Martin Luther, bust-length, facing right

Martin Luther, bust-length, facing right

Title

Martin Luther, bust-length, facing right

[KKL 2022]

Painting on beech wood

Medium

Painting on beech wood

[Beeh 1990, Nr. 76]

See German text version

Attribution
Workshop Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attribution

Workshop Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Beeh 1990, No. 76] [KKL 2022]

Production date
1529

Production date

1529

[dated, KKL 2022]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 38 x 24 cm

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 38 x 24 cm

  • Dimensions with frame: 41.6 x 28.2 x 2.2 - 2.6 cm

  • [Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt, revised 2019]

Signature / Dating
Artist's insignia at the left: serpent with elevated wings, facing right, in black paint and date '1529'

Signature / Dating

  • Artist's insignia at the left: serpent with elevated wings, facing right, in black paint and date '1529'

  • [KKL 2022]

Owner
Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt
Repository
Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt
Location
Darmstadt
CDA ID
DE_HLMD_GK73a
FR (1978) Nr.
FR312-313B
KKL-No
IV.M6a, Part of portait group IV
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_HLMD_GK73a/

Provenance

  • probably formerly the property of the landgrave
  • since 1843 recorded in the museum
    [Beeh 1990, Nr. 76]

Exhibitions

  • Frankfurt 2007, No. 41

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure/Plate
Cat. Coburg 2018 36, 142 under no. 2
Author / EditorKlaus Weschenfelder
TitleCranach in Coburg. Gemälde von Lucas Cranach d.Ä., Lucas Cranach d.J., der Werkstatt und des Umkreises in den Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2018
Exhib. Cat. Florence 2017 64 under no. 1
Author / EditorFrancesca de Luca, Giovanni Maria Fara
Title I volti della Riforma. Lutero e Cranach nelle collezioni medicee [Uffizi, Florence]
Place of PublicationFlorence, Milan
Year of Publication2017
Bonnet, Görres 2015 56-57 17 p. 57
Author / EditorAnne-Marie Bonnet, Daniel Görres
TitleLucas Cranach d. Ä. - Maler der Deutschen Renaissance
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2015
Ermischer 2007 Fig. 2
Author / EditorGerhard Ermischer
TitleCranach im Exil - Porträt einer bewegten Epoche
Publicationin Gerhard Ermischer, Andreas Tacke, eds., Cranach im Exil. Aschaffenburg um 1540. Zuflucht, Schatzkammer, Residenz, Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2007
Pages13-53
Exhib. Cat. Aschaffenburg 2007 286 No. 27 Fig. p. 287
Author / EditorGerhard Ermischer, Andreas Tacke
TitleCranach im Exil. Aschaffenburg um 1540. Zuflucht - Schatzkammer - Residenz. Ausstellungskatalog Schloss Johannisburg und Kunsthalle Jesuitenkirche
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2007
Exhib. Cat. Frankfurt 2007 194-195 41 p. 195
Author / EditorBodo Brinkmann
TitleCranach der Ältere, [Frankfurt, Städel Museum, 23 Nov 2007 - 17 Feb 2008]
Place of PublicationOstfildern
Year of Publication2007
Klein 1994 A 200 Tab. 10
Author / EditorPeter Klein
TitleLucas Cranach und seine Werkstatt. Holzarten und dendrochronologische Analyse
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhoff, eds.,Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Coburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages194-200
Schade, Schuttwolf 1994 50
Author / EditorWerner Schade, Allmuth Schuttwolf
TitleMalerei und Plastik
Publicationin Allmuth Schuttwolf, ed., Gotteswort und Menschenbild. Werke von Cranach und seinen Zeitgenossen, Exhib. Cat. Gotha
Place of PublicationGotha
Year of Publication1994
Pages15-94
Cat. Darmstadt 1990 254-255 76 p. 255
Author / EditorWolfgang Beeh
TitleDeutsche Malerei um 1260-1550 im Hessischen Landesmuseum Darmstadt
Place of PublicationDarmstadt
Year of Publication1990
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 312-313B
Author / EditorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg, G. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 251a
Author / EditorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Cat. Darmstadt 1914 73
Author / EditorFriedrich Back
TitleGrossherzoglich Hessisches Landesmuseum in Darmstadt. Verzeichnis der Gemälde
Place of PublicationDarmstadt
Year of Publication1914
Cat. Darmstadt 1843 146
Author / EditorCarl Seeger
TitleDas Grossherzogliche Museum zu Darmstadt. Die Gemäldegallerie
Place of PublicationDarmstadt
Year of Publication1843
  • Martin Luther, bust-length, facing right, 1529

