Margrave Casimir of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (1481-1527)

Margrave Casimir of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (1481-1527)

Titles

Margrave Casimir of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (1481-1527)

Identified in [Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932, No. 129] on the basis of a version in Nuremberg
[Cat. Vienna1938, No. 1455]

Anonymous Male Portrait

[Inventar Leopold Wilhelm 1659, NL No. 567] (source: see provenance): "Ein klein Contrafait von Öhlfarb auf Holcz eines Mansz mit einem braunen Bart vnd einer vergulden Hauben, mit klein gulden Kettlein vmbwunden auff dem Kopff vnndt schwartzen Belcz"; [Inventar von 1772] (Archive, KHM)
[Cat. Vienna 1896, No. 1455] [Cat. Vienna 1907, No. 1455] [Cat. Vienna 1928, No. 1455]; [Storffer, Bd. 1, fol. 34: 145] (Archive, KHM)

Friedrich der Weise von Sachsen (1463-1525)

[Cat. Vienna 1892, No. 1541]
[Engerth 1886, 53-54, No. 1482]
[Heller 1821, 229]
[Mechel 1783, 250, No. 56] This title was questioned by [Schuchardt 1851 B, Bd. 2, 139, No. 433] and [Scheibler 1887, 279]

Painting on beech wood (Fagus sp.)

Medium

Painting on beech wood (Fagus sp.)

[Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2011]
[Klein, Report 1994]

Portrait of the Margrave Casimir of Brandenburg in three-quarters frontal view, facing right with a chainmail cap and a chin beard, wearing a fur coat. He descended from a branch of the Hohenzoller family in Franken. In 1515 together with his brother Georg the Devout (1484-1543) he took over the

Portrait of the Margrave Casimir of Brandenburg in three-quarters frontal view, facing right with a chainmail cap and a chin beard, wearing a fur coat. He descended from a branch of the Hohenzoller family in Franken. In 1515 together with his brother Georg the Devout (1484-1543) he took over the government of the Dukedoms of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Kulbach from his father Friedrich the Elder (1460-1536).

[Alice Hoppe-Harnoncourt, KHM, Juli 2011]

Attribution
Lucas Cranach the Elder

Attribution

Lucas Cranach the Elder

[Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2011]
Listed as an "Original von Lucas Crainich" since the inventory of Leopold Wilhelm's collection in 1659 (NL, No. 567)
Source: "Inventarium aller vnndt jeder Ihrer hochfürstlichen Durchleücht Herrn Herrn Leopoldt Wilhelmen [...] zue Wienn vorhandenen Mahllereyen [...]" ehem. Krumau, Fürstl. Schwarzenbergsches Centralarchiv, publ. [Berger 1883, Reg. No. 495]

Production dates
after 1524
1522

Production dates

after 1524

['15[.]2' dated]

1522

1927 the date "1512" was uncovered [Benesch, Pantheon 1928, in: Benesch 1972, Bd. 3, 377-378] Based on the interpretation of the x-radiograph Friedländer and Rosenberg doubt the authenticity of the '1'. They think that Casimir of Brandenburg , who would only have been 31 in 1512, is depicted as an older man. Since then the painting has been dated 1522.
[Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932, No. 129]

Dimensions
Dimensions of support: 37.3 x 25.1 (t), 25.5 (b) cm (without additions)

Dimensions

  • Dimensions of support: 37.3 x 25.1 (t), 25.5 (b) cm (without additions)

  • 37.3 x 28.2 cm (including additions)

  • The size of the panel corresponds with the standard format B in Heydenreich's classification system

  • Dimensions of the painted surface: 37.3 x 25.1 (t), 25.5 (b) cm

  • Dimensions including frame: 51 x 39.5 x 3.5 cm

  • [Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2011]

Signature / Dating
Artist's insignia left above the shoulder: winged serpent with elevated wings and dated '15[...]2'; in yellow paint with a fine brush

Signature / Dating

  • Artist's insignia left above the shoulder: winged serpent with elevated wings and dated '15[...]2'; in yellow paint with a fine brush

  • [Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2011]

Inscriptions and Labels
Reverse of the panel: in red chalk 'i48' some illegible and partially covered numbers in white chalk printed labels: 'II.D.u.N.I.63.', 'C.I. LUC. …

Inscriptions and Labels

Stamps, Seals, Labels:

