A Stag-hunt with Elector Johann Friedrich

A Stag-hunt with Elector Johann Friedrich

Titles

A Stag-hunt with Elector Johann Friedrich

[cda 2013]

Elector Johann Friedrich Hunting

[Cat. Vienna 1928, 58-59, No. 1468] [cda 2013]

Karl V. auf der Jagd

[Cat. Vienna 1892, 385-386, No. 1532]

Großes Jagd-Stück

[Inventory from 1772 (see provenance), Gallery Floor No. 76, Archive KHM, Direktion der Gemäldegalerie]

Hirschjagd bei Neuburg an der Donau

[Inventory of Leopold Wilhelm 1659 (see provenance), No. 350]

Painting on lime wood (Tilia sp.)

Medium

Painting on lime wood (Tilia sp.)

[Klein, Report 2013]
[Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2013]

Elector Johann Friedrich of Saxony (1503-1554) is depicted taking part in a stag hunt near his residence in Torgau. Among the numerous participants portrayed Emperor Charles V. (1500 - 1558) can be seen at the left edge. The stags are chivied to the water by dogs and beaters on horseback.

Elector Johann Friedrich of Saxony (1503-1554) is depicted taking part in a stag hunt near his residence in Torgau. Among the numerous participants portrayed Emperor Charles V. (1500 - 1558) can be seen at the left edge. The stags are chivied to the water by dogs and beaters on horseback. Behind the trees in the foreground the archers draw their crossbows in readiness to slay the game. Schloss Hartenfels, the electoral residence, is centrally located on the horizon. Somewhat smaller, but recognizable, the churches of the town of Torgau on the Elbe are visible.

[Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2013]

[Smith, translation 2013]

Attributions
Lucas Cranach the Younger
Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attributions

Lucas Cranach the Younger

[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, No. 412C]
[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932, No. 331b]
[Cat. Vienna 1928, 58-59, No. 1468]
[Cat. Vienna 1896, 427, No. 1468]
[Scheibler 1887, 297-298]
[Schuchardt 1851 A, Bd. 2, 138, No. 439]

Lucas Cranach the Elder with the assistance of Cranach the Younger
[Cat. Vienna 1886, Bd. III., 52, No. 1481]

Lucas Cranach the Elder

Lucas Cranach the Elder
[Cat. Vienna 1837, 199, No. 36]; [Cat. Vienna 1907, 339, No. 1468]

'Original von Lucas Crainich'
[Inventory of Leopold Wilhelm 1659 (see provenance), No. 350]

Lucas Cranach the Elder with the assistance of Cranach the Younger
[Cat. Vienna 1886, Bd. III., 52, No. 1481]

Production date
1544

Production date

1544

[dated]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 116.2/ 116.3 (l.) 116.0 (r.) x 176.4 (t./b.) cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 116.2/ 116.3 (l.) 116.0 (r.) x 176.4 (t./b.) cm

  • Dimensions of painted surface: 116.2/ 116.3 (l.) 116.0 (r.) x 173.8 (t.) 174.5 (b.) cm

  • Dimensions including frame: 116 x 176.5 x 7.7 cm

  • [Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2013]

Signature / Dating
Artist's insignia in the bottom right corner (on the boat): winged serpent with dropped wings and ring facing left and dated '1544'; in black paint

Signature / Dating

  • Artist's insignia in the bottom right corner (on the boat): winged serpent with dropped wings and ring facing left and dated '1544'; in black paint

  • [Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2013]

Inscriptions and Labels
Coat of arms, top left: Electoral Palatinate Coat of arms, top right: Electoral Saxony (http://www.wappenbuch.de/pages/wappen_3_Siebmacher.htm) Reverse of the panel/cradle: - on the …

Inscriptions and Labels

Inscriptions, Badges:

  • Coat of arms, top left: Electoral Palatinate
  • Coat of arms, top right: Electoral Saxony
  • [see Johann Siebmachers Wappen-Buch, fol. 3](http://www.wappenbuch.de/pages/wappen_3_Siebmacher.htm)

Stamps, Seals, Labels:

  • Reverse of the panel/cradle:
  • - on the horizontal cradle batten, top right:
  • in pencil: '11. IV. 552'
  • - on the horizontal cradle batten, bottom right:
  • printed paper label: 'Direktion der Gemäldegalerie, Kunsthistorisches Staatsmuseum, Inv. Nr. 856'
  • [Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2013]
Owner
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Repository
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Location
Vienna
CDA ID
AT_KHM_GG856
FR (1978) Nr.
FR412C
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/AT_KHM_GG856/