Images

Compare images
  • overall
  • overall
  • reverse
  • detail
  • detail
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  • detail

Technical studies

14.05.1992Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Dendrochronology / identification of wood species

Support

Identification of wood species: beech wood

Youngest annual ring: 1524

[Klein Report, 14.05.1992]

  • examined by Peter Klein

Date13.07.1990 -

Underdrawing

- an underdrawing executed with a pencil is clearly visible to the naked eye. In addition there are prominent lines defining the facial features, e. g. on Luther's nose. The design may have been traced. However, as was established through the infrared examination carried out by Dr. Konrad both types of underdrawing are less easily deciphered in the infrared range than with the naked eye.

[Conservation report, Hessisches Landesmuseum, 13 July 1990]

03. 1990 - Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared photography

Underdrawing

- an underdrawing is hardly visible

[Report, Bernd Konrad 1990]

  • examined by Bernd Konrad

1989 - Technical Examination

Support

- beech wood

- bevelled along all four edges and fixed in an engaged frame

- the reverse has been smoothed with a plane and a chisel

- original black coating on the reverse, also covers the reverse of the frame members

Ground and Imprimatura

- no precise barbe. This suggests that the painting was fixed in the frame after completion

Framing

- original frame

- the side members are attached to the bottom member employing a mortise and tenon join

- remnants of oil gilding are still visible on the inner profile and the sill

- there is a latch with a button on the corresponding front edge to close the panel

[Condition report, Hessisches Landesmuseum 1989]

18.01.1982 - Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Dendrochronology / identification of wood species

Support

- the tree for the wood employed was felled between 1410 and 1524

[Peter Klein Report, 18 Jan 1982, also 14.05.1992]

  • examined by Peter Klein

Condition Reports

Date13.07.1990 -

  • numerous pierced blisters appear stable; wax is visible in the pinholes, and also in part some varnish

  • this also covers the losses

  • the previous cleaning was very thorough; the paint layers in the hair and the fur appear particularly thin

  • inspection under the stereomicroscope revealed light brown retouches in the hair

  • a thick wax layer was applied over the varnish; there are also remnants of wax on the frame

  • an orange-brown varnish is visible in the hollows and particularly in an original dent at the top left edge; whether this varnish is original is difficult to tell

  • an examination of the remaining gilding on the frame showed that it is a more recent addition and was applied over a thick chalk ground (glue and oil gilding)

  • tests showed however that the frame is original

  • 90% of the original gilding has been removed leaving only the ground

  • three exit holes indicate the presence of woodworm in the past. On both portraits they are located at the bottom edge near the frame; on the portrait of Luther there is a further hole in the top left corner of the frame.

[conservation report, Hessisches Landesmuseum, 13 July 1990]

Date1989

  • thick wax coating

  • otherwise in good condition

[Condition report, Hessisches Landesmuseum 1989]

Conservation History

Date13.07.1990 -

  • on the portrait of Luther a small wooden wedge was inserted between the panel and the frame. In addition the screws were adjusted.

  • surface dirt removed; stuborn dirt removed with oil of turpentine and white spirits

  • a significant amount of the wax application was removed

  • the surface was polished with a silk cloth

  • to avoid the addition of more layers a new varnish was not applied

  • dots and dense areas of varnish were removed with a scalpel from the background

  • two discoloured retouches were removed from Luther's face

  • retouching was carried out with lean oil paints and varnish to integrate them into the smooth surface

  • white dots and small losses in the dark areas were inpainted

  • losses on the frame were filled with a glue/chalk mixture and retouched with water-colours, the exterior of the frame was retouched with poster paints

[Conservation report, Hessisches Landesmuseum, 13 July 1990]

Versions

Support made from the same tree

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'Martin Luther, bust-length, facing right', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_HLMD_GK73a/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'Martin Luther, bust-length, facing right', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/DE_HLMD_GK73a/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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