  • Reverse of the panel: in red chalk 'i48'
  • some illegible and partially covered numbers in white chalk
  • printed labels: 'II.D.u.N.I.63.', 'C.I. LUC. CRANACH. Nro 9. [handwritten later addition] fand alte Signatur am 29[?].X.1927 3 h nachmittags [handwritten addition on pencil and red chalk] 1455'; 'Gemälde Galerie des Allerh. Kaiserhauses No. 883'; handwritten label: '2 St. 1 Z. A.D.S. N.9.'
  • [Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2011]
Owner
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Repository
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Location
Vienna
CDA ID
AT_KHM_GG883
FR (1978) Nr.
FR152
Persistent Link
https://lucascranach.org/en/AT_KHM_GG883/

Provenance

  • entered the Imperial Collection (kaiserliche Sammlung) in Vienna from the Collection of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, Inventory Leopold Wilhelm 1659: NL Nr. 567
    [Source: "Inventarium aller vnndt jeder Ihrer hochfürstlichen Durchleücht Herrn Herrn Leopoldt Wilhelmen [...] zue Wienn vorhandenen Mahllereyen [...]" formerly Krumau, Fürstl. Schwarzenbergsches Centralarchiv, published by: Berger 1883, Reg. no. 495]

In house provenance:

  • in the gallery in the Stallburg:
    [Storffer'sches Inventar, Bd. 1, 1720: fol. 34 u. fol. 35]
    Inventory from 1772
    [Gallerie, Zweyter Gang Lit. B, Nr. 148] (both: Gallery Archive, KHM)

  • from 1781 in the gallery in the Belvedere:
    [Mechel 1783, 250, no. 56]
    Inventory 1824?, no. 9 (Gallery Archive, KHM)
    Inventory 1833/37, no. 63 (Gallery Archive, KHM)
    [Krafft, Cat. Vienna 1837, 208, no. 63]
    [Engert, Cat. Vienna 1858, 121, no. 63]
    [von Engerth, Cat. Vienna 1886, no. 1482]

  • since 1892 in the KHM (Gemäldegalerie), Burgring 5:
    [Cat. Vienna 1892, 389, no. 1541]
    [Cat. Vienna 1896, 423, no. 1455]
    [Cat. Vienna 1907, 336, no. 1455 (E.1482) Fig. 1455]
    [Cat. Vienna 1928, 56, no. 1455]
    [Cat. Vienna 1938, 41, no. 1455]
    [Cat. Vienna 1963, 37, no. 108]
    [Cat. Vienna 1973, 49, Plate 130]
    [Cat. Vienna 1991, 46, Plate 592]

[Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2011]

Exhibitions

Brussels 1947, No. 24
Paris 1947
Amsterdam 1947, No. 41
Stockholm 1948, No. 171
Copenhagen 1948/1949, No. 45
London 1949
Oslo 1952, No. 38
Graz 1953, No. 28
Vienna 1972, No. 7
Rome 2010, No. 18
Vienna 2011, No. 61
Munich 2011/2012, No. 61