Provenance

  • first recorded in the Imperial Collection in Vienna in the inventory of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm 1659
    [Source: No. 350 'Ein grosses Stuckh von Öhlfarb auf Holcz, warin ein Wasserjacht von Hierschen bey Neüburg ahn der Donnaw, warbey Caroli Vti vnd anderer Chur- vndt Fürsten vnd deren Gemahlin Contrafait seindt. In einer schwartzen Ramen, hoch 6 Span 2 Finger vnndt 8 Span 9 Finger braidt. Original von Lucas Crainich (A large piece in oil paint and wood, on which a water hunt of stags near Neuburg on the Danube [is depicted], whereby Charles V. and other electors and their wives are portrayed. In a black frame, 6 span and 2 fingers high and 8 span and 9 fingers wide. Original by Lucas Crainich)', in: 'Inventarium aller vnndt jeder Ihrer hochfürstlichen Durchleücht Herrn Herrn Leopoldt Wilhelmen [...] zue Wienn vorhandenen Mahllereyen [...]', written on 14.6.1659 by Anton van der Baren, formerly Krumau, Fürstl. Schwarzenbergsches central archive., publish by: [Berger, Adolf (1883): Regest 495, in: Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des Allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses, Jg. 1, S. LXXXVI¿CLXXVII]

1772 Stallburg Vienna, Store room
[Source: Gallery Floor No. 76: 'Grosses Jagd-Stück, eine Copey (large Hunting Scene, a copy)', in: 'Inventarium über Die in der Kaiserl. königl. bilder-Gallerie vorhandene Bilder und gemälde 1772', KHM, archive in the Gemäldegalerie]

1801 Schloß Laxenburg, decorative furnishing
[Source: 'Nota. Aus dem k.k. Bilder Depositorium übersendte Bilder in das Ritter Schloß nach Laxenbourg. [...] 1 Stück Eine Landschaft mit Figuren alt teutscher Tracht. [...] Wien d. 21 April 1801.', GG Archive, Gallery file, Mappe 1805-1820, sub IV/ 199; [Cat. Vienna 1886, Bd. III, 53]

Imperial palace am Rennweg, Vienna
[Cat. Vienna 1886, Bd. III, 53]

1837 Belvedere, Imperial Picture Gallery
[Cat. Vienna 1837, 199, No. 36]

1892 Kunsthistorisches Hofmuseum, Burgring 5, Picture Gallery
[Cat. Vienna 1892, 385-386, No. 1532]

[Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2013]

