cranach. Exhib. Cat. Chemnitz
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication2005
Pages64-77
Bierende 2002
AuthorEdgar Bierende
TitleLucas Cranach d.Ä. und der deutsche Humanismus. Tafelmalerei im Kontext von Rhetorik, Chroniken und Fürstenspiegeln
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication2002
Follak 2002
AuthorJan Follak
TitleLucretia zwischen positiver und negativer Anthropologie: Coluccio Salutatis Declamatio Lucretie und die Menschenbilder im exemplum der Lucretia von der Antike bis in die Neuzeit
Place of PublicationKonstanz
Year of Publication2002
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:352-opus-9144
Scribner 1998 93ff.
AuthorBob Scribner
TitleWays of seeing in the age of Dürer
Publicationin Dagmar Eichberger, Charles Zika, eds., Dürer and his culture
Place of PublicationCambridge Mass.
Year of Publication1998
Cat. Berlin 1996 34, 35 Fig. 74
AuthorRainald Grosshans, Henning Bock
EditorStaatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie
TitleGemäldegalerie Berlin. Gesamtverzeichnis
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1996
Klein 1994 A 196, 198 Tabs. 4, 5
AuthorPeter Klein
TitleLucas Cranach und seine Werkstatt. Holzarten und dendrochronologische Analyse
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhoff, eds.,Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Coburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages194-200
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 118 No. 239 Fig. 239
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 660
AuthorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Schade 1974 Plate 148
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleDie Malerfamilie Cranach
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1974
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schade1974
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1973 No. 8
AuthorWilhelm H. Köhler, Frank Steigerwald
TitleLucas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Druckgraphik
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1973
Posse 1943 31, 62 No. 84
AuthorHans Posse
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä.
Place of PublicationVienna
IssueSecond edition
Year of Publication1943
Posse 1942 31, 62 No. 84
AuthorHans Posse
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä.
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1942
Exhib. Cat. Berlin 1937 36 096 Pl. 73
EditorStaatliche Museen, Berlin
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. und Lucas Cranach d. J. Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Graphik
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1937
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 66 197
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Flechsig 1900 A 254 No. 60
AuthorEduard Flechsig
TitleCranachstudien
Volume1
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1900
Link page/n5/mode/2up
Exhib. Cat. Dresden 1899 No. 60
EditorKarl Woermann
TitleDeutsche Kunstausstellung Dresden 1899. Abteilung Cranach-Ausstellung. Wissenschaftliches Verzeichnis der ausgestellten Werke
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1899
Link http://resolver.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/SBB00002A2400000000

Description/ Interpretation/ Comments

The painting depicts Lucretia as a standing, full-length nude figure.

Lucretia’s body is shown frontally and her left leg is slightly bent. Her face is tilted to the left, whereas she gazes into the far distance. She points a long dagger at herself with her right hand. The tip is directed upwards touching her below her right breast. In her left hand Lucretia holds a transparent veil, which falls over her lower right arm and thus covers her vulva. However the veil is so transparent that it does not conceal her vulva. In addition to the veil she wears a necklace and her hair is pinned up under a bonnet.

The background is dark and neutral, but Lucretia does stand on stony ground.

According to the legend Lucretia lived in the 6th century BC and was the beautiful and virtuous wife of the roman Collatinus. The roman King's son - Sextus Tarquinius fell in love with her. During a stay in her house Sextus threatened to kill her and shame her honour if she did not surrender to him. After the rape Lucretia had her father and husband vow vengeance and then she stabbed herself. The event led to an uprising in which the royal family was overthrown and the Roman Empire became a Republic.

Depictions of Lucretia who was seen as the epitomy of female virtue, chastity, fidelity and honour enjoyed great popularity, particularly in the 16th century.

[Literature: Bierende 2002, Follak 2002, Livius 1909]

[Herrschaft, cda 2010]

The depiction of Lucretia in Vienna (FR238), which is dated '1532' is the same format and type. It may have served as a prototype for this painting. In addition to these two small format full-length depictions of Lucretia Cranach also painted a life-size nude depiction of Lucretia (FR358, FR240).

[Herrschaft, cda 2010]

  • Lucretia, 1533

Images

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Technical studies

02. 2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr

Underdrawing

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Materials:

- the drawing material could not be clearly identified

Type/Ductus:

- possibly a freehand underdrawing; barely visible

- thin lines

Function:

- binding for the final painted version; occasional lines describe inner forms; no representation of volume

Deviations:

- none apparent

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- not possible

[Smith, Sandner, Heydenreich, cda 2012]

  • photographed by Gunnar Heydenreich
  • photographed by Ingo Sandner

2010Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

- beech wood

- the panel consists of one plank

- the annual rings counted are dated between1531-1400

According to the most recent examination carried out by Dr. Peter Klein the wood is from the same tree as that of the following panels:

- Melanchthon, private collection

- Philipp Melanchthon, Berlin 619; DE_smbGG_619_FR314-315F

- Portrait of Martin Luther, Berlin 617; DE_smbGG_617_FR314-315F

- Frederick the Wise, New York 46.179.1

- The Ill-matched Lovers, Berlin 1606; DE_smbGG_1606_FR-none

- Portrait of a man, KAC, 31.112(Brett I-III); US_NAMAKC_31-112_FR415

- Christ crowned with Thorns, Bremen Roselius-Haus, B 56 (Brett I + II); DE_KBSB_B56_FR381F

- The Disciples Taking Leave of Christ, Stockholm NM 254 (Brett II + III)

- Eve, Chicago 1935.295 (Brett I + II)

- The three Electors of Saxony, Hamburger Kunsthalle 60

(Linker Flügel + rechter Flügel); DE_HKH_HK-606a_FR338; DE_HKH_HK-606c_FR338

- Portrait of Ernst, Duke of Saxony, Berlin, II 55 (Brett I+II); DE_smbGG_55-2 _FR-none

- Martin Luther, DON, 727

Ground and Imprimatura

- there is no barbe along the edge of the painted surface. The ground and paint extend to the edge of the panel.

[Handwritten annotation in the documentation file]

  • written by Christine Unsinn

17.02.1997Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

Identification of wood species: beech wood

Youngest annual ring: 1531

  • analysed by Peter Klein

07. 1987Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared photography
  • irr
  • photographed by Fotowerkstatt, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin

11.06.1979Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

  • written by Peter Klein
  • X-radiography
  • x_radiograph
  • x_radiograph
  • created by Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'Lucretia', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_smbGG_1832/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'Lucretia', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_smbGG_1832/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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