Literature

Reference on page Catalogue Number Figure/Plate
Cat. Coburg 2018 36, 142 under no. 2
AuthorKlaus Weschenfelder
TitleCranach in Coburg. Gemälde von Lucas Cranach d.Ä., Lucas Cranach d.J., der Werkstatt und des Umkreises in den Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg
Place of PublicationRegensburg
Year of Publication2018
Exhib. Cat. Vienna 2011 No. 61
EditorChristof Metzger, Sabine Haag, Karl Schütz
TitleDürer, Cranach, Holbein. Die Entdeckung des Menschen das deutsche Porträt um 1500 [Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, 31 May 2011 - 4 Sept. 2011, Kunsthalle der Hypo-Kulturstiftung Munich, 16 Sept.-15 Jan. 2012]
Place of PublicationMunich
Year of Publication2011
Exhib. Cat. Rome 2010 185 - 187 No. 18 Pl. p. 187
EditorGalleria Borghese, Rome, Anna Coliva, Bernard Aikema
TitleCranach. L'altro rinascimento / a different renaissance, [Rome, Galleria Borghese 15 ottobre 2010 - 13 febbraio 2011]
Place of PublicationMilan
Year of Publication2010
Cat. Nuremberg 1997 133
AuthorKurt Löcher
TitleDie Gemälde des 16. Jahrhunderts. Germanisches Nationalmuseum Nürnberg
Place of PublicationOstfildern-Ruit
Year of Publication1997
Klein 1994 A 195 Tab. 1
AuthorPeter Klein
TitleLucas Cranach und seine Werkstatt. Holzarten und dendrochronologische Analyse
Publicationin Claus Grimm, Johannes Erichsen, Evamaria Brockhoff, eds.,Lucas Cranach. Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, Exhib. Cat. Kronach 1994
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur
Volume26
Place of PublicationAugsburg, Coburg
Year of Publication1994
Pages194-200
Reiter 1994 42, Fn. 20
AuthorCornelia Reiter
TitleDie Geschichte der Gemäldesammlung des Schottenstiftes
Publicationin Alfred Brogyányi, ed., Festschrift zur Eröffnung des Museums im Schottenstift
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1994
Pages39-44
Cat. Vienna 1991 46 Plate 592
AuthorWolfgang von Prohaska, Sylvia Ferino-Pagden
EditorKarl Schütz
TitleDie Gemäldegalerie des Kunsthistorischen Museums in Wien. Verzeichnis der Gemälde
SeriesFührer durch das Kunsthistorische Museum
Volume40
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1991
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1979 101 152 Fig. 152
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
EditorG. Schwartz
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBasel, Boston, Stuttgart
Year of Publication1979
Cat. Vienna 1973 49 pl. 130?
EditorKlaus Demus
TitleVerzeichnis der Gemälde
SeriesFührer durch das Kunsthistorische Museum
Volume18
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1973
Benesch 1972 E 377
AuthorOtto Benesch
TitleWien - Museen
Publicationin Eva Benesch, ed., Collected Writings of Otto Benesch. Vol. 3. German and Austrian Art of the 15th and 16th Centuries
Volume3
Place of PublicationNew York, London
Year of Publication1972
Pages377-378
Exhib. Cat. Vienna 1972 No. 7 Fig. 8
AuthorKarl Schütz
EditorKunsthistorisches Museum, Wien
TitleLucas Cranach der Ältere und seine Werkstatt. Jubiläumsausstellung museumseigener Werke 1472-1972
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1972
Cat. Vienna 1963 37 No. 108
Authorn. a.
TitleKatalog der Gemäldegalerie. 2, Vlamen, Holländer, Deutsche, Franzosen
SeriesFührer durch das Kunsthistorische Museum
Volume8/2
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1963
Exhib. Cat. Graz 1953 24 No. 28
EditorLandesmuseum Joanneum, Graz
TitleDürer und seine Zeit. Meisterwerke der deutschen Malerei des 16. Jahrhunderts. Sonderausstellung der Gemäldegalerie des Kunsthistorischen Museums, Wien im Steiermärkischen Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz [Steiermärkischen Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz]
Place of PublicationGraz
Year of Publication1953
Exhib. Cat. Oslo 1952 11 No. 38
EditorNasjonalgalleriet, Oslo
TitleKunstkatter fra Wien [Oslo, Nasjonalgalleriet]
Place of PublicationOslo
Year of Publication1952
Exhib. Cat. Copenhagen 1948 32 No. 45
AuthorStatens Museum for Kunst (Denmark)
TitleKøbenhavn: Kunstkatte fra Wien. Katalog zur Ausstellung von Dez. 1948-Februar 1949
Place of PublicationCopenhagen
Year of Publication1948
Exhib. Cat. Stockholm 1948 63 No. 171
AuthorNationalmuseum, Stockholm
TitleNationalmuseum Stockholm: Konstkatter från Wien. Katalog zur Ausstellung von Mai-August 1948
SeriesNationalmusei Utställningskataloger
Volume147
Place of PublicationStockholm
Year of Publication1948
Exhib. Cat. Amsterdam 1947 20 No. 41
EditorRijksmuseum, Amsterdam
TitleKunstschatten uit Wenen. Meesterwerken uit Oostenrijk. Catalogus met 84 afbeeldingen. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam 10. Juli - 12. October 1947
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
Year of Publication1947
Exhib. Cat. Brussels 1947 17 No. 24
Authorn. a.
TitleLes Relation Artistiques Austro-Belges illustrées par les Chefs-d'oevre des Musées de Vienne [Brussels, Palais des Beaux-Arts, April-June 1947]
Place of PublicationBrussels
Year of Publication1947
Lilienfein 1942 69 Fig. 90
AuthorHeinrich Lilienfein
TitleLukas Cranach und seine Zeit
Place of PublicationBielefeld