Exhibitions

Graz 1949
Graz 1953
Vienna 1972
Vienna 2000

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure/Plate
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EditorJulia Carrasco, Justus Lange, Benjamin D. Spira, Timo Trümper, Stiftung Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha
TitleBild und Botschaft. Cranach im Dienst von Hof und Reformation, [Gotha, Herzogliches Museum; Kassel, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Schloss Wilhelmshöhe]
Place of PublicationHeidelberg
Year of Publication2015
Hoppe-Harnoncourt 2015 155-157, 160, 162, 163, 165 Figs. 1, 2, 5
AuthorAlice Hoppe-Harnoncourt
TitleLucas Cranach der Jüngere? Überlegungen zu zwei datierten Werken aus dem Kunsthistoriachen Museum in Wien
Publicationin Elke E. Werner, Anne Eusterschulte, Gunnar Heydenreich, eds., Lucas Cranach der Jüngere und die Reformation der Bilder
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2015
Pages154-167
Müller 2009 B 107-108
AuthorMatthias Müller
TitleArchitektonische Spurenlese in einer untergegangenen Residenzlandschaft. Eine Annäherung an die brandenburgische Residenzarchitektur des 16. Jahrhunderts und ein Ausblick auf Cranachs gemalte Schlossdarstellungen.
Publicationin Stiftung Preußische Schlösser und Gärten Berlin-Brandenburg, Evangelische Kirchengemeinde St. Petri-St.Marien, eds., Cranach und die Kunst der Renaissance unter den Hohenzollern - Kirche, Hof und Stadtkultur [Berlin, Schloss Charlottenburg]
Place of PublicationGöttingen
Year of Publication2009
Pages99-109
Pérez d'Ors 2005 8, 16
AuthorPablo Pérez d'Ors
TitleDos Cacerás de Lucas Cranach el Viejo en el Museo del Prado. Nuevos datos sobre las dos escenas de caza: historia material, obras similares y claves para su interpretación iconográfica e iconológica
JournalBoletín del Museo del Prado
Issue23, No.. 41
Year of Publication2005
Pages6-22
Exhib. Cat. Torgau 2004 159
EditorHarald Marx, Eckhard Kluth, Cecilie Hollberg
TitleGlaube und Macht. Sachsen im Europa der Reformationszeit. 2. Sächsische Landesaussellung Schloss Hartenfels Torgau
Volume1-2
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication2004
Hancke 2004 49, 53-54 Fig. 8; Detail Fig. 10
AuthorHansjochen Hancke
TitleDas Torgauer Stadtbild und die Ansichten von Lucas Cranach
Publicationin Tilmann von Stockhausen, Cecilie Hollberg, eds., Torgau - Stadt der Renaissance. [Exhib. Cat. Torgau]
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication2004
Pages49-57
Müller 2004 348-349
AuthorMatthias Müller
TitleDas Schloß als Bild des Fürsten. Herrschaftliche Metaphorik in der Residenzarchitektur des Alten Reichs
SeriesHistorische Semantik
Volume6
Place of PublicationGöttingen
Year of Publication2004
Schulze 2004 78-82, 86-87 Fig. p. 86
AuthorIngrid Schulze
TitleLucas Cranach d. J. und die protestantische Bildkunst in Sachsen und Thüringen. Frömmigkeit, Theologie, Fürstenreformation
Place of PublicationBucha near Jena
Year of Publication2004
Exhib. Cat. Bonn, Vienna 2000 330-331 No. 372
EditorAusstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Bonn, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Wien, Petra Kruse
TitleKaiser Karl V. (1500-1558). Macht und Ohnmacht Europas
Place of PublicationMilan
Year of Publication2000
Roch-Lemmer 2000 222
AuthorIrene Roch-Lemmer
TitleSchloß Mansfeld auf Cranach-Gemälden
Publicationin Rosemarie Knape, ed., Martin Luther und der Bergbau im Mansfelder Land. Aufsätze [Exhib. Cat. Eisleben; "... Von Daher Bin Ich" - Martin Luther und der Bergbau im Mansfelder Land]
SeriesStiftung Luthergedenkstätten in Sachsen-Anhalt
Volume7
Place of PublicationEisleben
Year of Publication2000
Pages219-225
Malacarne 1998 50 colour fig.
AuthorGiancarlo Malacarne
TitleLe cacce del principe. L'ars venandi nella terra dei Gonzaga
SeriesIl giardino delle Esperidi
Volume8
Place of PublicationModena
Year of Publication1998
Hagen 1995 54-59 colour fig.; detail
AuthorRose-Marie Hagen, Rainer Hagen
TitleBildbefragungen. Meisterwerke im Detail
SeriesBildbefragungen
Volume2
Place of PublicationCologne
Year of Publication1995
Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994 311, 371
EditorClaus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhoff
TitleLucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken [Festung Rosenberg, Kronach 17.05 - 21.08.1994; Museum der Bildenden Künste, Leipzig 07.09 - 06.11.1994]
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Coburg
Year of Publication1994
Grimm 1994 33
AuthorClaus Grimm
TitleLucas Cranach 1994
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhoff, eds., Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Regensburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages18-43
Stievermann 1994 67 Fig. A34 (detail)
AuthorDieter Stievermann
TitleLucas Cranach und der Kursächsische Hof
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhoff, eds., Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Coburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages66-77
Cat. Vienna 1991 47 Plate 598
AuthorWolfgang von Prohaska, Sylvia Ferino-Pagden
EditorKarl Schütz
TitleDie Gemäldegalerie des Kunsthistorischen Museums in Wien. Verzeichnis der Gemälde
SeriesFührer durch das Kunsthistorische Museum
Volume40
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1991
Cat. Cleveland 1982 163-165 Fig. 66b
EditorSherman Emery Lee
TitleEuropean Paintings of the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries. Catalogue of Paintings
Place of PublicationCleveland
Year of Publication1982
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 412C
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Exhib. Cat. Basel 1974/1976 203, 771, Fn. 22 Fig. 106
AuthorDieter Koepplin, Tilman Falk
TitleLukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Link http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-diglit-104522
Koepplin 1974 C 196
AuthorDieter Koepplin
TitleV. Humanistisch-höfische Repräsentation in Kursachsen seit 1505.
Publicationin Dieter Koepplin, ed., Lukas Cranach. Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Druckgraphik.
Place of PublicationBasel, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1974
Pages185-217
Schade 1974 94
AuthorWerner Schade
TitleDie Malerfamilie Cranach
Place of PublicationDresden
Year of Publication1974
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schade1974
Cat. Vienna 1973 51 Pl. 131
EditorKlaus Demus
TitleVerzeichnis der Gemälde
