Cranach - Lucretia
Lucretia
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Sinebrychoffin Taidemuseo, Helsinki
23.05.2019 - 03:02
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Painting:
CDA ID / Inventory NumberFIN_FNG_S-1994-224
Persistent Linkhttp://lucascranach.org/FIN_FNG_S-1994-224
FR (1978) No.FR-none
Title:
Lucretia[http://kokoelmat.fng.fi/wandora/;13.02.2011]
Lucrezia[Exhib. Cat. Helsinki 1988, No. 4]
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Attribution:
Lucas Cranach the Elder [Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72] [Exhib. Cat. Helsinki 1988, No. 4] [http://kokoelmat.fng.fi/wandora/;13.02.2011]
Dating:
1530[ dated]
Owner / Repository / Location:
OwnerFinnish National Gallery, Helsinki
RepositorySinebrychoffin Taidemuseo, Helsinki
LocationHelsinki
Dimensions:
Dimensions of support: 38 x 24.5 cm [Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72] [Exhib. Cat. Helsinki 1988, No. 4] [http://kokoelmat.fng.fi/wandora/;13.02.2011]
Support:
Painting on beech wood [Klein, Report 1993] [Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72] [Exhib. Cat. Helsinki 1988, No. 4]
Signature / Date:
Artist`s insignia left edge, underneath the window: winged serpent (with elevated wings) and date '1530' [Exhib. Cat. Helsinki 1988, No. 4] [Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]
Description:
The painting depicts Lucretia as a standing three-quarter length figure with an overcoat and a view of a landscape in the background. Her face is inclined slightly to the left expressing sufferance and she stares into the far distance. In her right hand she holds a long dagger pointed against her breast and in her left hand she elegantly holds the transparent veil. It is wrapped around her waist covering her vulva, but it doesn't hide it because it is transparent. In addition there is a dark red overcoat draped around her as if it had just slipped off her shoulders. She wears a heavy chain and a neckband and her hair is pinned up under a net bonnet decorated with pearls. The background is dark, but a window on the left indicates that she is standing in a room. From the window there is a view into a mountainous landscape with a small town. According to the legend Lucretia lived in the 6th century BC and was the beautiful and virtuous wife of the roman Collatinus. The roman King's son - Sextus Tarquinius fell in love with her. During a stay in her house Sextus threatened to kill her and shame her honour if she did not surrender to him. After the rape Lucretica had her father and husband vow vengeance and then she stabbed herself. The event led to an uprising in which the royal family was overthrown and the Roman Empire became a Republic. Depictions of Lucretia who was seen as the epitomy of female virtue, chastity, fidelity and honour enjoyed great popularity, particularly in the 16th century. [Literature: Bierende 2002, Follak 2002, Livius 1909]
Provenance:
- at the end of the 18th century it was possibly in a private collection in Finnland
- later acquired by another finnish collector
[Tuurnala et al. 1991, pp. 63-72]
Exhibitions:
Helsinki 1988 - 1989, No. 4
Sources / Publications:
Reference on PageCatalogue NumberFigure/Plate
Bierende 2002
Follak 2002
Klein 1994 A199Tab. 8
Tuurnala et al. 199163-72
Exhib. Cat. Helsinki 1988No. 4
Interpretation / History / Discussion:
This depiction of Lucretia is almost identical with in the painting FR 240Q in the collection of the Preußische Schlösser und Gärten, Berlin. A Lucretia in a private collection is also very similar (FR240K).
[Herrschaft, cda 2011]
Material / Technique:
  • Date: 01.08.2013
  • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
  • Infrared reflectography
  • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Sinebrychoffin Taidemuseo, Helsinki - Lucretia - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sinebrychoffin Taidemuseo, Helsinki - Lucretia - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sinebrychoffin Taidemuseo, Helsinki - Lucretia - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sinebrychoffin Taidemuseo, Helsinki - Lucretia - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sinebrychoffin Taidemuseo, Helsinki - Lucretia - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sinebrychoffin Taidemuseo, Helsinki - Lucretia - Infrared ImagesLucas Cranach the Elder - Sinebrychoffin Taidemuseo, Helsinki - Lucretia - Infrared Images
  • Underdrawing
  • DESCRIPTION
    An underdrawing is not readily visible.
    [Sandner, Smith-Contini, Heydenreich, cda 2016]
    • photographed by: Sinebrychofes Konstmuseum, Helsinki
    • Date: 01.08.2013
    • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
    • X-radiography
    • Lucas Cranach the Elder - Sinebrychoffin Taidemuseo, Helsinki - Lucretia - X-Radiographs
      • created by: Sinebrychofes Konstmuseum, Helsinki
      • Date: 18.01.1993
      • Scientific analysis
      • Identification of wood species / Dendrochronology
      • Support
      • 'Dendrochronological analysis carried out by Dr. Peter Klein established that the red beech used for this painting was felled in 1525.'
        [Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]
        • analysed by: Peter Klein
        • Date: 1991
        • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
        • X-radiography
        • 'On the basis of a comparison with the radiograph, no changes by the artist can be observed. Also no underdrawing is visible with IR.'
          [Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]
          • Bearbeiter/in: Jana Herrschaft
          • Date: 1991
          • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
          • Infrared reflectography
          • Underdrawing
          • - an underdrawing is not visible
            [Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]
              • Date: 1991
              • Technical examination / Scientific analysis
              • Infrared reflectography
              • Ground and Imprimatura
              • 'The gesso primer does not extend right to the edge of the panel, which means that the panel has been fixed to working or actual frame during painting.'
              • Underdrawing
              • 'IR analyses failed to reveal any sketches.'
              • Paint Layers and Gilding
              • 'The paint layer does not extend right to the edge of the panel like the ground.
                The brush technique used in this painting is very fine and no brushstrokes are visible. Most colours have been pre-mixed on a palette with ground fine pigments. A multi-layer technique has been used to a certain extent. The paint layers though mainly thin still give full covering, albeit in certain areas they are also transparent. Impasto has been found on the jewellery and decoration areas.'
                [Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]
                  • Date: 1991
                  • Naturwissenschaftliche Materialanalyse
                  • Micro-sampling / cross-sections
                  • Instrumental material analysis
                  • PIXE /PIGME:

                    Pigment analysis by PIXE/PIGME giving following results:
                    Filling material of the ground is pure chalk. Probably a thin lead white imprimatura is above.
                    The yellow pigment is lead tin yellow.
                    The earth pigments contain some iron-titanium compound as an impurity.
                    [Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]
                    • Bearbeiter/in: Jana Herrschaft
                    Condition Reports:
                    • Date: 1991
                    • 'Aging has caused craquelure, especially in the skin areas.' [Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]
                      History of Restoration:
                      • Date: 1991
                      • 'The painting has been restored only slightly. The upper edge of the sky has been restored and hairs have been painted on the fur at a later stage.' [Tuurnala et al. 1991, 63-72]