Year of Publication1942
Cat. Vienna 1938 41 No. 1455
Authorn. a.
TitleKunsthistorisches Museum: Katalog der Gemäldegalerie
SeriesFührer durch das Kunsthistorische Museum
Volume8
Place of PublicationVienna
IssueSecond edition
Year of Publication1938
Wolters 1938 126 Figs. 79, 80
AuthorChristian Wolters
TitleDie Bedeutung der Gemäldedurchleuchtung mit Röntgenstrahlen für die Kunstgeschichte : Dargestellt an Beispielen aus der niederländischen und deutschen Malerei des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts
SeriesVeröffentlichungen zur Kunstgeschichte
Volume3
Place of PublicationFrankfurt am Main
Year of Publication1938
Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932 54-55 129
AuthorMax J. Friedländer, Jakob Rosenberg
TitleDie Gemälde von Lucas Cranach
Place of PublicationBerlin
Year of Publication1932
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/friedlaender1932
Cat. Vienna 1928 56 No. 1455
Authorn. a.
TitleKunsthistorisches Museum: Katalog der Gemäldegalerie
SeriesFührer durch die Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien
Volume8
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1928
Baldass 1922 B 80
AuthorLudwig von Baldass
TitleDie altösterreichischen Tafelbilder der Wiener Gemäldegalerie
JournalWiener Jahrbuch für bildende Kunst
IssueJg. 5
Year of Publication1922
Pages67-86
Frimmel 1917 104-105
AuthorTheodor von Frimmel
TitleDie Gemäldesammlung des Wiener Schottenstiftes
JournalStudien und Skizzen zur Gemäldekunde
IssueJg. III. Band, H. I. und II. Lieferung (Jänner 1917)
Year of Publication1917
Pages101-108
Cat. Vienna 1907 336 No. 1455 (E.1482) Fig. 1455
Authorn. a.
TitleKunsthistorische Sammlungen des allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses: Die Gemäldegalerie. Alte Meister
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1907
Cat. Vienna 1896 B 423 No. 1455
Authorn. a.
TitleKunsthistorische Sammlungen des allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses: Die Gemälde-Galerie. Alte Meister. Mit 120 Illustrationen
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1896
Cat. Vienna 1892 389 No. 1541
Authorn. a.
TitleKunsthistorische Sammlungen des allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses: Führer durch die Gemäldegalerie. I. Theil. Gemälde alter Meister
Volume1
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1892
Frimmel 1891B 81-82
AuthorTheodor von Frimmel
TitleLitteraturbericht. Carl von Lützow: Katalog der Gemäldegalerie in der k.k. Akademie der bildenden Künste, bearbeitet "im Auftrage und auf Kosten des hohen k.k. Ministeriums für Cultus und Unterricht"
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
IssueJg. 15
Year of Publication1891
Pages76-87
Scheibler 1887 297
AuthorLudwig Scheibler
TitleÜber altdeutsche Gemälde in der kaiserlichen Galerie zu Wien
JournalRepertorium für Kunstwissenschaft
Issue10
Year of Publication1887
Link http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/artdok/volltexte/2014/2652
Pages271-306
Cat. Vienna 1886 53-54 No. 1482
AuthorEduard von Engerth
TitleGemälde. Beschreibendes Verzeichnis. Kunsthistorische Sammlungen des Allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses
Volume1 - 3
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1886
Berger 1883 Reg. No. 495
AuthorAdolf Berger
TitleRegest 495. Inventarium aller vnndt jeder Ihrer hochfürstlichen Durchleücht Herrn Herrn Leopoldt Wilhelmen [...] zue Wienn vorhandenen Mahllereyen [...] (ehem. Krumau, Fürstl. Schwarzenbergsches Centralarchiv)
JournalJahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien
IssueJg. 1
Year of Publication1883
Waagen 1866 170 No. 63
AuthorGustav Friedrich Waagen
TitleDie vornehmsten Kunstdenkmäler in Wien. Erster Theil: Die k.k. Gemälde-Sammlungen im Schloss Belvedere und in der k.k. Kunst-Akademie, Die Privatsammlungen
Volume1, 2
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1866
Cat. Vienna 1858 121 No. 63
AuthorErasmus Engert
TitleCatalog der k.k. Gemäldegallerie im Belvedere zu Wien
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1858
Schuchardt 1851 C 139 433
AuthorChristian Schuchardt
TitleLucas Cranach des Aeltern Leben und Werke. Zweiter Theil
Place of PublicationLeipzig
Year of Publication1851
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/schuchardt1851bd2
Cat. Vienna 1837 208 No. 63
AuthorAlbrecht Krafft
EditorKunsthistorisches Museum, Wien
TitleVerzeichniss der kais. kön. Gemälde-Gallerie im Belvedere zu Wien
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1837
Heller 1821 229
AuthorJoseph Heller
TitleVersuch über das Leben und die Werke Lucas Cranachs
Place of PublicationBamberg
Year of Publication1821
Link http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/heller1821
Cat. Vienna 1783 208 No. 63
AuthorChristian von Mechel
TitleVerzeichnis der Gemälde der kaiserlich königlichen Bilder Gallerie in Wien. verfaßt von Christian von Mechel der kaiserl. königl. und anderer Akademien Mitglied nach der von ihm auf allerhöchsten Befehl im Jahre 1781 gemachten neuen Einrichtung
Place of PublicationVienna
Year of Publication1783