SeriesFührer durch das Kunsthistorische Museum
Volume18
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1973
Exhib. Cat. Vienna 1972 31-32 No. 25
AuthorKarl Schütz
EditorKunsthistorisches Museum, Wien
TitleLucas Cranach der Ältere und seine Werkstatt. Jubiläumsausstellung museumseigener Werke 1472-1972
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1972
Hilger 1969 129
AuthorWolfgang Hilger
TitleIkonographie Kaiser Ferdinands I (1503 - 1564)
SeriesVeröffentlichungen der Kommission für Geschichte Österreichs
Volume3
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1969
Osten, Vey 1969 208
AuthorGert von der Osten, Horst Vey
TitlePainting and sculpture in Germany and the Netherlands 1500 to 1600
SeriesPelican History of Art
Volume31
Place of PublicationHarmondsworth, Middlesex
Year of Publication1969
Cat. Vienna 1963 39-40 No. 117
Authorn. a.
TitleKatalog der Gemäldegalerie. 2, Vlamen, Holländer, Deutsche, Franzosen
SeriesFührer durch das Kunsthistorische Museum
Volume8/2
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1963
Sternelle 1963 20, 30 Plate 9
AuthorKurt Sternelle
TitleDie Jagd in der Kunst. Lucas Cranach d. Ä.
SeriesDie Jagd in der Kunst
Place of PublicationHamburg
Year of Publication1963
Francis 1959 204, Fn. 14
AuthorM. S. Francis
TitleThe stag hunt by Lucas Cranach the Elder and Lucas Cranach the Younger
JournalBulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art
Issue46
Year of Publication1959
Pages198-205
Oberhammer 1959 No. 22 Plate 22
EditorVinzenz Oberhammer
TitleDie Gemäldegalerie des Kunsthistorischen Museums. 1. Halbband: Malerei nördlich der Alpen XV. - XVII. Jahrhundert. 100 Tafeln
Place of PublicationVienna, Munich
Year of Publication1959
Cat. Vienna 1958 38-39 No. 117
AuthorFriederike Klauner, Günther Heinz
TitleKatalog der Gemäldegalerie II. Teil: Vlamen, Holländer, Deutsche, Franzosen.
SeriesFührer durch das Kunsthistorische Museum
Volume7
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1958
Exhib. Cat. Graz 1953 27-28 No. 41 Fig. 14
EditorLandesmuseum Joanneum, Graz
TitleDürer und seine Zeit. Meisterwerke der deutschen Malerei des 16. Jahrhunderts. Sonderausstellung der Gemäldegalerie des Kunsthistorischen Museums, Wien im Steiermärkischen Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz [Steiermärkischen Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz]
Place of PublicationGraz
Year of Publication1953
Exhib. Cat. Graz 1949 11 No. 5
EditorSteirische Landesjägerschaft, Steiermärkisches Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz
TitleÖsterreich Jagd einst und jetzt. 25. Steirische Landesjagdausstellung 1949 [Schloss Eggenberg, Graz]
Place of PublicationGraz
Year of Publication1949
Lilienfein 1942 86 Fig. 121
AuthorHeinrich Lilienfein
TitleLukas Cranach und seine Zeit
Place of PublicationBielefeld
Year of Publication1942
Zimmermann E. H. 1942 B 36
AuthorErnst Heinrich Zimmermann
TitleBeiträge zur Ikonographie Cranachscher Bildnisse
JournalZeitschrift des deutschen Vereins für Kunstwissenschaft
Issue9
Year of Publication1942
Pages23-52
Zimmermann E. H. 1941 31
AuthorErnst Heinrich Zimmermann
TitleEin zerstörtes Jagdbild L. Cranachs d. J.
JournalZeitschrift des deutschen Vereins für Kunstwissenschaft
Issue8
Year of Publication1941
Pages31-36
Cat. Vienna 1938 43 No. 1468
Authorn. a.
TitleKunsthistorisches Museum: Katalog der Gemäldegalerie
SeriesFührer durch das Kunsthistorische Museum
Volume8
Place of PublicationVienna
IssueSecond edition
Year of Publication1938
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 91 331b
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Baldass 1928 76, Fn. 2
AuthorLudwig von Baldass
TitleCranachs Büssender Hieronymus von 1502
JournalJahrbuch der Preußischen Kunstsammlungen
Issue49
Year of Publication1928
Pages76-81
Cat. Vienna 1928 58-59 No. 1468
Authorn. a.
TitleKunsthistorisches Museum: Katalog der Gemäldegalerie
SeriesFührer durch die Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien
Volume8
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1928
Cat. Vienna 1907 339 No. 1468
Authorn. a.
TitleKunsthistorische Sammlungen des allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses: Die Gemäldegalerie. Alte Meister
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1907
Baillie-Grohman 1904 158
AuthorW. A. Baillie-Grohman
TitleAncient Weapons of the Chase. Article II.
JournalBurlington Magazine
IssueIV, No. 11
Year of Publication1904
Pages157-167
Cat. Vienna 1896 B 427 No. 1468
Authorn. a.
TitleKunsthistorische Sammlungen des allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses: Die Gemälde-Galerie. Alte Meister. Mit 120 Illustrationen
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1896
Cat. Vienna 1892 385-386 No. 1532
Authorn. a.
TitleKunsthistorische Sammlungen des allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses: Führer durch die Gemäldegalerie. I. Theil. Gemälde alter Meister
Volume1
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1892
Scheibler 1887 297-298, 299
AuthorLudwig Scheibler
TitleÜber altdeutsche Gemälde in der kaiserlichen Galerie zu Wien
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
Issue10
Year of Publication1887
Link http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/artdok/volltexte/2014/2652
Pages271-306
Cat. Vienna 1886 52-53 (Bd. III) No. 1481
AuthorEduard von Engerth
TitleGemälde. Beschreibendes Verzeichnis. Kunsthistorische Sammlungen des Allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses
Volume1 - 3
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1886
Waagen 1866 164 No. 36
AuthorGustav Friedrich Waagen
TitleDie vornehmsten Kunstdenkmäler in Wien. Erster Theil: Die k.k. Gemälde-Sammlungen im Schloss Belvedere und in der k.k. Kunst-Akademie, Die Privatsammlungen
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1866
Cat. Vienna 1858 116 No. 36
AuthorErasmus Engert
TitleCatalog der k.k. Gemäldegallerie im Belvedere zu Wien
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1858
Schuchardt 1851 C 138 430
AuthorChristian Schuchardt
TitleLucas Cranach des Aeltern Leben und Werke. Zweiter Theil
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1851
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schuchardt1851bd2
Cat. Vienna 1837 199 No. 36
AuthorAlbrecht Krafft
EditorKunsthistorisches Museum, Wien
TitleVerzeichniss der kais. kön. Gemälde-Gallerie im Belvedere zu Wien
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1837

Description/ Interpretation/ Comments

The painting first entered the Imperial Gallery’s public collection in 1837 and was classified as a work by Lucas Cranach the Elder. [1] Schuchardt attributed the stag hunt to the younger Cranach on the basis of stylistic criteria.[2] Whereas Engerth conjectured that the son assisted only with the ‚accessories‘ Scheibler agreed with Schuchardt’s attribution.[3] In the Museum guide from 1896 Scheibler’s opinion is accepted, however it was retracted in the reprint from 1907. At length since 1928 the Stag-hunt has been attributed to Lucas Cranach the Younger in the catalogues of the Kunsthistorischen Museum.[4] Friedländer and Rosenberg view the painting in Vienna, as well as the Stag-hunt, dated 1540 and now in Cleveland, as variants after the painting in Madrid from 1545 and are inclined to consider it ‚preferably‘ as a work by Lucas Cranach the Younger, whereas they attribute the later paintings in Madrid to the Elder.[5]

The electoral pair from Saxony, Johann Friedrich and Sibylle, as well as their most prominent guest Emperor Charles V are clearly recognizable.[6] In the background the castle Hartenfels and the town of Torgau can be easily identified.[7] From 1928 it was assumed that not Charles V. but his brother King Ferdinand (later Emperor Ferdinand I.) was among the hunting guests.[8] In 1969 Hilger pointed out that King Ferdinand did not grow a beard until after 1547 and that therefore it could only be Charles V. portrayed in this hunting scene.[9] Friedrich II of the Pfalz can be seen directly in front of the emperor.[10] The Golden Fleece as well as the coat-of-arms of the Electoral Palatinate in the top left corner support this assumption.[11]

There are various suggestions regarding the identity of the crossbow archer in greyish blue clothing standing beneath the tree: Oberhammer assumes it is Duke Ernst of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (1497-1546).[12] The other suggestion is that Duke Philipp I of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (1476-1551) could be the archer under the tree.[13]

The hunt was already the subject of artistic expression at the court of Emperor Maximilian I. by about 1500 (see Jörg Kölderer, ‚Stag-hunt on the Long Lawn near Innsbruck, Illustration in Emperor Maximilians I.’s ‘Tirol Hunting Book, 1500). Therefore from the beginning of his career as court painter in Wittenberg Cranach also dealt with this subject. His earliest Hunting Scene is a large woodcut, dated to 1506 (Bartsch 119): The composition of a hunt in the countryside, shown from a high viewpoint, can already be found quite early in Cranach’s repertoire. It may be assumed that numerous such depictions were executed on ‚tuchlein‘ or as wall-paintings for decorative purposes and have not been preserved.[14] There are however some panel paintings and fragments of hunting scenes which have survived from the Cranach workshop: The earlier ones can be dated about 1530 (e.g. Kunsthistorisches Museum, GG-3560; Kopenhagen, Statens Museum for Kunst, Inv. KMSsp728; Linköping, Länsmuseet Östergötland, Inv. B. 244; Glasgow, Burell Coll.). The later versions are from the 1540s and are with dimensions of c. 115 x 170 cm larger formats: among these are, in addition to the painting discussed, one from the castle of Moritzburg from 1540 (now in Cleveland), a panel in the Prado from 1544 and another painting also there from the year 1545 (see related works).

The paintings created in the 1540s are not only similar in size and composition, all four also depict the castle of Hartenfels and the electoral pair Johann Friedrich and Sybille of Saxony among the participants at the hunt.

The hunting scenes in Cleveland (1540) and the Prado (1544) show, although not quite accurate in detail, the south east elevation of the castle complex.[15]

A different elevation is shown in the painting discussed here from 1544 and the second painting from 1545 in Madrid: here the Northeast facade facing the Elbe is shown and to the left the whole Johann-Friedrich wing (as such the prominent ‚green tower‘ occupies a central position). A further feature of this wing is the ‚bottle tower‘ with its winding stair. The castle chapel, rising over three floors, is located in the right section of the wing, and as the first new protestant church building was consecrated by Martin Luther on the 5th of October 1544.[16]

It has already been established that an historical hunting scene has not been documented, as Charles V. was never in Torgau before the Battle of Mühlberg.[17] The hunting scenes from the 1540s were conceived as gifts for other ruling houses and should convey a symbolic statement: the commissioner of the painting, Johann Friedrich of Sachsen, was the commander of the Schmalkaldic League, the military alliance of protestant landlords in opposition to the emperor. In the painting the opposing parties are shown hunting together. The recently modernized castle of Hartenfels, positioned centrally in the background, is shown as a representative residence but also as the centre of the new faith. In the years before the Schmalkaldic war there was still hope, that the question of faith could be peacefully resolved with Charles V. It was not until after the Battle of Mühlberg that this option no longer existed under Charles V. The hunting scenes in Madrid and Vienna therefore convey the elector’s political ideal.[18] Represented as a hunter in front of his imposing residence the elector presents himself to the contemporary viewer as a wise, able and determined territorial prince, capable of asserting his religious political goals.[19]