Description/ Interpretation/ Comments

Margrave Casimir is descended from a franconian branch line of the Hohenzoller family. In 1515 together with his brother Georg the Pious (1484 – 1543) he assumed the reins of government over the Dukedom of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Kulmbach from his father Friedrich the Elder (1460 – 1536). Hans Süss von Kulmbach painted a very striking and colourful portrait of the young Casimir (Munich, Alte Pinakothek).

GG-883 has been recorded in the imperial collection since 1659, but the name of the sitter had already been forgotten. However Lucas Cranach was known as the author. (Leopold Wilhelm Inventory 1659, see provenance)

Christian von Mechel identified the sitter as Friedrich the Wise [Mechel 1783, 250, No. 56] [probably due to the similarities in fashion with some of the depictions of the elector wearing a wire bonnet (compare engravings showing portraits of the elector after 1509)].

Christian von Schuchardt did not agree with this designation and therefore Ludwig Scheibler doubted the identification of the sitter as the elector. [Schuchardt 1851, Bd. 2, 139, No. 433], [Scheibler 1887, 279]. The KHM catalogue accepted his view between 1896 and 1928 (see: other titles)

Theodor von Frimmel was the only one to consider reattribution to an artist from the circle of Bernhard Strigel. [Frimmel 1891, 81-82]

In 1928 Benesch reported that a signature and the date ‚1512’ was revealed on the ‚Portrait of a Man’ by Cranach. [Benesch 1928, in: Collected Writings 1972, Bd. 2, 377].

In 1932 Friedländer and Rosenberg recognized the Margrave Casimir von Brandenburg-Kulmbach (1481 – 1527) as the sitter after comparison with an inscribed portrait (Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum) [Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932, No. 152]. They assumed the sitter, who would only have been 31 in 1512, was older (compare with ‚Portrait of Casimir von Brandenburg-Kulmbach, 1511, Hans Süß von Kulmbach, Munich, Alte Pinakothek), and on the basis of an x-radiograph they doubted the authenticity of the number ‚1’. Since then 1522 has been accepted as being the correct date. [Friedländer, Rosenberg 1932, 54-55, No. 129]

Kurt Löcher agreed with the opinion of FR, that the Viennese version is the original. He attributed the portrait in Nuremberg to an accomplished workshop member and dated it after GG-883 [Löcher, Cat. Nuremberg 1992, 133]

Andrew John Martin considers the portrait to be the original version as there are replicas in both Nuremberg and Burghausen. He views the date of 1522 within the historic context of the year, in which Kasimir settled disputes with his brothers. [A. J. Martin 2010 in: Exhib. Cat. Rome, No. 18]

[Kunsthistorisches Museum , 2011, (translated by Smith, cda)]

'Most recent information on the dating: examination and analysis of the wooden support by Peter Klein has revealed that the tree use to make the beech wood panel was felled no earlier than 1524 (Dr. Peter Klein, Universität Hamburg). Thus this portrait cannot have been painted before 1524. The date may refer to a prototype /template for the portrait. A similar ‘earlier dating’ was established for a portrait of Luther (see Rebel 1994, 137). If the date actually documents the point of completion of the painting 1532 would be the earliest date possible: as the margrave was already dead at this time reference to an earlier portrait would have been necessary. The underdrawing made visible with the assistance of infrared reflectography supports the theory that there was a pre-existing design or prototype, which was transferred to the primed panel: fine lines describe the essential contours of the face, that is the bridge of the nose, the shape of the lips, the eyes and the bags under the eyes and the outline of the beard.’