[1] A. Krafft, Verzeichnis der Gemäldegalerie, Vienna 1837, p. 199, Cat. 36

[2] C. Schuchardt Lucas Cranach d. Ä. Leben und Werke, Leipzig 1851, Bd. 2, p. 138

[3] E. Engerth, Beschreibendes Verzeichnis, Kunsthist. Slg. d. a.h. Kaiserhauses. Bd. III Deutsche Schulen, Wien 1886, p. 52, No. 1481; L. Scheibler: Über altdeutsche Gemälde in der kaiserlichen Galerie zu Wien, in: Rep. f. Kw., 10, 1887, p. 297-299

[4] Cat. KHM 1896, 1907 and 1928, each with the No. 1468.

[5] Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979, under No. 412

[6] First by A. Krafft, Verzeichnis der Gemäldegalerie, Vienna 1837, Cat. 36

[7] First attributed by W. A. Baillie-Grohman, Ancient Weapons of the Chase, in: Burl. Magazine, IV, 11, 1904, p. 158

[8] Cat. KHM 1928, No. 1468

[9] Hilger, Wolfgang (1969): Ikonographie Kaiser Ferdinands I : (1503 - 1564). Wien: Böhlau (Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für Geschichte Österreichs, 3), p. 129; Hilger, Wolfgang (2003): "Das Bild vom König und Kaiser". Anmerkungen zu Verbreitung und Wirkungsgeschichte von Herrscherdarstellungen am Beispiel Ferdinands I. In: Seipel, Wilfried (ed.): Kaiser Ferdinand I. 1503 - 1564 ; das Werden der Habsburgermonarchie. Vienna, p. 231–241, p. 137-138

[10] Oberhammer, Vinzenz (ed.) (1959): Die Gemäldegalerie des Kunsthistorischen Museums. 1. Halbband: Malerei nördlich der Alpen XV. - XVII. Jahrhundert. 100 plates. Vienna, Munich, Text for plate 22

[11] The same coat-of-arms can be found in the glass salon (Gläsernen Saalbau) in the castle of Heidelberg (vgl. Wappen der Kurlinie Pfalz: http://www.dr-bernhard-peter.de/Heraldik/wittelsbach.htm), which was built by Friedrich II. (see http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heidelberger_Schloss). In 1544 Friedrich succeeded his brother in office as elector and arch-steward. He is also depicted in the painting in Madrid at the left behind the emperor. Compare also the portrait by an anonymous German artist: Count Palatine Friedrich II. (1482-1556), as a full-length figure, 1545, KHM, GG-8177.

[12] Oberhammer (1959), op. cit., Text for plate 22. He presumably orientated himself on Friedländer and Rosenberg’s identification of the man in the same position in the Madrid painting from 1545 [see Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932, No. 331 and 1979, No. 412] although this person in the Madrid painting can be correctly identified as Ernst of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen, as was suggested by Rosenberg 1934 and Zimmermann 1942 [E.H. Zimmermann, „Ein Bildnisentwurf Lucas Cranachs d. J.“, in: Berliner Museen, Bd. 63, Heft 1, 1942, p. 2-4, p. 4; J. Rosenberg, „Deutsche Bildniszeichnungen des XVI. Jahrhunderts im Museum zu Reims“, in: Jahrbuch der Preußischen Kunstsammlungen, Bd. 55, 1934, p. 181-191, p. 185]

[13] Zimmermann, E. Heinrich (1942): Beiträge zur Ikonographie Cranachscher Bildnisse. In: Zeitschrift des Deutschen Vereins für Kunstwissenschaft, Jg. 9, p. 23–52, p. 36

[14] Last: G. Messling in: AK Brüssel 2010, p. 129-130; B. Aikema in: AK Rom 2010, Kat. 1 und 2; Sternelle; AK Veste Coburg 2010, Apelles am Fürstenhof, bes. p. 208-223.

[15] The Johann-Friedrich wing can be seen, as it was designed and built by Konrad Krebs between 1533-36. On the right side the prominent ‘green tower’ with its onion-dome is recognizable. [S. Delang, Schloß Hartenfels Torgau, (Schnell, Kunstführer No. 2295), 1. edition 1997, p. 8-14; Findeisen, Peter; Magirius, Heinrich (ed.): Die Denkmale der Stadt Torgau. Leipzig 1976 (Die Denkmale im Bezirk Leipzig), p. 138-140, p. 147]

[16] see Dehio, Bezirke Dresden, Karl-Marx-Stadt, Leipzig, Berlin 1965, p. 403-405; Findeisen, Peter; Magirius, Heinrich (ed.): Die Denkmale der Stadt Torgau. Leipzig 1976 (Die Denkmale im Bezirk Leipzig), p. 172; Hancke, Hansjochen: Das Torgauer Stadtbild und die Ansichten von Lucas Cranach. In: Stockhausen, Tilmann von; Hollberg, Cecilie (ed.): Torgau - Stadt der Renaissance. Erschienen aus Anlass der 2. Sächsischen Landesausstellung in Torgau, [Schloß Hartenfels 24. May to 10 October 2004]. 2., revised Dresden 2004, p. 49–57, S. 53; Pérez d'Ors, Pablo: Dos Cacerás de Lucas Cranach el Viejo en el Museo del Prado. Nuevos datos sobre las dos escenas de caza: historia material, obras similares y claves para su interpretación iconográfica e iconológica. In: Boletín del Museo del Prado, vol. 23, 2008, p. 6–22, p. 8-10, 16.