(translated by Smith, cda)

  • Margrave Casimir of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (1481-1527), after 1524

Images

Compare images
  • overall
  • overall
  • reverse
  • irr
  • x_radiograph
  • x_radiograph
  • detail
  • photomicrograph
  • photomicrograph
  • photomicrograph
  • photomicrograph
  • photomicrograph
  • photomicrograph
  • photomicrograph
  • photomicrograph
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Technical studies

07. 2011Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • X-radiography
  • Stereomicroscopy
  • irr
  • x_radiograph
  • reverse
  • photomicrograph
  • photomicrograph
  • photomicrograph
  • photomicrograph
  • photomicrograph
  • photomicrograph
  • photomicrograph
  • photomicrograph

Support

- beech wood

- the support consists of one vertical plank

- the panel is 6 - 8 mm thick

The reverse of the panel is relatively smooth, with some visible plane marks. It exhibits a wide bevel on all four sides and a black coating , which was applied after the panel was framed, as the edges, with the exception of the bottom one exhibit an irregular broad unpainted strip.

The original format of the panel has been altered slightly: both sides have presumably been marginally trimmed at an angle (the top of the panel is 4mm narrower than the bottom). The width has been increased by the addition of battens, 1.5 cm wide, which were butt-joined. The bottom edge was also trimmed, whereas the top edge appears to have remained untouched. If one assumes that the panel size was still the original one when the coating was applied it is possible to reconstruct the original size of the panel from the widths of the unpainted edges. Thus it can be assumed that the top edge was trimmed minimally and that considerably more was removed from the bottom edge, while only a small amount appears to have been removed from the sides.

When the alterations to the format of the panel occurred has not been documented. The conservation documentation from 1927 only records the removal of overpaint from the background.

Ground and Imprimatura

- not analysed, presumably a mixture of calcium carbonate and glue

Underdrawing

The underdrawing is particularly visible in the areas of the flesh paint and functions to indicate the forms for the painted version. A single line was employed to describe the shape of the nose and to define the nostrils, the bags under the sitter’s eyes and his lips. The medium appears to be dry (friable in character). The outline may have been transferred from a template to the panel employing a tracing technique.

[Alice Hoppe-Harnoncourt, KHM, Juli 2011]

[Translation, Smith, cda 2013]

Paint Layers and Gilding

The blue background exhibits a dark grey underpaint. In raking light the difference is visible between the background, which is thicker due to the underlayers, and the thin application of paint in the figure. A slight ridge can be observed along the contours. In the x-radiograph the background, which contains lead white in the grey paint, is very prominent.

The flesh paint was applied first, followed by the clothes and fur, and finally the background, which also defined the contours of the figure.

The paint application for the face and dress is very thin. The fur was undermodelled employing an initial transparent layer in a mid-brown tone, which blocked in the basic shape and exhibits obvious brushwork. Light and dark zones in the fur were achieved by varying the thickness of the layers rather than by admixtures. Select areas were emphasized and structured by painting very fine, dark hairs possibly employing a brush with a number of tips. The shape and texture of the beard was achieved with single light and dark hairs painted on a thinly applied monochrome brown base tone. What we often observe in Cranach’s paintings is that single hairs (or other fine details) are executed during a late stage of the painting process, like here along the contours of the left shoulder or along the right contours of the face. The paint employed for these final details often shows a tendency to bead off, a phenomenon which may be due to the binding medium.

The painting process described here is clearly visible in the infrared reflectograph. The brushwork of the underlying layers in the background is obvious as is the fact that the contours of the figure were redefined when the background was painted. Elsewhere areas of paint were applied next to each other without overlapping, like between the background and the fur on the left, or between the fur and the face and blouse (also on the left) – here a thin strip of ground was left barely covered. Several finger prints are visible at the top edge of the painting in the centre, which are probably in the underlying paint layers of the background as they are not visible on the paint surface.

[Translation, Smith, cda 2013]

  • written by Monika Strolz
  • examined by Monika Strolz
  • examined by Ute Tüchler

11.05.2011Scientific analysis

  • Dendrochronology / identification of wood species

Support

The panel consists of a single beech wood plank (37.5 x 25.5 cm) and has 159 annual rings. They could be dated between 1520 1nd 1362 with the assistance of the beech wood chronology. The youngest heartwood ring dates from 1520. However, the panel is from the same tree as the paintings on the list (see pdf), therefore a felling date of 1524 must be assumed for this painting. Usually with beech wood the entire transverse section was used and only the bark was removed, therefore the earliest felling date is 1524. Considering a two year seasoning period the painting could have been created no earlier than 1526.