[17] Among others: Schütz, Karl (1972): Lucas Cranach der Ältere und seine Werkstatt. Jubiläumsausstellung museumseigener Werke 1472 - 1972. Vienna 1972, Cat. 25.

[18] Pérez d'Ors, Pablo: Dos Cacerás de Lucas Cranach el Viejo en el Museo del Prado. Nuevos datos sobre las dos escenas de caza: historia material, obras similares y claves para su interpretación iconográfica e iconológica. In: Boletín del Museo del Prado, Vol. 23, 2005, p. 6–22, bes. p. 17-18; Schulze, Ingrid: Lucas Cranach d. J. und die protestantische Bildkunst in Sachsen und Thüringen. Frömmigkeit, Theologie, Fürstenreformation. 1. edition. Bucha bei Jena 2004 (Palmbaum-Texte, 13), p. 78-80.

[19] Matthias Müller makes reference to the regent ethics formulated in the contemporary ‚Mirrors for Princes‘ within the context oft he hunt. Müller, Matthias (2004): Das Schloß als Bild des Fürsten. Herrschaftliche Metaphorik in der Residenzarchitektur des Alten Reichs. Göttingen (Historische Semantik, 6), p. 348-349.

[Hoppe-Harnoncourt, Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2013]

  • A Stag-hunt with Elector Johann Friedrich, 1544

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Technical studies

08.04.2013Scientific analysis

  • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology

Support

Identification of wood species: lime wood (Tilia sp.)

  • analysed by Peter Klein

2013Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • X-radiography
  • Stereomicroscopy

Support

The support consists of 6 horizontally aligned lime wood planks.

The planks are – with the exception of plank I- almost the same width; the joins are not parallel to the edge of the painting. The dimensions of the planks are[1]:

I 4.9 (l.) 13.4 (r.) cm, II 22.2 (l.) 17.0 (r.) cm, III 21.9 (l.) 20.0 (r.) cm, IV 22.1 (l.) 23.1 (r.) cm, V 24.7 (l..) 22.9 (r.) cm, VI 20.8 (l.) 20.1 (r.) cm.

Wooden inserts added before the ground and paint application suggest that the wood employed was not without knots.

In the centre of plank I there is a rectangular wooden insert, the slightly diagonal grain conforms with that of the plank[2], in plank II below the castle there are two almost square wooden inserts[3].

The planks were presumably butt-joined in their original state, however due to an intervention in the 1950s, when the joins were opened and re-glued this cannot be confirmed with certainty.

Examination of the x-radiograph disproved the assumption from that time that the entire panel was covered with a linen fabric. At either side near the edge of the panel – however not specifically over joins [4] - an application of loose fibres was determined.

The original dimensions of the panel have been altered by cropping it at the top and bottom (at the bottom somewhat beyond the unpainted edge, and at the top somewhat more – see truncated coats-of-arms) and adding wooden battens.[5] The panel has been thinned to a thickness of 0.4-0.5 cm.

[1] Measured from top to bottom

[2] Height 3.1 cm l. / 2.8 cm r. x width 45.7 cm

[3] The dimensions of the left insert: height 2.2 cm x width 2.4 cm, and the right insert: height c. 2.7 cm x width 2.9 cm

[4] A series of x-radiographs were completed on selected areas of the painting therefore the precise location of the fibres can only be confirmed to a limited extent.

[5] each batten is 0.6 cm in width.

Ground and Imprimatura

- light ground (bulking material/binding medium were not analysed).

- the barbe from the ground and the unpainted edges have been preserved at the sides, these are 1.2 (t) 1.0 (b) cm in width at the left and 1.4 (t.) 0.9 (b.) cm at the right. On the bottom edge where more material was removed remnants of a barbe are visible at the left (Fig. Detail 02), no assertion could be made about the cropped top edge.

- a black – possibly original - line is occasionally visible along the side edges of the panel and it overlaps both the barbe and the unpainted edge.

- more recently the unpainted edges at the sides have been covered with a fill material and retouched, this addition was later partially removed.

Underdrawing

The infrared reflectogram reveals underdrawing predominantly in the townscape in the background. It appears to be executed in a fluid medium with a brush and defines the contours of the roofs and towers as well as the mountains.

In the area of the castle horizontal compositional lines were drawn at the height of the windows. The painted version deviates only slightly from these (during the painting process corrections were also carried out). A comparison of the painted version with the underdrawing shows that on the whole the indications were followed, however the position and height of towers and gables were in part changed.