[Translation, Smith, cda 2013]

  • analysed by Peter Klein

17.10.2008Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • X-radiography
  • x_radiograph
  • x_radiograph

02.06.2008Technical examination / Scientific analysis

  • Infrared reflectography
  • irr

DESCRIPTION

Tools/Material:

- dry drawing material, dark chalk?/hard drawing implement

Type/Ductus:

- economic underdrawing; copied or traced

- fine lines

Function:

- binding for the painted version; the lines define the main contours, describe forms within shapes and facial features; no hatching-strokes to define volume

Deviations:

- only minor adjustments were made to the forms during the painting process

INTERPRETATION

Attribution:

- Lucas Cranach the Elder and/or workshop

Comments:

- transferred from a pre-existing design (traced)

[Sandner, Smith-Contini, Heydenreich, cda 2016]

30.09.1994Scientific analysis

  • Dendrochronology / identification of wood species

Support

Peter Klein 30.9.1994 and 11.5.2011: The youngest annual ring is from the year 1520. However this panel was made from the same tree as the panels listed in the pdf document, and the tree cannot have been felled before 1524. A two year seasoning period must also be considered, therefore this painting could not have been created before 1526.

The tree cannot have been felled before (Dr. Peter Klein, Universität Hamburg, Ordinariat of Wood Biology, Report from 30.9.1994 and 11.05.2011).

see: [A. Hoppe-Harnoncourt, Exhib. Cat. Vienna 2011, No. 186]

[free translation, Smith, cda 2013]

  • analysed by Peter Klein

02.03.1984Scientific analysis

  • Dendrochronology / identification of wood species

Support

159 annual rings were measured on this single beech wood plank, which is framed by two narrow battens. The rings can be dated between 1520 and 1362. Allowing for the shortest possible seasoning period the painting could have been executed in 1522.

[Translation, Smith, cda 2013]

  • analysed by Peter Klein

Condition Reports

Date07. 2011

Support:

The panel is in a stable condition and is not warped. The additions on the sides are now covered by the frame.

Paint Layers:

The paint layers are in a stable condition. In the area of the fur some isolated very fine flaking can be observed as well as a very fine net of craquelure (drying cracks). There is a somewhat larger damage visible on the left side of the fur (loss, abrasion, see infrared reflectograph) as well as isolated small losses and retouches. There are more losses along the left edge of the painting and in the background on the top left. Retouching is located mainly along the side edges and in the background on the left.

An old black and white photograph shows the painting with a completely overpainted background, the additions on the sides were integrated into the image at that stage. This overpaint was removed during the restoration campaign in 1927, and only remnants are still visible on the additions.

At this stage Cranach's signature was revealed in the background on the left. However the number indicating the decade is missing in the date - possibly due to numerous attempts to uncover it, as the dating of the painting to 1512 or 1522 has been disputed [see: Alice Hoppe-Harnoncourt, Exhib. Cat. Vienna 2011, No. 186].

Varnish:

The varnish has yellowed and is relatively degraded, which is particularly disturbing in the dark areas of the painting like the fur and the robe.

[Translation, Smith, cda 2013]

  • written by Monika Strolz
  • examined by Monika Strolz
  • examined by Ute Tüchler

Conservation History

Date10. 1927 - 08. 1928

Restoration files: 1, (10.1927 - 08.1928), Post Nr.454

Männl. Portr. Hintergrund übermalt, diesen abgedeckt, Aufdeckung der originalen Signatur, restaur., Proksch (Male portrait, background overpainted, removal of the overpaint, uncovered the original signature)

[Monika Strolz, Kunsthistorisches Museum, revised 2011]

[Translation, Smith, cda 2013]

  • conservation treatment by Proksch

Support made from the same tree

Citing from the Cranach Digital Archive

Entry with author
<author's name>, 'Margrave Casimir of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (1481-1527)', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/AT_KHM_GG883/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})
Entry with no author
'Margrave Casimir of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (1481-1527)', <title of document, data entry or image>. [<Date of document, entry or image>], in: Cranach Digital Archive, https://lucascranach.org/en/AT_KHM_GG883/ (Accessed {{dateAccessed}})

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