On the horizon at the left the mountains were originally higher, the roofs were also higher and the towers were shifted to the side.

In the area of the river a few rapidly executed wavy lines and an addition boat, which was not carried out in the painted version are visible.

Along the contours of the trees on the lower riverbank the foliage was roughly indicated with a brush, which is also visible with the naked eye through the blue paint layers of the water (Fig. Detail 28). Similar observations have already been made on another painting attributed to Lucas Cranach the Elder GG 3523 Adam and Eve with a Stag.

On the infrared reflectogram large filled losses can be observed in some places along the joins.

Paint Layers and Gilding

The figures and their clothing as well as the animals are depicted in great detail. The flesh paint consists to a large extent of grey paint, whereby the flesh paint of the elector is particularly cool and contains hardly any red. The flesh paint of the other figures appears to have been underpainted in a grey admixture and subsequently variously nuanced with warmer red tones.

The hinds in the water appear to have been thinly painted and the light base tone of the water was employed for the heads, in other words the artist exploited the ground, toned only with a thin grey glaze. Over this countless single impasto hairs were applied with a very fine brush overlapping the surrounding paint.

The green areas were applied first in the sequence of paint application and the figures and animals followed. Finally the space in between was filled with grass blades or wavy lines where the stags are in water. Similarly the pebbles appear to have been painted last between the figures without overlapping.

The sky was evidently painted over a layer containing a high quantity of lead, exhibiting a high x-ray absorption. It becomes lighter and contains reddish tones nearer the horizon and has an increasingly higher blue content towards the top of the panel. The castle appears to have been executed over an underpainting that was still wet (see the brush strokes in the x-radiograph).

Along the contours of the hunters and the dogs as well as along the riverbank a local streaky application of grey underpaint is visible in the landscape that is not completely covered by the subsequent paint layers. The grey tone was presumably at the same time employed to indicate the shadows of the figures.

In the area of the trees a black base tone was initially applied with a bristled brush and green foliage was smudged over the in part wet paint with a dry brush, before single leaves were dabbed on employing a thick lighter green paint. The bark (central foreground) was executed by dabbing on white, yellow and red tones with a brush (Fig. Detail 12).

The background landscape along the horizon was executed with a few, fine brushstrokes over a bluish-green base tone.

The gilding on the coat-of-arms was applied directly over the paint layers without an adhesive.

Finally details like water splashes, hair, highlights on the swords and light leaves in the trees were added with an impasto paint application. The swords of the elector and his companions were added over the raised leaves very late in the painting process.

The paint was often applied wet-in-wet to achieve specific effects. This method can be observed on the branches of the antlers, where a light impasto application was executed over the brown base tone and in part painted wet-in-wet with a second tone. Another example illustrating the quick succession of paint application can be observed in the elector’s cross-bow, where dark details were drawn in the wet light base tone with a brush. Details of the clothing or the lines of the waves were also painted wet-in-wet in white and black or grey paint.

No pentimenti could be detected, only the windows of the castle have been shifted slightly.[1]

[1] The dark paint layer from the first application is visible through the subsequent light paint layers.

Framing

new frame

[Tüchler, Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2013]

[Transtation, Smith, cda 2013]

Condition Reports

Date2013

The original dimensions of the panel have not been preserved and the surface of the reverse is not original. The present cradle is already the second. In the 1950s it replaced an old cradle that may have been attached to the reverse in 1933 (see Conservation Reports).

The panel was to varying degrees cropped on all four sides during this intervention and the clear dimensions were increased by attaching two battens, each 0.6 cm in width, to the top and the bottom of the panel. Along the side edges of the panel the original unpainted edges were in places covered with fill material and integrated with paint. In plank V there is an old split, which extends from the edge of the panel tot he centre in the direction of the grain. In the area of the women (right edge, plank IV) a split is beginning to develop on the reverse. In plank II there is a fracture line (glued and filled). The original inserts in planks I and II (see Material/Technique) are visible as slight indentions.

Along the top edge, cropped to the greatest extent during the alteration of size, there are numerous paint losses that have been filled and retouched. Along the join between plank V and VI there are larger paint losses. The gilding on the coat-of-arms has been greatly reduced.

The green glazes (foliage) have become brown.

[Tüchler, Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2013]

[Translation, Smith, cda 2013]

Conservation History

Date1945 - 1957

From 1945 to 1957 structural as well as aesthetic treatment was carried out on the panel. The support was described as 'linen on lime wood', the condition of the panel was deemed unsatisfactory, as the planks were uneven and [the joins] in part open and the cradle created too much tension and was uneven. As a result the single planks of the panel were separated and re-joined and the panel was then cradled. The yellowed varnish and the uneven fills were removed.

[Tüchler, Kunsthistorisches Museum, 2013]

[Translation, Smith, cda 2013]

Date1933

A restoration was recorded for the year 1933. The report documents that a split in the panel was glued.

[Tüchler, Kunsthistorisches Museum, 2013]

[Translation, Smith, cda 2013]

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